First study of the two-body scattering involving charm hadrons

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
CERN-EP-2022-006, 2022.
Inspire Record 2011222 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133153

This Letter presents the first measurement of the interaction between charm hadrons and nucleons. The two-particle momentum correlations of $\mathrm{pD^-}$ and $\mathrm{\overline{p}D}^+$ pairs are measured by the ALICE Collaboration in high-multiplicity pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13~\mathrm{TeV}$. The data are compatible with the Coulomb-only interaction hypothesis within (1.1-1.5)$\sigma$. Considering an attractive nucleon(N)$\overline{\mathrm{D}}$ strong interaction, in contrast to most model predictions which suggest an overall repulsive interaction, slightly improves the level of agreement. This measurement allows for the first time an estimation of the 68% confidence level interval for the isospin $\mathrm{I}=0$ inverse scattering length of the $\mathrm{N\overline{D}}$ state ${f_{0,~\mathrm{I}=0}^{-1} \in [-0.4,0.9]~\mathrm{fm^{-1}}}$, assuming negligible interaction for the isospin $\mathrm{I}=1$ channel.

3 data tables

$\mathrm{pD^-}$ $\oplus$ $\mathrm{\overline{p}D^+}$ momentum correlation function as a function of the relative momentum in the particle-pair rest frame $k^*$ in high-multiplicity (0-0.17%) pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

$1\sigma$ confidence interval for the $\mathrm{N\overline{D}}$ inverse scattering length for the isospin $\mathrm{I}=0$ channel, $f_{0,~\mathrm{I}=0}^{-1}$, as a function of the effective source radius $R_\mathrm{eff}$.

Best fit for the $\mathrm{N\overline{D}}$ inverse scattering length for the isospin $\mathrm{I}=0$ channel, $f_{0,~\mathrm{I}=0}^{-1}$, as a function of the effective source radius $R_\mathrm{eff}$.


First measurement of the absorption of $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ nuclei in matter and impact on their propagation in the galaxy

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
CERN-EP-2022-023, 2022.
Inspire Record 2026264 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133480

Antimatter particles such as positrons and antiprotons abound in the cosmos. Much less common are light antinuclei, composed of antiprotons and antineutrons, which can be produced in our galaxy via high-energy cosmic-ray collisions with the interstellar medium or could also originate from the annihilation of the still undiscovered dark-matter particles. On Earth, the only way to produce and study antinuclei with high precision is to create them at high-energy particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Though the properties of elementary antiparticles have been studied in detail, knowledge of the interaction of light antinuclei with matter is rather limited. This work focuses on the determination of the disappearance probability of \ahe when it encounters matter particles and annihilates or disintegrates. The material of the ALICE detector at the LHC serves as a target to extract the inelastic cross section for \ahe in the momentum range of $1.17 \leq p < 10$ GeV/$c$. This inelastic cross section is measured for the first time and is used as an essential input to calculations of the transparency of our galaxy to the propagation of $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ stemming from dark-matter decays and cosmic-ray interactions within the interstellar medium. A transparency of about 50% is estimated using the GALPROP program for a specific dark-matter profile and a standard set of propagation parameters. For cosmic-ray sources, the obtained transparency with the same propagation scheme varies with increasing $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ momentum from 25% to 90%. The absolute uncertainties associated to the $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ inelastic cross section measurements are of the order of 10%$-$15%. The reported results indicate that $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ nuclei can travel long distances in the galaxy, and can be used to study cosmic-ray interactions and dark-matter decays.

21 data tables

Raw primary antihelium3-to-helium3 ratio as a function of the momentum p_primary.

Raw primary antihelium3-to-helium3 ratio from Geant4-based MC simulations as a function of the momentum p_primary with default sigma_inel(3Hebar).

Raw primary antihelium3-to-helium3 ratio from Geant4-based MC simulations as a function of the momentum p_primary with sigma_inel(3Hebar)x0.5.

