Version 2
Global $\Lambda$ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions: evidence for the most vortical fluid

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Nature 548 (2017) 62-65, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510474 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77494

The extreme temperatures and energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy nuclei produce a state of matter with surprising fluid properties. Non-central collisions have angular momentum on the order of 1000$\hbar$, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to properly describe the fluid. It is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have so far been found. Here we present the first measurement of an alignment between the angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles, revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is by far the most vortical system ever observed. We find that $\Lambda$ and $\overline{\Lambda}$ hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few percent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. A previous measurement that reported a null result at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our new observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide the first experimental access to the vortical structure of the "perfect fluid" created in a heavy ion collision. They should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that quantitatively connect observations to the theory of the Strong Force. Our results extend the recent discovery of hydrodynamic spin alignment to the subatomic realm.

2 data tables

Lambda and AntiLambda polarization as a function of collision energy. Systematic errorbars include those associated with particle identification (tiny), uncertainty in the value of the hyperon decay paramter (2%) and reaction plane resolution (2%) and detector efficiency corrections (4%). The dominant systematic error comes from statistical fluctuations in the "signal" in the combinatoric background

Lambda and AntiLambda polarization as a function of collision energy calculated using the new $\alpha_\Lambda=0.732$ updated on PDG2020. Systematic error bars include those associated with particle identification (negligible), uncertainty in the value of the hyperon decay parameter (2%) and reaction plane resolution (2%) and detector efficiency corrections (4%). The dominant systematic error comes from statistical fluctuations of the estimated combinatoric background under the (anti-)$\Lambda$ mass peak.


Light Nuclei Collectivity from $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
2021.
Inspire Record 1986611 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115569

In high-energy heavy-ion collisions, partonic collectivity is evidenced by the constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow anisotropy for identified hadrons. A breaking of this scaling and dominance of baryonic interactions is found for identified hadron collective flow measurements in $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au collisions. In this paper, we report measurements of the first-order and second-order azimuthal anisotropic parameters, $v_1$ and $v_2$, of light nuclei ($d$, $t$, $^{3}$He, $^{4}$He) produced in $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au collisions at the STAR experiment. An atomic mass number scaling is found in the measured $v_1$ slopes of light nuclei at mid-rapidity. For the measured $v_2$ magnitude, a strong rapidity dependence is observed. Unlike $v_2$ at higher collision energies, the $v_2$ values at mid-rapidity for all light nuclei are negative and no scaling is observed with the atomic mass number. Calculations by the Jet AA Microscopic Transport Model (JAM), with baryonic mean-field plus nucleon coalescence, are in good agreement with our observations, implying baryonic interactions dominate the collective dynamics in 3 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

22 data tables

The rapidity and $p_{T}$ dependencies of $v_{1}$ for $p$ in 10-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions at 3 GeV.

The rapidity and $p_{T}$ dependencies of $v_{1}$ for $d$ in 10-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions at 3 GeV.

The $p_{T}$ dependencies of $v_{1}$ within $-0.1<y<0$ for $t$ in 10-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions at 3 GeV.

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Global $\Lambda$-hyperon polarization in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$=3 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 104 (2021) L061901, 2021.
Inspire Record 1897216 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110658

Global hyperon polarization, $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$, in Au+Au collisions over a large range of collision energy, $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$, has recently been measured and successfully reproduced by hydrodynamic and transport models with intense fluid vorticity of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). While naïve extrapolation of data trends suggests a large $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$ as the collision energy is reduced, the behavior of $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$ at small $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}<7.7$ GeV is unknown. Operating the STAR experiment in fixed-target mode, we have measured the polarization of $\Lambda$ hyperons along the direction of global angular momentum in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}=3$ GeV. The observation of substantial polarization of $4.91\pm0.81(\rm stat.)\pm0.15(\rm syst.)$% in these collisions may require a reexamination of the viscosity of any fluid created in the collision, the thermalization timescale of rotational modes, and of hadronic mechanisms to produce global polarization.

6 data tables

The measured invariant-mass distributions of two classes of $\Lambda$-hyperon decays. The decay classes are defined using the scalar triple product $\left(\vec{p}_\Lambda\times\vec{p}_p^*\right)\cdot \vec{B}_{\rm STAR}$, which is positive for right decays and negative for left decays. The right decay class has a notably sharper invariant-mass distribution than the left decay class, and this is due to the effects of daughter tracks crossing in the STAR TPC with the STAR magnetic field anti-parallel to the lab frame's z direction. The opposite pattern is obtained by flipping the sign of the STAR magnetic field or by reconstructing $\bar{\Lambda}$ hyperons.

