Beam Energy Dependence of Jet-Quenching Effects in Au+Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{ \mathrm{NN}}}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; Adkins, J.K. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 121 (2018) 032301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1609067 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100537

We report measurements of the nuclear modification factor, $R_{ \mathrm{CP}}$, for charged hadrons as well as identified $\pi^{+(-)}$, $K^{+(-)}$, and $p(\overline{p})$ for Au+Au collision energies of $\sqrt{s_{_{ \mathrm{NN}}}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV. We observe a clear high-$p_{\mathrm{T}}$ net suppression in central collisions at 62.4 GeV for charged hadrons which evolves smoothly to a large net enhancement at lower energies. This trend is driven by the evolution of the pion spectra, but is also very similar for the kaon spectra. While the magnitude of the proton $R_{ \mathrm{CP}}$ at high $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ does depend on collision energy, neither the proton nor the anti-proton $R_{ \mathrm{CP}}$ at high $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ exhibit net suppression at any energy. A study of how the binary collision scaled high-$p_{\mathrm{T}}$ yield evolves with centrality reveals a non-monotonic shape that is consistent with the idea that jet-quenching is increasing faster than the combined phenomena that lead to enhancement.

118 data tables

Charged hadron RCP for RHIC BES energies. The uncertainty bands at unity on the right side of the plot correspond to the pT-independent uncertainty in Ncoll scaling with the color in the band corresponding to the color of the data points for that energy. The vertical uncertainty bars correspond to statistical uncertainties and the boxes to systematic uncertainties.

Identified particle (Pion Plus) RCP for RHIC BES energies. The colored shaded boxes describe the point-to-point systematic uncertainties. The uncertainty bands at unity on the right side of the plot correspond to the pT -independent uncertainty in Ncoll scaling with the color in the band corresponding to the color of the data points for that energy.

Identified particle (Pion Minus) RCP for RHIC BES energies. The colored shaded boxes describe the point-to-point systematic uncertainties. The uncertainty bands at unity on the right side of the plot correspond to the pT -independent uncertainty in Ncoll scaling with the color in the band corresponding to the color of the data points for that energy.

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Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 94 (2016) 024909, 2016.
Inspire Record 1382600 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.99053

Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta \eta$) for charged particle pairs at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma (QGP). The narrowing of the balance function in central collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV implies that a QGP is still being created at this relatively low energy.

31 data tables

The balance function in terms of $\Delta \eta$ for all charged particles with $0.2 < p_{T} < 2.0$ GeV/$c$ from central Au+Au collisions (0-5%) for $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=7.7$ GeV. The data are the measured balance functions corrected by subtracting balance functions calculated using mixed events. Also shown are balance functions calculated using shuffled events.

The balance function in terms of $\Delta \eta$ for all charged particles with $0.2 < p_{T} < 2.0$ GeV/$c$ from central Au+Au collisions (0-5%) for $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=11.5$ GeV. The data are the measured balance functions corrected by subtracting balance functions calculated using mixed events. Also shown are balance functions calculated using shuffled events.

The balance function in terms of $\Delta \eta$ for all charged particles with $0.2 < p_{T} < 2.0$ GeV/$c$ from central Au+Au collisions (0-5%) for $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=19.6$ GeV. The data are the measured balance functions corrected by subtracting balance functions calculated using mixed events. Also shown are balance functions calculated using shuffled events.

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$J/\psi$ production at low $p_T$ in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV with the STAR detector

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 90 (2014) 024906, 2014.
Inspire Record 1258446 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.99158

The $\jpsi$ $\pt$ spectrum and nuclear modification factor ($\raa$) are reported for $\pt < 5 \ \gevc$ and $|y|<1$ from 0\% to 60\% central Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\snn = 200 \ \gev$ at STAR. A significant suppression of $\pt$-integrated $\jpsi$ production is observed in central Au+Au events. The Cu+Cu data are consistent with no suppression, although the precision is limited by the available statistics. $\raa$ in Au+Au collisions exhibits a strong suppression at low transverse momentum and gradually increases with $\pt$. The data are compared to high-$\pt$ STAR results and previously published BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider results. Comparing with model calculations, it is found that the invariant yields at low $\pt$ are significantly above hydrodynamic flow predictions but are consistent with models that include color screening and regeneration.

11 data tables

The invariant yield versus transverse momentum for |y| < 1 in 0-20% centrality in Au+Au collisions (solid circles). The results are compared to high-$p_T$ (3 < $p_T$ < 10 GeV/c) results from STAR [9] (solid squares) and PHENIX data [8] (open squares).

The invariant yield versus transverse momentum for |y| < 1 in 20-40% centrality in Au+Au collisions (solid circles). The results are compared to high-$p_T$ (3 < $p_T$ < 10 GeV/c) results from STAR [9] (solid squares) and PHENIX data [8] (open squares).