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Characterizing the initial conditions of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC with mean transverse momentum and anisotropic flow correlations

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 834 (2022) 137393, 2022.
Inspire Record 1966120 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133026

Correlations between mean transverse momentum $[p_{\rm T}]$ and anisotropic flow coefficients $v_{\rm 2}$ or $v_{\rm 3}$ are measured as a function of centrality in Pb-Pb and Xe-Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV and 5.44 TeV, respectively, with ALICE. In addition, the recently proposed higher-order correlation between $[p_{\rm T}]$, $v_{\rm 2}$, and $v_{\rm 3}$ is measured for the first time, which shows an anticorrelation for the presented centrality ranges. These measurements are compared with hydrodynamic calculations using IP-Glasma and $\rm T_{R}ENTo$ initial-state shapes, the former based on the Color Glass Condensate effective theory with gluon saturation, and the latter a parameterized model with nucleons as the relevant degrees of freedom. The data are better described by the IP-Glasma rather than the $\rm T_{R}ENTo$ based calculations. In particular, Trajectum and JETSCAPE predictions, both based on the $\rm T_{R}ENTo$ initial state model but with different parameter settings, fail to describe the measurements. As the correlations between $[p_{\rm T}]$ and $v_{\rm n}$ are mainly driven by the correlations of the size and the shape of the system in the initial state, these new studies pave a novel way to characterize the initial state in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

4 data tables

Centrality dependence of $\rho\left(v_{2}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ and $\rho\left(v_{3}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

Centrality dependence of $\rho\left(v_{2}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ in Xe--Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV

Centrality dependence of $\rho\left(v_{3}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ in Xe--Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV

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General balance functions of identified charged hadron pairs of (π,K,p) in Pb–Pb collisions at <math altimg="si1.svg"><msub><mrow><msqrt><mrow><mi>s</mi></mrow></msqrt></mrow><mrow><msub><mrow/><mrow><mi mathvariant="normal">NN</mi></mrow></msub></mrow></msub><mo linebreak="goodbreak" linebreakstyle="after">=</mo></math> 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 833 (2022) 137338, 2022.
Inspire Record 1943964 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132486

First measurements of balance functions (BFs) of all combinations of identified charged hadron $(\pi,\rm K,\rm p)$ pairs in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV recorded by the ALICE detector are presented. The BF measurements are carried out as two-dimensional differential correlators versus the relative rapidity ($\Delta y$) and azimuthal angle ($\Delta\varphi$) of hadron pairs, and studied as a function of collision centrality. The $\Delta\varphi$ dependence of BFs is expected to be sensitive to the light quark diffusivity in the quark$-$gluon plasma. While the BF azimuthal widths of all pairs substantially decrease from peripheral to central collisions, the longitudinal widths exhibit mixed behaviors: BFs of $\pi\pi$ and cross-species pairs narrow significantly in more central collisions, whereas those of $\rm KK$ and $\rm pp$ are found to be independent of collision centrality. This dichotomy is qualitatively consistent with the presence of strong radial flow effects and the existence of two stages of quark production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Finally, the first measurements of the collision centrality evolution of BF integrals are presented, with the observation that charge balancing fractions are nearly independent of collision centrality in Pb$-$Pb collisions. Overall, the results presented provide new and challenging constraints for theoretical models of hadron production and transport in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

24 data tables

Balance function $B^{\pi\pi}$ measured in semicentral Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76\;\text{TeV}$ ($\pi,{\rm K}: 0.2 \leq p_{\rm T} \leq 2.0\;{\rm GeV}/c$; ${\rm p}: 0.5 \leq p_{\rm T} \leq 2.5\;{\rm GeV}/c$).

Balance function $B^{{\rm KK}}$ measured in semicentral Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76\;\text{TeV}$ ($\pi,{\rm K}: 0.2 \leq p_{\rm T} \leq 2.0\;{\rm GeV}/c$; ${\rm p}: 0.5 \leq p_{\rm T} \leq 2.5\;{\rm GeV}/c$).

Balance function $B^{{\rm p\bar{p}}}$ measured in semicentral Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76\;\text{TeV}$ ($\pi,{\rm K}: 0.2 \leq p_{\rm T} \leq 2.0\;{\rm GeV}/c$; ${\rm p}: 0.5 \leq p_{\rm T} \leq 2.5\;{\rm GeV}/c$).

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Study of very forward energy and its correlation with particle production at midrapidity in pp and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
JHEP 08 (2022) 086, 2022.
Inspire Record 1890061 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.131521

The very forward energy is a powerful tool for characterising the proton fragmentation in pp and p-Pb collisions and, studied in correlation with particle production at midrapidity, provides direct insightsinto the initial stages and the subsequent evolution of the collision. Furthermore, the correlation between the forward energy and the production of particles with large transverse momenta at midrapidity provides information complementary to the measurements of the underlying event, which are usually interpreted in the framework of models implementing centrality-dependent multiple parton interaction. Results about the very forward energy, measured by the ALICE zero degree calorimeters (ZDC), and its dependence on the activity measured at midrapidity in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV and in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 8.16$ TeV are presented and discussed. The measurements performed in pp collisions are compared with the expectations of three hadronic interaction event generators: PYTHIA 6 (Perugia 2011 tune), PYTHIA 8 (Monash tune), and EPOS LHC. These results provide new constraints on the validity of models in describing the beam remnants at very forward rapidities, where perturbative QCD cannot be used.