The signal polarizations extracted according to the restricted invariant-mass method as a function of $\phi_\Lambda - \phi_p^*$, for positive-rapidity $\Lambda$ hyperons. The sinusoidal behavior is driven by non-zero net $v_1$. The vertical shift corresponds to the vorticity-driven polarization; in collider mode, where the net $v_1$ is zero, this dependence on $\phi_\Lambda - \phi_p^*$ does not exist.

The integrated Global $\Lambda$-hyperon Polarization in mid-central collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=3$ GeV. The trend of increasing $\overline{P}_{\rm H}$ with decreasing $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ is maintained at this low collision energy. Previous experimental results are scaled by the updated $\Lambda$-hyperon decay parameter $\alpha_\Lambda=0.732$ for comparison with this result. Recent model calculations extended to low collision energy show disagreement between our data and AMPT and rough agreement with the 3-Fluid Dynamics (3FD) model. Previous measurements shown alongside our data can be found at: https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins750410?version=2; https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1510474?version=1; https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1672785?version=2; https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1752507?version=2.

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Measurement of cold nuclear matter effects for inclusive J/ψ in p+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 825 (2022) 136865, 2022.
Inspire Record 1946829 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114371

Measurement by the STAR experiment at RHIC of the cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects experienced by inclusive $J/\psi$ at mid-rapidity in 0-100%$p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}$ = 200 GeV is presented. Such effects are quantified utilizing the nuclear modification factor, $R_{p\mathrm{Au}}$, obtained by taking a ratio of $J/\psi$ yield in $p$+Au collisions to that in $p$+$p$ collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The differential $J/\psi$ yield in both $p$+$p$ and $p$+Au collisions is measured through the dimuon decay channel, taking advantage of the trigger capability provided by the Muon Telescope Detector in the RHIC 2015 run. Consequently, the $J/\psi$$R_{p\mathrm{Au}}$ is derived within the transverse momentum ($p_{\mathrm{T}}$) range of 0 to 10 GeV/$c$. A suppression of approximately 30% is observed for $p_{\mathrm{T}}<2$ GeV/$c$, while $J/\psi$ $R_{p\mathrm{Au}}$ becomes compatible with unity for $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ greater than 3 GeV/$c$, indicating the $J/\psi$ yield is minimally affected by the CNM effects at high $p_{\mathrm{T}}$. Comparison to a similar measurement from 0-20% central Au+Au collisions reveals that the observed strong $J/\psi$ suppression above 3 Gev/$c$ is mostly due to the hot medium effects, providing strong evidence for the formation of the quark-gluon plasma in these collisions. Several model calculations show qualitative agreement with the measured $J/\psi$ $R_{p\mathrm{Au}}$, while their agreement with the $J/\psi$ yields in $p$+$p$ and $p$+Au collisions is worse.

3 data tables

Inclusive J/psi cross section times branching ratio of the dimuon decay channel in p+p collisions at 200 GeV. Global uncertainty of 12.5% not shown.

Inclusive J/psi cross section times branching ratio of the dimuon decay channel in p+Au collisions at 200 GeV. Global uncertainty of 1.5% not shown.

R_pAu of inclusive J/psi in p+Au collisions at 200 GeV. Global uncertainty of 13.9% not shown.


Version 2
Centrality dependence of identified particle elliptic flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=7.7–62.4 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 014907, 2016.
Inspire Record 1395151 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71527

Elliptic flow (v_2) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at sqrt{s_{NN}}= 7.7--62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at sqrt{s_{NN}}= 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies we observe a similar relative v_2 baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v_2 for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, shows a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with A Multiphase Transport Model and fit with a Blast Wave model.

396 data tables

No description provided.

The difference in $v_{2}$ between particles (X) and their corresponding antiparticles $\bar{X}$ (see legend) as a function of $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ for 10%-40% central Au + Au collisions. The systematic errors are shown by the hooked error bars. The dashed lines in the plot are fits with a power-law function.

The difference in $v_{2}$ between protons and antiprotons as a function of $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ for 0%-10%, 10%-40% and 40%-80% central Au + Au collisions. The systematic errors are shown by the hooked error bars. The dashed lines in the plot are fits with a power-law function.

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Global Polarization of $\Xi$ and $\Omega$ Hyperons in Au+Au Collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 126 (2021) 162301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1838481 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100234