The invariant yield versus transverse momentum for |y| < 1 in 40-60% centrality in Au+Au collisions (solid circles). The results are compared to high-$p_T$ (3 < $p_T$ < 10 GeV/c) results from STAR [9] (solid squares) and PHENIX data [8] (open squares).

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The Proton-$\Omega$ correlation function in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 790 (2019) 490-497, 2019.
Inspire Record 1685527 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98861

We present the first measurement of the proton-$\Omega$ correlation function in heavy-ion collisions for central (0-40$\%$) and peripheral (40-80$\%$) Au+Au collisions at \sqrtsNN\,\,=200 GeV by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). Predictions for the ratio of peripheral collisions to central collisions for the proton-$\Omega$ correlation function are sensitive to the presence of a nucleon-$\Omega$ bound state. These predictions are based on the proton-$\Omega$ interaction extracted from (2+1)-flavor lattice QCD calculations at the physical point. The measured ratio of proton-$\Omega$ correlation function from peripheral (small system) to central (large system) collisions is less than unity for relative momentum smaller than 40 MeV/c. Comparison of our measured correlation ratio with the theoretical calculation slightly favors a proton-$\Omega$ bound system with a binding energy of $\sim$ 27~MeV.

2 data tables

Measured correlation function (C($k^{*}$)) for proton-$\Omega$ and antiproton-$\bar{\Omega}$ (P$\Omega$ + $\bar{P}$$\bar{\Omega}$) for (0-40)$\%$ and (40-80$\%$) Au+Au collisons at $\sqrt{s}_{NN}$ = 200 GeV. The errors are statistical and systematic.

Ratio of small system (40-80$\%$) to large system (0-40$\%$) for proton-$\Omega$ and antiproton-$\bar{\Omega}$ (P$\Omega$ + $\bar{P}$$\Omega$). The errors are statistical and symmetric.


Freeze-out dynamics via charged kaon femtoscopy in $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV central Au + Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 88 (2013) 034906, 2013.
Inspire Record 1219133 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.97126

We present measurements of three-dimensional correlation functions of like-sign low transverse momentum kaon pairs from sqrt(sNN)=200 GeV Au+Au collisions. A Cartesian surface-spherical harmonic decomposition technique was used to extract the kaon source function. The latter was found to have a three-dimensional Gaussian shape and can be adequately reproduced by Therminator event generator simulations with resonance contributions taken into account. Compared to the pion one, the kaon source function is generally narrower and does not have the long tail along the pair transverse momentum direction. The kaon Gaussian radii display a monotonic decrease with increasing transverse mass m_T over the interval of 0.55<=m_T<=1.15 GeV/c^2. While the kaon radii are adequately described by the m_T-scaling in the outward and sideward directions, in the longitudinal direction the lowest m_T value exceeds the expectations from a pure hydrodynamical model prediction.

4 data tables

Independent correlation moments Rl(q) for orders l = 0,2,4 for midrapidity, low transverse momentum kaon pairs from the 20% most central Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN)=200 GeV

Kaon correlation function profiles for midrapidity, low transverse momentum kaon pairs from the 20% most central Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN)=200 GeV

Kaon source function profiles extracted from the data

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Beam-energy dependence of the directed flow of deuterons in Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 044906, 2020.
Inspire Record 1806121 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95544

We present a measurement of the first-order azimuthal anisotropy, $v_1(y)$, of deuterons from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV recorded with the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The energy dependence of the $v_1(y)$ slope, $dv_{1}/dy|_{y=0}$, for deuterons, where $y$ is the rapidity, is extracted for semi-central collisions (10-40\% centrality) and compared to that of protons. While the $v_1(y)$ slopes of protons are generally negative for $\sqrt{s_{NN}} >$ 10 GeV, those for deuterons are consistent with zero, a strong enhancement of the $v_1(y)$ slope of deuterons is seen at the lowest collision energy (the largest baryon density) at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7 GeV. In addition, we report the transverse momentum dependence of $v_1$ for protons and deuterons. The experimental results are compared with transport and coalescence models.

6 data tables

The 1st-order event plane ($\Psi_{1}$) resolution as a function of centrality of Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV. The $\Psi_{1}$ is reconstructed with the BBC detectors and its resolution is estimated by the correlation of sub-$\Psi_{1}$ from east BBC and west BBC. Data presented later (10-40\% centrality) is indicated by the dashed-line box.