16 data tables

Average signal on A-side vs. C-side ZN in pp collisions at 13 TeV

Average signal on A-side vs. C-side ZP in pp collisions at 13 TeV

Pb-remnant side ZN signal normalized to MB value vs. ZN centrality percentile in p-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV

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Exploring the NΛ–NΣ coupled system with high precision correlation techniques at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 833 (2022) 137272, 2022.
Inspire Record 1857549 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.131625

The interaction of $\Lambda$ and $\Sigma$ hyperons (Y) with nucleons (N) is strongly influenced by the coupled-channel dynamics. Due to the small mass difference of the $\rm N \Lambda$ and $\rm N \Sigma$ systems, the coupling strength of the $\rm N \Sigma\leftrightarrow N \Lambda$ processes is non-negligible and constitutes a crucial element in the determination of the N$\Lambda$ interaction. In this letter we present the most precise measurements on the interaction of p$\Lambda$ pairs, from zero relative momentum up to the opening of the $\rm N \Sigma$ channel. The correlation function in the relative momentum space for $\mathrm{p}\Lambda\oplus\overline{\mathrm{p}}\overline{\Lambda}$ pairs measured in high-multiplicity triggered pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}~=~13$ TeV at the LHC is reported. The opening of the inelastic N$\Sigma$ channels is visible in the extracted correlation function as a cusp-like structure occurring at relative momentum $k^{*}$ = 289 MeV/$c$. This represents the first direct experimental observation of the $\rm N \Sigma\rightarrow N \Lambda$ coupled channel in the p$\Lambda$ system. The correlation function is compared with recent chiral effective field theory calculations, based on different strengths of the $\rm N \Sigma\leftrightarrow N \Lambda$ transition potential. A weaker coupling, as possibly supported by the present measurement, would require a more repulsive three-body NN$\Lambda$ interaction for a proper description of the $\Lambda$ in-medium properties, which has implications on the nuclear equation of state and for the presence of hyperons inside neutron stars.

1 data table

p-$\Lambda$ correlation function in high-multiplicity pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.


Neutral to charged kaon yield fluctuations in Pb – Pb collisions at <math altimg="si1.svg"><msqrt><mrow><msub><mrow><mi>s</mi></mrow><mrow><mi mathvariant="normal">NN</mi></mrow></msub></mrow></msqrt><mo linebreak="goodbreak" linebreakstyle="after">=</mo><mn>2.76</mn></math> TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 832 (2022) 137242, 2022.
Inspire Record 1993200 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.131260

We present the first measurement of event-by-event fluctuations in the kaon sector in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt {s_{\rm NN}}=$ 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The robust fluctuation correlator $\nu_{\rm dyn}$ is used to evaluate the magnitude of fluctuations of the relative yields of neutral and charged kaons, as well as the relative yields of charged kaons, as a function of collision centrality and selected kinematic ranges. While the correlator $\nu_{\rm dyn}[\rm K^+,\rm K^-]$ exhibits a scaling approximately in inverse proportion of the charged particle multiplicity, $\nu_{\rm dyn}[\rm K_S^0,\rm K^{\pm}]$ features a significant deviation from such scaling. Within uncertainties, the value of $\nu_{\rm dyn}[\rm K_S^0,\rm K^{\pm}]$ is independent of the selected transverse momentum interval, while it exhibits a pseudorapidity dependence. The results are compared with HIJING, AMPT and EPOS-LHC predictions, and are further discussed in the context of the possible production of disoriented chiral condensates in central Pb-Pb collisions.

14 data tables
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Hypertriton Production in p-Pb Collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$=5.02  TeV

The A Large Ion Collider Experiment & ALICE collaborations Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 128 (2022) 252003, 2022.
Inspire Record 1889905 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130967

The study of nuclei and antinuclei production has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation mechanism of loosely bound states in high-energy hadronic collisions. The first measurement of the production of ${\rm ^{3}_{\Lambda}\rm H}$ in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV is presented in this Letter. Its production yield measured in the rapidity interval $-1 < y < 0$ for the 40% highest multiplicity p-Pb collisions is ${\rm d} N /{\rm d} y =[\mathrm{6.3 \pm 1.8 (stat.) \pm 1.2 (syst.) ] \times 10^{-7}}$. The measurement is compared with the expectations of statistical hadronisation and coalescence models, which describe the nucleosynthesis in hadronic collisions. These two models predict very different yields of the hypertriton in small collision systems such as p-Pb and therefore the measurement of ${\rm d} N /{\rm d} y$ is crucial to distinguish between them. The precision of this measurement leads to the exclusion with a significance larger than 6$\sigma$ of some configurations of the statistical hadronisation, thus constraining the production mechanism of loosely bound states.