Global polarization of $\Xi$ and $\Omega$ hyperons has been measured for the first time in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV. The measurements of the $\Xi^-$ and $\bar{\Xi}^+$ hyperon polarization have been performed by two independent methods, via analysis of the angular distribution of the daughter particles in the parity violating weak decay $\Xi\rightarrow\Lambda+\pi$, as well as by measuring the polarization of the daughter $\Lambda$-hyperon, polarized via polarization transfer from its parent. The polarization, obtained by combining the results from the two methods and averaged over $\Xi^-$ and $\bar{\Xi}^+$, is measured to be $\langle P_\Xi \rangle = 0.47\pm0.10~({\rm stat.})\pm0.23~({\rm syst.})\,\%$ for the collision centrality 20%-80%. The $\langle P_\Xi \rangle$ is found to be slightly larger than the inclusive $\Lambda$ polarization and in reasonable agreement with a multi-phase transport model (AMPT). The $\langle P_\Xi \rangle$ is found to follow the centrality dependence of the vorticity predicted in the model, increasing toward more peripheral collisions. The global polarization of $\Omega$, $\langle P_\Omega \rangle = 1.11\pm0.87~({\rm stat.})\pm1.97~({\rm syst.})\,\%$ was obtained by measuring the polarization of daughter $\Lambda$ in the decay $\Omega \rightarrow \Lambda + K$, assuming the polarization transfer factor $C_{\Omega\Lambda}=1$.

4 data tables

$\Xi$ and $\Omega$ global polarization in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. Decay parameter from PDG2020, $\alpha_{\Xi}$=-$\alpha_{\bar{\Xi}}$=-0.401, is used.

The energy dependence of $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ global polarization. Note that the results from previous measurements are rescaled using updated decay parameters (PDG2020), $\alpha_{\Lambda}$=0.732 and $\alpha_{\bar{\Lambda}}$=-0.758. The original data can be found in <a href="https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1510474">this page</a>.

Centrality dependence of $\Xi$ global poalrization in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. Decay parameter from PDG2020, $\alpha_{\Xi}$=-$\alpha_{\bar{\Xi}}$=-0.401, is used.

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Measurement of the sixth-order cumulant of net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=$ 27, 54.4, and 200 GeV at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; et al.
2021.
Inspire Record 1866196 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105720

According to first principle Lattice QCD calculations, the transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadronic matter is a smooth crossover in the region $\mu_{\rm B}\leq T_{c}$. As a result, higher-order cumulants and their ratios are predicted to be negative, $C_{6}/C_{2}<0$, for example. In this paper, we report the first measurement of the midrapidity net-proton $C_{6}/C_{2}$ from 27, 54.4 and 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC. The dependence on collision centrality and kinematic acceptance in ($p_{T}$, $y$) are analyzed. While for 27 and 54.4 GeV collisions the $C_{6}/C_{2}$ values are close to zero within uncertainties, it is observed that for 200 GeV collisions, the $C_{6}/C_{2}$ ratio becomes progressively negative from peripheral to central collisions. Transport model calculations without critical dynamics predict values around zero. These observations seem to favor a smooth crossover in the high energy nuclear collisions at RHIC.

51 data tables

Event by event net-proton multiplicity, $\Delta N_{p}$, distributions for Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 27, 54.4, and 200 GeV in 0-10% and 30-40% centralities at midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) for the transverse momentum range of 0.4 < $p_{T}$ (GeV/c) < 2.0. These distributions are normalized by the corresponding numbers of events and are not corrected for detector efficiencies. Statistical uncertainties are shown as vertical lines. The dashed lines show the Skellam distributions for each collision energy and centrality. The bottom panel shows the ratio of the data to the Skellam expectations.

Event by event net-proton multiplicity, $\Delta N_{p}$, distributions for Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 27, 54.4, and 200 GeV in 0-10% and 30-40% centralities at midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) for the transverse momentum range of 0.4 < $p_{T}$ (GeV/c) < 2.0. These distributions are normalized by the corresponding numbers of events and are not corrected for detector efficiencies. Statistical uncertainties are shown as vertical lines. The dashed lines show the Skellam distributions for each collision energy and centrality. The bottom panel shows the ratio of the data to the Skellam expectations.

Event by event net-proton multiplicity, $\Delta N_{p}$, distributions for Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 27, 54.4, and 200 GeV in 0-10% and 30-40% centralities at midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) for the transverse momentum range of 0.4 < $p_{T}$ (GeV/c) < 2.0. These distributions are normalized by the corresponding numbers of events and are not corrected for detector efficiencies. Statistical uncertainties are shown as vertical lines. The dashed lines show the Skellam distributions for each collision energy and centrality. The bottom panel shows the ratio of the data to the Skellam expectations.

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Beam energy dependence of net- Λ fluctuations measured by the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 024903, 2020.
Inspire Record 1776194 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.113523

The measurements of particle multiplicity distributions have generated considerable interest in understanding the fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers in the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) hadronization regime, in particular near a possible critical point and near the chemical freeze-out. We report the measurement of efficiency and centrality bin width corrected cumulant ratios ($C_{2}/C_{1}$, $C_{3}/C_{2}$) of net-$\Lambda$ distributions, in the context of both strangeness and baryon number conservation, as a function of collision energy, centrality and rapidity. The results are for Au + Au collisions at five beam energies ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV) recorded with the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR). We compare our results to the Poisson and negative binomial (NBD) expectations, as well as to Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) and Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model predictions. Both NBD and Poisson baselines agree with data within the statistical and systematic uncertainties. The ratios of the measured cumulants show no features of critical fluctuations. The chemical freeze-out temperatures extracted from a recent HRG calculation, which was successfully used to describe the net-proton, net-kaon and net-charge data, indicate $\Lambda$ freeze-out conditions similar to those of kaons. However, large deviations are found when comparing to temperatures obtained from net-proton fluctuations. The net-$\Lambda$ cumulants show a weak, but finite, dependence on the rapidity coverage in the acceptance of the detector, which can be attributed to quantum number conservation.