Rapidity dependene of $v_1$ for protons(open squares) in 10-40 \%Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV. The lines, dashed-dot line for proton and dashed line for deuteron, at the midrapidity ($|y| < 0.6$) are the fit with linear functions to extract the slopes. The plotted uncertainties are the statistical only

Rapidity dependene of $v_1$ for deuterons(solid circles) in 10-40 \%Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV. The lines, dashed-dot line for proton and dashed line for deuteron, at the midrapidity ($|y| < 0.6$) are the fit with linear functions to extract the slopes. The plotted uncertainties are the statistical only

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Collision Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Kaon Multiplicity Distributions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; Adkins, J.K. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 785 (2018) 551-560, 2018.
Inspire Record 1621460 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98573

Fluctuations of conserved quantities such as baryon number, charge, and strangeness are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and can be used to search for the QCD critical point. We report the first measurements of the moments of net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV. The collision centrality and energy dependence of the mean ($M$), variance ($\sigma^2$), skewness ($S$), and kurtosis ($\kappa$) for net-kaon multiplicity distributions as well as the ratio $\sigma^2/M$ and the products $S\sigma$ and $\kappa\sigma^2$ are presented. Comparisons are made with Poisson and negative binomial baseline calculations as well as with UrQMD, a transport model (UrQMD) that does not include effects from the QCD critical point. Within current uncertainties, the net-kaon cumulant ratios appear to be monotonic as a function of collision energy.

43 data tables

Raw $\Delta N_k$ distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7 GeV for 0–5%, 30–40%, and 70–80% collision centralities at midrapidity. The distributions are not corrected for the finite centrality bin width effect nor the reconstruction efficiency.

Raw $\Delta N_k$ distributions in Au+Au collisions at 11.5 GeV for 0–5%, 30–40%, and 70–80% collision centralities at midrapidity. The distributions are not corrected for the finite centrality bin width effect nor the reconstruction efficiency.

Raw $\Delta N_k$ distributions in Au+Au collisions at 14.5 GeV for 0–5%, 30–40%, and 70–80% collision centralities at midrapidity. The distributions are not corrected for the finite centrality bin width effect nor the reconstruction efficiency.

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$J/\psi$ production cross section and its dependence on charged-particle multiplicity in $p + p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 786 (2018) 87-93, 2018.
Inspire Record 1672453 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.85057

We present a measurement of inclusive $J/\psi$ production at mid-rapidity ($|y|<1$) in $p+p$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The differential production cross section for $J/\psi$ as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) for $0

3 data tables

Top$:$ J/$\psi$ cross section times branching ratio as a function of pT in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Solid circles are from this analysis for |y| < 1; open circles and blue squares are the published results for |y| < 1 from STAR; triangles are the published results for |y| < 0.35 from PHENIX. Bars and boxes are statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. The curves are CEM (green), NLO NRQCD A (orange) [4], CGC + NRQCD (blue) , and NLO NRQCD B (magenta) theoretical calculations, respectively. Bottom$:$ ratios of these results with respect to the central value from this analysis.

The corrected $n_{ch}$ distributions at mid-rapidity (|$\eta$| < 1) for MB events (open circles) and J/$\psi$ events with J/$\psi$ $p_{T}$ greater than 0 (purple circles), 1.5 (blue squares), and 4 GeV/c (red triangles) in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. The fit function is a negative binomial function. Bars and boxes are statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively.

The multiplicity dependence of J/$\psi$ production in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. Purple circles, blue squares, and red triangles represent the results for J/$\psi$ with $p_{T}$ greater than 0, 1.5, and 4 GeV/c, respectively. Bars and open boxes are statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. The ALICE result is shown in the left panel. The purple, blue and red bands in the middle panel are generated from PYTHIA8 for J/$\psi$ with $p_{T}$ greater than 0, 1.5, and 4 GeV/c, respectively. The blue and red bands in the right panel are from EPOS3 model calculations for D$^{0}$ with 2 < $p_{T}$ < 4 and 4 < $p_{T}$ < 8 GeV/c, respectively, while the green curve is from the Percolation model for J/$\psi$ with $p_{T}$ > 0 GeV/c.


$\Upsilon$ production in U + U collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=$ 193 GeV measured with the STAR experiment

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 94 (2016) 064904, 2016.
Inspire Record 1482939 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98624

We present a measurement of the inclusive production of Upsilon mesons in U+U collisions at 193 GeV at mid-rapidity (|y| < 1). Previous studies in central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV show a suppression of Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) production relative to expectations from the Upsilon yield in p+p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (Ncoll), with an indication that the Upsilon(1S) state is also suppressed. The present measurement extends the number of participant nucleons in the collision (Npart) by 20% compared to Au+Au collisions, and allows us to study a system with higher energy density. We observe a suppression in both the Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) and Upsilon(1S) yields in central U+U data, which consolidates and extends the previously observed suppression trend in Au+Au collisions.