3 data tables

Integrated yield of hypertriton produced in 0-40% p-Pb collisions

Hypertriton over $\Lambda$ ratio in 0-40% p-Pb collisions

$S_3$ in the 40% largest multiplicity p-Pb collisions


Direct observation of the dead-cone effect in quantum chromodynamics

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Acharya, S. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
Nature 605 (2022) 440-446, 2022.
Inspire Record 1867966 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130725

In particle collider experiments, elementary particle interactions with large momentum transfer produce quarks and gluons (known as partons) whose evolution is governed by the strong force, as described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These partons subsequently emit further partons in a process that can be described as a parton shower which culminates in the formation of detectable hadrons. Studying the pattern of the parton shower is one of the key experimental tools for testing QCD. This pattern is expected to depend on the mass of the initiating parton, through a phenomenon known as the dead-cone effect, which predicts a suppression of the gluon spectrum emitted by a heavy quark of mass $m_{\rm{Q}}$ and energy $E$, within a cone of angular size $m_{\rm{Q}}$/$E$ around the emitter. Previously, a direct observation of the dead-cone effect in QCD had not been possible, owing to the challenge of reconstructing the cascading quarks and gluons from the experimentally accessible hadrons. We report the direct observation of the QCD dead cone by using new iterative declustering techniques to reconstruct the parton shower of charm quarks. This result confirms a fundamental feature of QCD. Furthermore, the measurement of a dead-cone angle constitutes a direct experimental observation of the non-zero mass of the charm quark, which is a fundamental constant in the standard model of particle physics.

1 data table

The $R(\theta)$ variable for charm/inclusive emissions in three bins of $E_{Rad}$: 5-10, 10-20 and 20-35 GeV.


Multiplicity dependence of charged-particle jet production in pp collisions at $\mathbf {\sqrt{s}}=\mathbf {13~TeV}$

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 514, 2022.
Inspire Record 2026265 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130653

The multiplicity dependence of jet production in pp collisions at the centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s} = 13\ \mathrm{TeV}$ is studied for the first time. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-$k_\mathrm{T}$ algorithm with resolution parameters $R$ varying from $0.2$ to $0.7$. The jets are measured in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta_{\rm jet}|< 0.9-R$ and in the transverse momentum range $5<p_\mathrm{T,jet}^{\rm ch}<140\ \mathrm{GeV}/c$. The multiplicity intervals are categorised by the ALICE forward detector V0. The $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ differential cross section of charged-particle jets are compared to leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculations. It is found that the data are better described by the NLO calculation, although the NLO prediction overestimates the jet cross section below $20\ \mathrm{GeV}/c$. The cross section ratios for different $R$ are also measured and compared to model calculations. These measurements provide insights into the angular dependence of jet fragmentation. The jet yield increases with increasing self-normalised charged-particle multiplicity. This increase shows only a weak dependence on jet transverse momentum and resolution parameter at the highest multiplicity. While such behaviour is qualitatively described by the present version of PYTHIA, quantitative description may require implementing new mechanisms for multi-particle production in hadronic collisions.

9 data tables

Inclusive charged-particle jet cross sections in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV using the anti-kT algorithm for different jet resolution parameters R from 0.2 to 0.7, with UE subtraction. Statistical uncertainties are displayed as vertical error bars. The total systematic uncertainties are shown as solid boxes around the data points.

Ratio of charged-particle jet cross section for resolution parameter R = 0.2 to other radii R = X, with X ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, after UE subtraction. Data are compared with LO (PYTHIA) and NLO (POWHEG+PYTHIA8) predictions as shown in the bottom panels. The systematic uncertainties of the cross section ratios from data are indicated by solid boxes around data points in the upper panel and shaded bands around unity in the mid and lower panels. No uncertainties are shown for theoretical predictions for better visibility.

Charged-particle jet yields in different V0M multiplicity percentile intervals for resolution parameters R varied from 0.2 to 0.7 in pp collisions at s = 13 TeV. Statistical and total systematic uncertainties are shown as vertical error bars and boxes around the data points, respectively.

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