Flow and interferometry results from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{\textit{s}_{NN}}$ = 4.5 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 103 (2021) 034908, 2021.
Inspire Record 1809043 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95903

The Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was extended to energies below $\sqrt{\textit{s}_{NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV in 2015 by successful implementation of the fixed-target mode of operation in the STAR (Solenoidal Track At RHIC) experiment. In the fixed-target mode, ions circulate in one ring of the collider and interact with a stationary target at the entrance of the STAR Time Projection Chamber. The first results for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{\textit{s}_{NN}}$ = 4.5 GeV are presented, including directed and elliptic flow of identified hadrons, and radii from pion femtoscopy. The proton flow and pion femtoscopy results agree quantitatively with earlier measurements by Alternating Gradient Synchrotron experiments at similar energies. This validates running the STAR experiment in the fixed-target configuration. Pion directed and elliptic flow are presented for the first time at this beam energy. Pion and proton elliptic flow show behavior which hints at constituent quark scaling, but large error bars preclude reliable conclusions. The ongoing second phase of BES (BES-II) will provide fixed-target data sets with 100 times more events at each of several energies down to $\sqrt{\textit{s}_{NN}}$ = 3.0 GeV.

12 data tables

Centrality selection for STAR FXT sqrt(sNN) = 4.5 GeV Au+Au collisions

Rapidity dependence of directed flow, v1(y), for protons with transverse momentum 0.4 < pT < 2.0 GeV/c from events with 10-25% centrality.

Rapidity dependence of directed flow, v1(y), for negative pions with transverse momentum pT > 0.2 GeV/c and total momentum magnitude |p| < 1.6 GeV/c from events within 10-30% centrality. Here, the BBC-based Event Plane method is used. Plotted error bars are statistical only, and systematic errors are of comparable size.

More…

Evidence of Mass Ordering of Charm and Bottom Quark Energy Loss in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 1150, 2022.
Inspire Record 1978766 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115424

Partons traversing the strongly interacting medium produced in heavy-ion collisions are expected to lose energy depending on their color charge and mass. We measure the nuclear modification factors for charm- and bottom-decay electrons, defined as the ratio of yields, scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, in $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions to $p$+$p$ collisions ($R_{\rm AA}$), or in central to peripheral Au+Au collisions ($R_{\rm CP}$). We find the bottom-decay electron $R_{\rm AA}$ and $R_{\rm CP}$ to be significantly higher than that of charm-decay electrons. Model calculations including mass-dependent parton energy loss in a strongly coupled medium are consistent with the measured data. These observations provide clear evidence of mass ordering of charm and bottom quark energy loss when traversing through the strongly coupled medium created in heavy-ion collisions.

12 data tables

Fit to the $\rm log_{10}(DCA/cm)$ of candidate electrons with $p_{\rm T}$ $\in$ [3.5,4.5] GeV/$c$ in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV, where the DCA is defined as the 3D distance-of-closest approach of the track to the primary vertex. The solid blue line shows the full template fit, and the various other lines show the individual components. The bottom panel shows the residual distribution of the template fit scaled by the statistical uncertainties.

Invariant yield of the electrons from decays of prompt $J/\psi$, $\Upsilon$, Drell-Yan and light vector mesons in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

Invariant yield of heavy flavor hadron decayed electrons in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

More…

$\mathrm{K}^{*}(\mathrm{892})^{0}$ and $\mathrm{\phi(1020)}$ production in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 8.16 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
CERN-EP-2021-200, 2021.
Inspire Record 1946970 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.136309