5 data tables

(Color online) $\Upsilon$(1S+2S+3S) (a) and $\Upsilon$(1S) (b) $R_{AA}$ vs. $N_{part}$ in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV U+U collisions (solid circles), compared to 200 GeV RHIC Au+Au (solid squares [13] and hollow crosses [32]), and 2.76 TeV LHC Pb+Pb data (solid diamonds [33]). A 95% lower confidence bound is indicated for the 30-60% centrality U+U data (see text). Each point is plotted at the center of its bin. Centrality integrated (0-60%) U+U and Au+Au data are also shown as open circles and squares, respectively.

(Color online) $\Upsilon$(1S+2S+3S) (a) and $\Upsilon$(1S) (b) $R_{AA}$ vs. $N_{part}$ in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV U+U collisions (solid circles), compared to 200 GeV RHIC Au+Au (solid squares [13] and hollow crosses [32]), and 2.76 TeV LHC Pb+Pb data (solid diamonds [33]). A 95% lower confidence bound is indicated for the 30-60% centrality U+U data (see text). Each point is plotted at the center of its bin. Centrality integrated (0-60%) U+U and Au+Au data are also shown as open circles and squares, respectively.

(Color online) $\Upsilon$(1S+2S+3S) (a) and $\Upsilon$(1S) (b) $R_{AA}$ vs. $N_{part}$ in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV U+U collisions (solid circles), compared to different models [36–38], described in the text. The 95% lower confidence bound is indicated for the 30-60% centrality U+U data (see text). Each point is plotted at the center of its bin. Centrality integrated (0-60%) U+U and Au+Au data are also shown as open circles and squares, respectively.

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Measurement of groomed jet substructure observables in p+p collisions at $\sqrt {s}$ =200 GeV with STAR

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 811 (2020) 135846, 2020.
Inspire Record 1783875 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93789

In this letter, measurements of the shared momentum fraction ($z_{\rm{g}}$) and the groomed jet radius ($R_{\rm{g}}$), as defined in the SoftDrop algorihm, are reported in \pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV collected by the STAR experiment. These substructure observables are differentially measured for jets of varying resolution parameters from $R = 0.2 - 0.6$ in the transverse momentum range $15 < p_{\rm{T, jet}} < 60$ GeV$/c$. These studies show that, in the $p_{\rm{T, jet}}$ range accessible at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV and with increasing jet resolution parameter and jet transverse momentum, the $z_{\rm{g}}$ distribution asymptotically converges to the DGLAP splitting kernel for a quark radiating a gluon. The groomed jet radius measurements reflect a momentum-dependent narrowing of the jet structure for jets of a given resolution parameter, i.e., the larger the $p_{\rm{T, jet}}$, the narrower the first splitting. For the first time, these fully corrected measurements are compared to Monte Carlo generators with leading order QCD matrix elements and leading log in the parton shower, and to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations at next-to-leading-log accuracy. We observe that PYTHIA 6 with parameters tuned to reproduce RHIC measurements is able to quantitatively describe data, whereas PYTHIA 8 and HERWIG 7, tuned to reproduce LHC data, are unable to provide a simultaneous description of both $z_{\rm{g}}$ and $R_{\rm{g}}$, resulting in opportunities for fine parameter tuning of these models for \pp collisions at RHIC energies. We also find that the theoretical calculations without non-perturbative corrections are able to qualitatively describe the trend in data for jets of large resolution parameters at high $p_{\rm{T, jet}}$, but fail at small jet resolution parameters and low jet transverse momenta.

39 data tables

The data points and the error bars represent the mean $p_{\rm{T, jet}}^{\rm{det}}$ and the width (RMS) for a given $p_{\rm{T, jet}}^{\rm{part}}$ selection $R = 0.4$.

Uncorrected $z_{g}$ for $20 < p_{\rm{T, jet}} < 25$ GeV/c, R=0.4 anti-kT jets

Uncorrected $R_{g}$ for $20 < p_{\rm{T, jet}} < 25$ GeV/c, R=0.4 anti-kT jets

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Measurement of $J/\psi$ Azimuthal Anisotropy in Au+Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 111 (2013) 052301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1207322 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98574

The measurement of J/{psi} azimuthal anisotropy is presented as a function of transverse momentum for different centralities in Au+Au collisions at {sqrt{s_{NN}}} = 200 GeV. The measured J/{psi} elliptic flow is consistent with zero within errors for transverse momentum between 2 and 10 GeV/c. Our measurement suggests that J/{psi} with relatively large transverse momentum are not dominantly produced by coalescence from thermalized charm quarks, when comparing to model calculations.

2 data tables

J/Psi azimuthal anisotropy v2 vs pT measured via the dielectron channel in 0-10%, 10-40%, and 40-80% central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The brackets represent systematic errors. The boxes show the estimated maximum possible range of v2 if the nonflow influence is corrected. The mean pT in each bin for v2 calculation is drawn, but is shifted a little for some centralities so that all points can be seen clearly.

J/Psi azimuthal anisotropy v2 vs pT measured via the dielectron channel in 0-80% central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The brackets represent systematic errors. The boxes show the estimated maximum possible range of v2 if the nonflow influence is corrected.