35 data tables

Centrality dependence of single cumulants C1, of net-lambda multiplicity distributions at Au + Au collision 19.6 GeV. Values are shown with NBD, Poisson and UrQMD predictions. Npart values are from Phys. Rev. C 104, 024902 (2021) and they are little different than the values shown in the original paper.

Centrality dependence of single cumulants C1, of net-lambda multiplicity distributions at Au + Au collision 27 GeV. Values are shown with NBD, Poisson and UrQMD predictions.Npart values are from Phys. Rev. C 104, 024902 (2021) and they are little different than the values shown in the original paper.

Centrality dependence of single cumulants C1, of net-lambda multiplicity distributions at Au + Au collision 39 GeV. Values are shown with NBD, Poisson and UrQMD predictions.Npart values are from Phys. Rev. C 104, 024902 (2021) and they are little different than the values shown in the original paper.

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Nonmonotonic Energy Dependence of Net-Proton Number Fluctuations

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 126 (2021) 092301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1774673 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101068

Observations from collisions of heavy-ion at relativistic energies have established the formation of a new phase of matter, Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), a deconfined state of quarks and gluons in a specific region of the temperature versus baryonic chemical potential phase diagram of strong interactions. A program to study the features of the phase diagram, such as a possible critical point, by varying the collision energy ($\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$), is performed at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. Non-monotonic variation with $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ of moments of the net-baryon number distribution, related to the correlation length and the susceptibilities of the system, is suggested as a signature for a critical point. We report the first evidence of a non-monotonic variation in kurtosis $\times$ variance of the net-proton number (proxy for net-baryon number) distribution as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ with 3.1$\sigma$ significance, for head-on (central) gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions measured using the STAR detector at RHIC. Non-central Au+Au collisions and models of heavy-ion collisions without a critical point show a monotonic variation as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$.

10 data tables

Event-by-event net-proton multiplicity distributions for central (0-5$\%$) Au+Au collisions from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV. The distributions are normalised to total number of events. The distributions are not corrected for proton and antiproton detection efficiency.

Cumulants of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for nine energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV for 0-5$\%$ and 70-80$\%$ centrality.

Cumulant ratios C3/C2 and C4/C2 of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for eight energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 62.4 GeV for 0-5$\%$ centrality. Also given are the derivative of the polynomial fits to the C3/C2 and C4/C2 vs energy at each energy and the Skellam baselines for the ratios.

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Cumulants and correlation functions of net-proton, proton, and antiproton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 104 (2021) 024902, 2021.
Inspire Record 1843941 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101356

We report a systematic measurement of cumulants, $C_{n}$, for net-proton, proton and antiproton multiplicity distributions, and correlation functions, $\kappa_n$, for proton and antiproton multiplicity distributions up to the fourth order in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 54.4, 62.4 and 200 GeV. The $C_{n}$ and $\kappa_n$ are presented as a function of collision energy, centrality and kinematic acceptance in rapidity, $y$, and transverse momentum, $p_{T}$. The data were taken during the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program (2010 -- 2017) at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. The measurements are carried out at midrapidity ($|y| <$ 0.5) and transverse momentum 0.4 $<$$p_{\rm T}$$<$ 2.0 GeV/$c$, using the STAR detector at RHIC. We observe a non-monotonic energy dependence ($\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}$ = 7.7 -- 62.4 GeV) of the net-proton $C_{4}$/$C_{2}$ with the significance of 3.1$\sigma$ for the 0-5% central Au+Au collisions. This is consistent with the expectations of critical fluctuations in a QCD-inspired model. Thermal and transport model calculations show a monotonic variation with $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}$. For the multiparticle correlation functions, we observe significant negative values for a two-particle correlation function, $\kappa_2$, of protons and antiprotons, which are mainly due to the effects of baryon number conservation. Furthermore, it is found that the four-particle correlation function, $\kappa_4$, of protons plays a role in determining the energy dependence of proton $C_4/C_1$ below 19.6 GeV, which cannot be understood by the effect of baryon number conservation.

114 data tables

Reference charged particle multiplicity distributions using only pions and kaons ...

Reference charged particle multiplicity distributions using only pions and kaons ...

Reference charged particle multiplicity distributions using only pions and kaons ...

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