The production of $\mathrm{K}^{*}(\mathrm{892})^{0}$ and $\mathrm{\phi(1020)}$ resonances has been measured in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 8.16 TeV using the ALICE detector. Resonances are reconstructed via their hadronic decay channels in the rapidity interval $-$0.5 $<$$y$$<$ 0 and the transverse momentum spectra are measured for various multiplicity classes up to $p_{\rm T}$ = 20 GeV/$c$ for $\mathrm{K}^{*}(\mathrm{892})^{0}$ and $p_{\rm T}$ = 16 GeV/$c$ for $\mathrm{\phi(1020)}$. The $p_{\rm T}$ -integrated yields and mean transverse momenta are reported and compared with previous results in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. The $x_{\mathrm{T}}$ scaling for $\mathrm{K}^{*}(\mathrm{892})^{0}$ and $\mathrm{\phi(1020)}$ resonance production is newly tested in p-Pb collisions and found to hold in the high-$p_{\rm T}$ region at LHC energies. The nuclear modification factors ($R_{\rm pPb}$) as a function of $p_{\rm T}$ for $\mathrm{K}^{*0}$ and $\mathrm{\phi}$ at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 8.16 TeV are presented along with the new $R_{\rm pPb}$ measurements of $\mathrm{K}^{*0}$, $\mathrm{\phi}$ , $\Xi$, and $\Omega$ at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. At intermediate $p_{\rm T}$ (2-8 GeV/$c$), $R_{\rm pPb}$ of $\Xi$, $\Omega$ show a Cronin-like enhancement, while $\mathrm{K}^{*0}$ and $\mathrm{\phi}$ show no or little nuclear modification. At high $p_{\rm T}$ ($>$ 8 GeV/$c$), the $R_{\rm pPb}$ values of all hadrons are consistent with unity within uncertainties. The $R_{\rm pPb}$ of $\mathrm{K}^{*}(\mathrm{892})^{0}$ and $\mathrm{\phi(1020)}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 8.16 and 5.02 TeV show no significant energy dependence.

22 data tables

$p_{\mathrm T}$-differential yield of $\frac{\mathrm{K^{*0}} + \overline{\mathrm{K^{*0}}}}{2}$ in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}~=~$8.16 TeV (NSD).

$p_{\mathrm T}$-differential yield of $\frac{\mathrm{K^{*0}} + \overline{\mathrm{K^{*0}}}}{2}$ in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}~=~$8.16 TeV (Multiplicity class 0-5%).

$p_{\mathrm T}$-differential yield of $\frac{\mathrm{K^{*0}} + \overline{\mathrm{K^{*0}}}}{2}$ in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}~=~$8.16 TeV (Multiplicity class 5-10%).

More…

Measurements of azimuthal anisotropies of jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 064903, 2022.
Inspire Record 1967021 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132663

The azimuthal variation of jet yields in heavy-ion collisions provides information about the path-length dependence of the energy loss experienced by partons passing through the hot, dense nuclear matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. This paper presents the azimuthal anisotropy coefficients $v_2$, $v_3$, and $v_4$ measured for jets in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 5.02 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurement uses data collected in 2015 and 2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 nb$^{-1}$. The $v_n$ values are measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the jets between 71 GeV and 398 GeV and the event centrality. A nonzero value of $v_2$ is observed in all but the most central collisions. The value of $v_2$ is largest for jets with lower transverse momentum, with values up to 0.05 in mid-central collisions. A smaller, nonzero value of $v_3$ of approximately 0.01 is measured with no significant dependence on jet $p_T$ or centrality, suggesting that fluctuations in the initial state play a small but distinct role in jet energy loss. No significant deviation of $v_4$ from zero is observed in the measured kinematic region.

44 data tables

The JES for R = 0.2 jets in Pb+Pb collisions as a function of $p_T^{truth}$ for centrality selections of 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, 20-40% and 40-60%.

The JER for R = 0.2 jets in Pb+Pb collisions as a function of $p_T^{truth}$ for centrality selections of 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, 20-40% and 40-60%.

The JES for R = 0.2 jets in Pb+Pb collisions as a function of $2|\Psi_2-\phi^{reco}|$ for centrality selections of 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, 20-40% and 40-60%.

More…

Observation of Global Spin Alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ Vector Mesons in Nuclear Collisions

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Nature (2023), 2023.
Inspire Record 2063245 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129067

Notwithstanding decades of progress since Yukawa first developed a description of the force between nucleons in terms of meson exchange, a full understanding of the strong interaction remains a major challenge in modern science. One remaining difficulty arises from the non-perturbative nature of the strong force, which leads to the phenomenon of quark confinement at distances on the order of the size of the proton. Here we show that in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, where quarks and gluons are set free over an extended volume, two species of produced vector (spin-1) mesons, namely $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$, emerge with a surprising pattern of global spin alignment. In particular, the global spin alignment for $\phi$ is unexpectedly large, while that for $K^{*0}$ is consistent with zero. The observed spin-alignment pattern and magnitude for the $\phi$ cannot be explained by conventional mechanisms, while a model with a connection to strong force fields, i.e. an effective proxy description within the Standard Model and Quantum Chromodynamics, accommodates the current data. This connection, if fully established, will open a potential new avenue for studying the behaviour of strong force fields.