Measurement of inclusive J/$\psi$ polarization in $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt {s}$ =200 GeV by the STAR experiment

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 102 (2020) 092009, 2020.
Inspire Record 1806120 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95543

We report on new measurements of inclusive J/$\psi$ polarization at mid-rapidity in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The polarization parameters, $\lambda_\theta$, $\lambda_\phi$, and $\lambda_{\theta\phi}$, are measured as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) in both the Helicity and Collins-Soper (CS) reference frames within $p_T< 10$ GeV/$C$. Except for $\lambda_\theta$ in the CS frame at the highest measured $p_T$, all three polarization parameters are consistent with 0 in both reference frames without any strong $p_T$ dependence. Several model calculations are compared with data, and the one using the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory coupled with non-relativistic QCD gives the best overall description of the experimental results, even though other models cannot be ruled out due to experimental uncertainties.

14 data tables

The J/PSI(1S) polarization parameter $\lambda_\theta$ as a function of pT measured through dielectron channel in the HX frame.

The J/PSI(1S) polarization parameter $\lambda_\phi$ as a function of pT measured through dielectron channel in the HX frame.

The J/PSI(1S) polarization parameter $\lambda_\thetaphi$ as a function of pT measured through dielectron channel in the HX frame.

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Measurement of away-side broadening with self-subtraction of flow in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_\mathrm{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Chin.Phys.C 44 (2020) 104001, 2020.
Inspire Record 1740989 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95119

High transverse momentum ($p_T$) particle production is suppressed due to parton (jet) energy loss in the hot dense medium created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Redistribution of energy at low-to-modest $p_T$ has been elusive to measure because of large anisotropic backgrounds. We report a novel data-driven method for background evaluation and subtraction, exploiting the away-side pseudorapidity gaps, to measure the jetlike correlation shape in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_\mathrm{NN}}}=200$ GeV with the STAR experiment. The correlation shapes, for trigger particle $p_T>3$ GeV/$c$ and various associated particle $p_T$ ranges within $0.5<p_T<10$ GeV/$c$, are consistent with Gaussians and their widths are found to increase with centrality. The results indicate jet broadening in the medium created in central heavy-ion collisions.

7 data tables

Distributions of the recoil momentum within 0.5<\eta<1 (Px|_{0.5}^{1}) from high-pT trigger particles of 3<pT_Trig<10 GeV/c in 50-80% peripheral collisions

Distributions of the recoil momentum within 0.5<\eta<1 (Px|_{0.5}^{1}) from high-pT trigger particles of 3<pT_Trig<10 GeV/c in 0-10% central collisions

Dihadron azimuthal correlations in close-region and far-region for 3<pT_Trig<10 GeV/c and 1<pT_Assoc<2 GeV/c in 10-30% Au+Au collisions at \sNN=200 GeV

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Harmonic decomposition of three-particle azimuthal correlations at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 98 (2018) 034918, 2018.
Inspire Record 1510300 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96955

We present measurements of three-particle correlations for various harmonics in Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from $\sqrt{s_{{\rm NN}}}=7.7$ to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. The quantity $\langle\cos(m\phi_1+n\phi_2-(m+n)\phi_3)\rangle$ is evaluated as a function of $\sqrt{s_{{\rm NN}}}$, collision centrality, transverse momentum, $p_T$, pseudo-rapidity difference, $\Delta\eta$, and harmonics ($m$ and $n$). These data provide detailed information on global event properties like the three-dimensional structure of the initial overlap region, the expansion dynamics of the matter produced in the collisions, and the transport properties of the medium. A strong dependence on $\Delta\eta$ is observed for most harmonic combinations consistent with breaking of longitudinal boost invariance. Data reveal changes with energy in the two-particle correlation functions relative to the second-harmonic event-plane and provide ways to constrain models of heavy-ion collisions over a wide range of collision energies.

18 data tables

The centrality dependence of the C$_{m,n,m+n}$ correlations versus N$_{part}$ for charged hadrons with p$_{T}>0.2$ GeV/c and $\eta<1$ from 200 GeV Au+Au collisions.

The centrality dependence of the C$_{m,n,m+n}$ correlations versus N$_{part}$ for charged hadrons with p$_{T}>0.2$ GeV/c and $\eta<1$ from 62.4 GeV Au+Au collisions.

The centrality dependence of the C$_{m,n,m+n}$ correlations versus N$_{part}$ for charged hadrons with p$_{T}>0.2$ GeV/c and $\eta<1$ from 39 GeV Au+Au collisions.

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Beam-energy-dependent two-pion interferometry and the freeze-out eccentricity of pions measured in heavy ion collisions at the STAR detector

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 014904, 2015.
Inspire Record 1286656 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96391

We present results of analyses of two-pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV measured in the STAR detector as part of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan program. The extracted correlation lengths (HBT radii) are studied as a function of beam energy, azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, centrality, and transverse mass ($m_{T}$) of the particles. The azimuthal analysis allows extraction of the eccentricity of the entire fireball at kinetic freeze-out. The energy dependence of this observable is expected to be sensitive to changes in the equation of state. A new global fit method is studied as an alternate method to directly measure the parameters in the azimuthal analysis. The eccentricity shows a monotonic decrease with beam energy that is qualitatively consistent with the trend from all model predictions and quantitatively consistent with a hadronic transport model.

43 data tables

Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15 < kT < 0.6 GeV/c. HHLW Radii uncorrected for resolution and binning for $R_{out}$.

Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15 < kT < 0.6 GeV/c. HHLW Radii for resolution and binning for $R_{out}$, $R_{side}$, $R_{long}$, $R_{os}$, and $R_{ol}$ respectively.

Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15 < kT < 0.6 GeV/c. Radius values according to global fit of Fourier Coefficients for $R_{out}$, $R_{side}$, $R_{long}$, $R_{os}$, and $R_{ol}$ respectively.

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Dielectron azimuthal anisotropy at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 90 (2014) 064904, 2014.
Inspire Record 1280745 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96269

We report on the first measurement of the azimuthal anisotropy ($v_2$) of dielectrons ($e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs) at mid-rapidity from $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 200$ GeV Au+Au collisions with the STAR detector at RHIC, presented as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) for different invariant-mass regions. In the mass region $M_{ee}\!<1.1$ GeV/$c^2$ the dielectron $v_2$ measurements are found to be consistent with expectations from $\pi^{0}$, $\eta$, $\omega$ and $\phi$ decay contributions. In the mass region $1.1\!<M_{ee}\!<2.9$ GeV/$c^2$, the measured dielectron $v_2$ is consistent, within experimental uncertainties, with that from the $c\bar{c}$ contributions.

17 data tables

The dielectron $v_2$ in the $\pi^0$ Dalitz decay region as a function of $p_T$ in different centralities from Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

Expected dielectron $v_2$ from $\pi^0$ Dalitz decay as a function of $p_T$ in different centralities from Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

The dielectron $v_2$ as a function of $p_T$ in minimum-bias Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV for the $\pi^0$ mass region.

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J/ψ polarization in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV in STAR

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 739 (2014) 180-188, 2014.
Inspire Record 1263695 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96232

We report on a polarization measurement of inclusive $J/\psi$ mesons in the di-electron decay channel at mid-rapidity at 2 $<p_{T}<$ 6 GeV/$c$ in $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. Data were taken with the STAR detector at RHIC. The $J/\psi$ polarization measurement should help to distinguish between different models of the $J/\psi$ production mechanism since they predict different $p_{T}$ dependences of the $J/\psi$ polarization. In this analysis, $J/\psi$ polarization is studied in the helicity frame. The polarization parameter $\lambda_{\theta}$ measured at RHIC becomes smaller towards high $p_{T}$, indicating more longitudinal $J/\psi$ polarization as $p_{T}$ increases. The result is compared with predictions of presently available models.

13 data tables

Uncorrected cos$\theta$ distribution after the combinatorial background subtraction for $2 < p_{T}^{J/\psi} < 3$ GeV/c

Uncorrected cos$\theta$ distribution after the combinatorial background subtraction for $3 < p_{T}^{J/\psi} < 4$ GeV/c

Uncorrected cos$\theta$ distribution after the combinatorial background subtraction for $4 < p_{T}^{J/\psi} < 6$ GeV/c

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Third Harmonic Flow of Charged Particles in Au+Au Collisions at sqrtsNN = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 88 (2013) 014904, 2013.
Inspire Record 1210062 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96234

We report measurements of the third harmonic coefficient of the azimuthal anisotropy, v_3, known as triangular flow. The analysis is for charged particles in Au+Au collisions at sqrtsNN = 200 GeV, based on data from the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Two-particle correlations as a function of their pseudorapidity separation are fit with narrow and wide Gaussians. Measurements of triangular flow are extracted from the wide Gaussian, from two-particle cumulants with a pseudorapidity gap, and also from event plane analysis methods with a large pseudorapidity gap between the particles and the event plane. These results are reported as a function of transverse momentum and centrality. A large dependence on the pseudorapidity gap is found. Results are compared with other experiments and model calculations.

28 data tables

Gaussian Width (W) as a function of transverse momentum for most central (0-5%) and mid-central (30-40%) Au+Au collision at sqrt(snn)=200 GEV.

Amplitude (A) as a function of transverse momentum for most central (0-5%) and mid-central (30-40%) Au+Au collision at sqrt(snn)=200 GEV.