38 data tables

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Example of combinatorial background subtracted invariant mass distributions and the extracted yields as a function of $\cos \theta^*$ for $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons. \textbf{a)} example of $\phi \rightarrow K^+ + K^-$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{b)} example of $K^{*0} (\overline{K^{*0}}) \rightarrow K^{-} \pi^{+} (K^{+} \pi^{-})$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{c)} extracted yields of $\phi$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{d)} extracted yields of $K^{*0}$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$.

More…

Version 3
Search for neutral long-lived particles in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV that decay into displaced hadronic jets in the ATLAS calorimeter

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
JHEP 06 (2022) 005, 2022.
Inspire Record 2043503 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115578

A search for decays of pair-produced neutral long-lived particles (LLPs) is presented using 139 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 2015-2018 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Dedicated techniques were developed for the reconstruction of displaced jets produced by LLPs decaying hadronically in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. Two search regions are defined for different LLP kinematic regimes. The observed numbers of events are consistent with the expected background, and limits for several benchmark signals are determined. For a SM Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV, branching ratios above 10% are excluded at 95% confidence level for values of $c$ times LLP mean proper lifetime in the range between 20 mm and 10 m depending on the model. Upper limits are also set on the cross-section times branching ratio for scalars with a mass of 60 GeV and for masses between 200 GeV and 1 TeV.

49 data tables

CalRatio triggers which were available during the LHC Run 2 data-taking, and corresponding integrated luminosity collected in each period. The high-E<sub>T</sub> CalRatio trigger with E<sub>T</sub> > 60 GeV was disabled in 2017 for instantaneous luminosities higher than 1.4 &times; 10<sup>34</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>. Two versions of the low-E<sub>T</sub> CalRatio trigger were used, with slight differences in their algorithms. The details are reported in Section 4.

Trigger efficiency for simulated signal events as a function of the LLP p<sub>T</sub> for one of the low-E<sub>T</sub> signal samples for HLT CalRatio triggers seeded by the high-E<sub>T</sub> L1 triggers with E<sub>T</sub> thresholds of 60 GeV and 100 GeV and by the two versions of the low-E<sub>T</sub> L1 triggers. Only statistical uncertainties are shown.

Trigger efficiency for simulated signal events as a function of the LLP p<sub>T</sub> for one of the high-E<sub>T</sub> signal samples for HLT CalRatio triggers seeded by the high-E<sub>T</sub> L1 triggers with E<sub>T</sub> thresholds of 60 GeV and 100 GeV and by the two versions of the low-E<sub>T</sub> L1 triggers. Only statistical uncertainties are shown.

More…

Charged-particle angular correlations in XeXe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_\mathrm{NN}}}=$ 5.44 TeV

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 100 (2019) 044902, 2019.
Inspire Record 1716441 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.88276

Azimuthal correlations of charged particles in xenon-xenon collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $ \sqrt{s_{_\mathrm{NN}}} =$ 5.44 TeV are studied. The data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC with a total integrated luminosity of 3.42 $\mu$b$^{-1}$. The collective motion of the system formed in the collision is parameterized by a Fourier expansion of the azimuthal particle density distribution. The azimuthal anisotropy coefficients $v_{2}$, $v_{3}$, and $v_{4}$ are obtained by the scalar-product, two-particle correlation, and multiparticle correlation methods. Within a hydrodynamic picture, these methods have different sensitivities to non-collective and fluctuation effects. The dependence of the Fourier coefficients on the size of the colliding system is explored by comparing the xenon-xenon results with equivalent lead-lead data. Model calculations that include initial-state fluctuation effects are also compared to the experimental results. The observed angular correlations provide new constraints on the hydrodynamic description of heavy ion collisions.

24 data tables

Elliptic-flow coefficients $v_2$ based on the two-particle correlations technique, as functions of transverse momentum and in bins of centrality. The results correspond to the range $|\eta| < 2.4$.

Elliptic-flow coefficients $v_2$ based on the scalar-product technique, as functions of transverse momentum and in bins of centrality. The results correspond to the range $|\eta| < 0.8$.

Elliptic-flow coefficients $v_2$ based on the four-particle correlations technique, as functions of transverse momentum and in bins of centrality. The results correspond to the range $|\eta| < 2.4$.