Gaussian Width (W) as a function of centrality for Like Sign (LS) and Charge Independent (CI) particles for Au+Au collision at sqrt(snn)=200 GEV.

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Bulk Properties of the Medium Produced in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions from the Beam Energy Scan Program

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 96 (2017) 044904, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510593 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76977

We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV using identified hadrons ($\pi^\pm$, $K^\pm$, $p$ and $\bar{p}$) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity ($|y|<$0.1) results for multiplicity densities $dN/dy$, average transverse momenta $\langle p_T \rangle$ and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed in heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of energy (or baryon chemical potential) at RHIC.

106 data tables

The average number of participating nucleons (⟨Npart⟩) for various collision centralities in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7–39 GeV.

Midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) transverse momentum spectra for (b) π- in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 GeV for different centralities. The spectra for centralities other than 0–5% are scaled for clarity as shown in the figure. The curves represent the Bose-Einstein, mT -exponential, and double-exponential function fits to 0–5% central data for pions, kaons, and (anti)protons, respectively. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic added in quadrature.

Midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) transverse momentum spectra for (a) π+ in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 GeV for different centralities. The spectra for centralities other than 0–5% are scaled for clarity as shown in the figure. The curves represent the Bose-Einstein, mT -exponential, and double-exponential function fits to 0–5% central data for pions, kaons, and (anti)protons, respectively. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic added in quadrature.

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First measurement of $\Lambda_c$ baryon production in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 124 (2020) 172301, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762441 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.94228

We report on the first measurement of the charmed baryon $\Lambda_c^{\pm}$ production at midrapidity ($|y|$ $<$ 1) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV collected by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The $\Lambda_c$/$D^0$ (denoting ($\Lambda_c^++\Lambda_c^-$)/($D^0+\bar{D^0}$)) yield ratio is measured to be 1.08 $\pm$ 0.16 (stat.) $\pm$ 0.26 (sys.) in the 0--20% most central Au+Au collisions for the transverse momentum ($p_T$) range 3 $<$ $p_T$ $<$ 6 GeV/$c$. This is significantly larger than the PYTHIA model calculations for $p+p$ collisions. The measured $\Lambda_c$/$D^0$ ratio, as a function of $p_T$ and collision centrality, is comparable to the baryon-to-meson ratios for light and strange hadrons in Au+Au collisions. Model calculations including coalescence hadronization for charmed baryon and meson formation reproduce the features of our measured $\Lambda_c$/$D^0$ ratio.

7 data tables

The $pK\pi$ invariant mass distributions (Counts per 10 MeV/c^2 bin) for right-sign combinations in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200\,GeV for 0--20\% centrality class.

The $pK\pi$ invariant mass distributions (Counts per 10 MeV/c^2 bin) for wrong-sign combinations, scaled by 1/3, in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200\,GeV for 0--20\% centrality class.

The $pK\pi$ invariant mass distributions (Counts per 10 MeV/c^2 bin) for right-sign combinations in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200\,GeV for 10--80\% centrality class.

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Low-$p_T$ $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV at STAR

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 121 (2018) 132301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1676541 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.84821

We report first measurements of $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair production in the mass region 0.4 $

36 data tables

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

The centrality dependence of e+e− invariant mass spectra within the STAR acceptance from Au+Au collisions and U+U collisions for pair pT < 0.15 GeV/c. The vertical bars on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties are shown as gray boxes. The hadronic cocktail yields from U+U collisions are ∼5%–12% higher than those from Au+Au collisions in given centrality bins; thus only cocktails for Au+Au collisions are shown here as solid lines, with shaded bands representing the systematic uncertainties for clarity.

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Measurement of D$^0$-meson + hadron two-dimensional angular correlations in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 014905, 2020.
Inspire Record 1767419 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95209

Open heavy flavor hadrons provide unique probes of the medium produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Due to their increased mass relative to light-flavor hadrons, long lifetime, and early production in hard-scattering interactions, they provide access to the full evolution of the partonic medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. This paper reports two-dimensional (2D) angular correlations between neutral $D$-mesons and unidentified charged particles produced in minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV. $D^0$ and $\bar{D}^0$ mesons are reconstructed via their weak decay to $K^{\mp} \pi^{\pm}$ using the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) in the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment. Correlations on relative pseudorapidity and azimuth $(\Delta\eta,\Delta\phi)$ are presented for peripheral, mid-central and central collisions with $D^0$ transverse momentum from 2 to 10 GeV/$c$. Attention is focused on the 2D peaked correlation structure near the triggered $D^0$-meson, the {\em near-side} (NS) peak, which serves as a proxy for a charm-quark containing jet. The correlated NS yield of charged particles per $D^0$-meson and the 2D widths of the NS peak increase significantly from peripheral to central collisions. These results are compared with similar correlations using unidentified charged particles, consisting primarily of light-flavor hadrons, at similar trigger particle momenta. Similar per-trigger yields and widths of the NS correlation peak are observed. The present results provide additional evidence that $D^0$-mesons undergo significant interactions with the medium formed in heavy-ion collision and show, for the first time, significant centrality evolution of the NS 2D peak in the correlations of particles associated with a heavy-flavor hadron produced in these collisions.

4 data tables

Amplitude of the quadrupole term, A_Q, extracted from the fitting of the correlations, presented as a function of centrality.

Width of the near-side gaussian on the delPhi coordinate extracted from the fitting of the correlations, presented as a function of centrality.

Width of the near-side gaussian on the delEta coordinate extracted from the fitting of the correlations, presented as a function of centrality.

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Underlying event measurements in $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt s=$ 200 GeV at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 101 (2020) 052004, 2020.
Inspire Record 1771348 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95537

Particle production sensitive to non-factorizable and non-perturbative processes that contribute to the underlying event associated with a high transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) jet in proton+proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV is studied with the STAR detector. Each event is divided into three regions based on the azimuthal angle with respect to the highest-$p_{T}$ jet direction: in the leading jet direction ("Toward"), opposite to the leading jet ("Away"), and perpendicular to the leading jet ("Transverse"). In the Transverse region, the average charged particle density is found to be between 0.4 and 0.6 and the mean transverse momentum, $\langle p_{T}\rangle$, between 0.5-0.7 GeV/$c$ for particles with $p_{T}$$>$0.2 GeV/$c$ at mid-pseudorapidity ($|\eta|$$<$1) and jet $p_{T}$$>$15 GeV/$c$. Both average particle density and $\langle p_{T}\rangle$ depend weakly on the leading jet $p_{T}$. Closer inspection of the Transverse region hints that contributions to the underlying event from initial- and final-state radiation are significantly smaller in these collisions than at the higher energies, up to 13 TeV, recorded at the LHC. Underlying event measurements associated with a high-$p_{T}$ jet will contribute to our understanding of QCD processes at hard and soft scales at RHIC energies, as well as provide constraints to modeling of underlying event dynamics.

6 data tables

Average charged particle multiplicity densities for Toward, Away, and Transverse regions as functions of the leading jet pT, with charged particle pT>0.2 GeV/c. The wide curves are PYTHIA 6 (STAR). The middle width curves are default PYTHIA 6 Perugia 2012 tune. The thin curves are PYTHIA 8 Monash 2013 tune. The solid curves are the Toward region. The sparse dashed curves are the Away region. The dense dashed curves are the Transverse region.

Transverse region average charged particle densities for pT>0.2 GeV/c (open symbols) and pT>0.5 GeV/c (filled symbols). Simulations are also shown as curves. The wide curves are PYTHIA 6 (STAR). The middle width curves are default PYTHIA 6 Perugia 2012 tune. The thin curves are PYTHIA 8 Monash 2013 tune.

Charged particle <pT> for Toward, Away, and Transverse regions as functions of the leading jet pT, with charged particle pT>0.2 GeV/c. Simulations are also shown as curves. The wide curves are PYTHIA 6 (STAR). The middle width curves are default PYTHIA 6 Perugia 2012 tune. The thin curves are PYTHIA 8 Monash 2013 tune. Note the three curves overlap for the Transverse region calculations.

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Dielectron Mass Spectra from Au+Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 113 (2014) 022301, 2014.
Inspire Record 1275614 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95663

We report the STAR measurements of dielectron ($e^+e^-$) production at midrapidity ($|y_{ee}|<$1) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200\,GeV. The measurements are evaluated in different invariant mass regions with a focus on 0.30-0.76 ($\rho$-like), 0.76-0.80 ($\omega$-like), and 0.98-1.05 ($\phi$-like) GeV/$c^{2}$. The spectrum in the $\omega$-like and $\phi$-like regions can be well described by the hadronic cocktail simulation. In the $\rho$-like region, however, the vacuum $\rho$ spectral function cannot describe the shape of the dielectron excess. In this range, an enhancement of 1.77$\pm$0.11(stat.)$\pm$0.24(sys.)$\pm$0.33(cocktail) is determined with respect to the hadronic cocktail simulation that excludes the $\rho$ meson. The excess yield in the $\rho$-like region increases with the number of collision participants faster than the $\omega$ and $\phi$ yields. Theoretical models with broadened $\rho$ contributions through interactions with constituents in the hot QCD medium provide a consistent description of the dilepton mass spectra for the measurement presented here and the earlier data at the Super Proton Synchrotron energies.

11 data tables

Uncorrected Distributions of e+ e- invariant mass, the reconstructed background, and the signal pairs in 200 GeV Au+Au minimum bias collisions.

The ratio of signal to background in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV (Minimum Bias).

The ratio of signal to background in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV (Central).