More…

Measurement of beauty production via non-prompt ${\rm D}^{0}$ mesons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
JHEP 12 (2022) 126, 2022.
Inspire Record 2025044 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135987

The production of non-prompt ${\rm D}^{0}$ mesons from beauty-hadron decays was measured at midrapidity ($\left| y \right| < 0.5$) in Pb-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02~\mathrm{TeV}$ with the ALICE experiment at the LHC. Their nuclear modification factor ($R_{\rm AA}$), measured for the first time down to $p_{\rm T}=1~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in the $0-10$% and $30-50$% centrality classes, indicates a significant suppression, up to a factor of about three, for $p_{\rm T} > 5~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in the $0-10$% central Pb-Pb collisions. The data are described by models that include both collisional and radiative processes in the calculation of beauty-quark energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma, and quark recombination in addition to fragmentation as a hadronization mechanism. The ratio of the non-prompt to prompt ${\rm D}^{0}$-meson $R_{\rm AA}$ is larger than unity for $p_{\rm T} > 4~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in the $0-10$% central Pb-Pb collisions, as predicted by models in which beauty quarks lose less energy than charm quarks in the quark-gluon plasma because of their larger mass.

3 data tables

Transverse-momentum-differential production yields of non-prompt $\rm D^0$ in central (0-10%) and mid-central (30-50%) Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV.

The nuclear modification factor of non-prompt $\rm D^0$ as a function of transverse momentum in central (0-10%) and mid-central (30-50%) Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV.

The non-prompt to prompt $\rm D^0$-meson nuclear modification factor ratio as a function of transverse momentum in central (0-10%) Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV.


Version 2
Measurement of the $t\bar{t}$ production cross-section in the lepton+jets channel at $\sqrt{s}=13\;$TeV with the ATLAS experiment

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 810 (2020) 135797, 2020.
Inspire Record 1802524 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95748

The $t\bar{t}$ production cross-section is measured in the lepton+jets channel using proton$-$proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$. Events with exactly one charged lepton and four or more jets in the final state, with at least one jet containing $b$-hadrons, are used to determine the $t\bar{t}$ production cross-section through a profile-likelihood fit. The inclusive cross-section is measured to be ${\sigma_{\text{inc}} = 830 \pm 0.4~ \text{(stat.)}\pm 36~\text{(syst.)}\pm 14~\text{(lumi.)}~\mathrm{pb}}$ with a relative uncertainty of 4.6 %. The result is consistent with theoretical calculations at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The fiducial $t\bar{t}$ cross-section within the experimental acceptance is also measured.

10 data tables

The results of fitted inclusive and fiducial ${t\bar{t}}$ cross-sections

The results of fitted inclusive and fiducial ${t\bar{t}}$ cross-sections

Ranking of the systematic uncertainties on the measured cross-section, normalised to the predicted value, in the inclusive fit to data. The impact of each nuisance parameter, $\Delta \sigma_{\text{inc}}/\sigma^{\text{pred.}}_{\text{inc}}$, is computed by comparing the nominal best-fit value of $\sigma_{\text{inc}}/\sigma^{\text{pred}}_{\text{inc}}$ with the result of the fit when fixing the considered nuisance parameter to its best-fit value, $\theta$, shifted by its pre-fit (post-fit) uncertainties $\pm \Delta \theta$ ($\pm \Delta \hat{\theta}$). The figure shows the effect of the ten most significant uncertainties.

More…

Net-proton number fluctuations and the Quantum Chromodynamics critical point

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 126 (2021) 092301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1850675 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101068

Non-monotonic variation with collision energy ($\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$) of the moments of the net-baryon number distribution in heavy-ion collisions, related to the correlation length and the susceptibilities of the system, is suggested as a signature for the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) critical point. We report the first evidence of a non-monotonic variation in kurtosis times variance of the net-proton number (proxy for net-baryon number) distribution as a function of \rootsnn with 3.1$\sigma$ significance, for head-on (central) gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions measured using the STAR detector at RHIC. Data in non-central Au+Au collisions and models of heavy-ion collisions without a critical point show a monotonic variation as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$.

10 data tables

Event-by-event net-proton multiplicity distributions for central (0-5$\%$) Au+Au collisions from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV. The distributions are normalised to total number of events. The distributions are not corrected for proton and antiproton detection efficiency.

Cumulants of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for nine energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV for 0-5$\%$ and 70-80$\%$ centrality.

Cumulant ratios C3/C2 and C4/C2 of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for eight energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 62.4 GeV for 0-5$\%$ centrality. Also given are the derivative of the polynomial fits to the C3/C2 and C4/C2 vs energy at each energy and the Skellam baselines for the ratios.

More…