Systematic study of nuclear effects in $p$ $+$Al, $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV using $\pi^0$ production

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
549 authors from 81 institutions, 21 pages, 13 figures, and 3 tables. Data from 2008, 2014, and 2015. Physical Review C. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.html, 2021.
Inspire Record 1965617 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115023

The PHENIX collaboration presents a systematic study of $\pi^0$ production from $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$Al, $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. Measurements were performed with different centrality selections as well as the total inelastic, 0%--100%, selection for all collision systems. For 0%--100% collisions, the nuclear modification factors, $R_{xA}$, are consistent with unity for $p_T$ above 8 GeV/$c$, but exhibit an enhancement in peripheral collisions and a suppression in central collisions. The enhancement and suppression characteristics are similar for all systems for the same centrality class. It is shown that for high-$p_T$-$\pi^0$ production, the nucleons in the $d$ and $^3$He interact mostly independently with the Au nucleus and that the counter intuitive centrality dependence is likely due to a physical correlation between multiplicity and the presence of a hard scattering process. These observations disfavor models where parton energy loss has a significant contribution to nuclear modifications in small systems. Nuclear modifications at lower $p_T$ resemble the Cronin effect -- an increase followed by a peak in central or inelastic collisions and a plateau in peripheral collisions. The peak height has a characteristic ordering by system size as $p$ $+$Au $>$ $d$ $+$Au $>$ $^{3}$He$+$Au $>$ $p$ $+$Al. For collisions with Au ions, current calculations based on initial state cold nuclear matter effects result in the opposite order, suggesting the presence of other contributions to nuclear modifications, in particular at lower $p_T$.

28 data tables

Differential cross section of $\pi^0$ in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

Invariant yield of $\pi^0$ from (a) p+Al, (b) p+Au, (c) d+Au, and (d) $^{3}$HeAu in different centrality selections at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

Nuclear modification factors from inelastic (a) p+Al, (b) p+Au, (c) d+Au, and (d) $^{3}$HeAu collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. The right boxes are the $N_{coll}$ uncertainties from the Glauber model, while the left box represents the overall normalization uncertainty from p+p collisions

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Suppression of hadrons with large transverse momentum in central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 130-GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adcox, K. ; Adler, S.S. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 88 (2002) 022301, 2002.
Inspire Record 562409 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110700

Transverse momentum spectra for charged hadrons and for neutral pions in the range 1 GeV/c $< p_T <$ 5 GeV/c have been measured by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=130$ GeV. At high $p_T$ the spectra from peripheral nuclear collisions are consistent with the naive expectation of scaling the spectra from p+p collisions by the average number of binary nucleon- nucleon collisions. The spectra from central collisions are significantly suppressed when compared to the binary- scaled p+p expectation, and also when compared to similarly binary-scaled peripheral collisions, indicating a novel nuclear effect in central nuclear collisions at RHIC energies.

12 data tables

The yields per event at mid-rapidity for neutral pions as a function of $p_T$ for 0-80% from the PbSc detector.

The yields per event at mid-rapidity for neutral pions as a function of $p_T$ for 60-80% from the PbSc detector.

The yields per event at mid-rapidity for neutral pions as a function of $p_T$ for 0-10% from the PbGl detector.

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Measurement of the higher-order anisotropic flow coefficients for identified hadrons in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 051902, 2016.
Inspire Record 1332239 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110967

New PHENIX measurements of the anisotropic flow coefficients $v_2\{\Psi_2\}$, $v_3\{\Psi_3\}$, $v_4\{\Psi_4\}$ and $v_4\{\Psi_2\}$ for identified particles ($\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, and $p+\bar{p}$) obtained relative to the event planes $\Psi_n$ in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV are presented as functions of collision centrality and particle transverse momenta $p_T$. The $v_n$ coefficients show characteristic patterns consistent with hydrodynamical expansion of the matter produced in the collisions. For each harmonic $n$, a modified valence quark number $n_q$ scaling plotting $v_n/(n_q)^{n/2}$ versus ${\rm KE}_T/n_q$ is observed to yield a single curve for all the measured particle species for a broad range of transverse kinetic energies ${\rm KE}_T$. A simultaneous blast wave model fit to the observed particle spectra and $v_n(p_T)$ coefficients identifies spatial eccentricities $s_n$ at freeze-out, which are much smaller than the initial-state geometric values.

40 data tables

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_n$ via the event-plane method for charge-combined $\pi^{\pm}$ in 0%–50% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ and $v_3$ via the two-particle correlation method for charge-combined $\pi^{\pm}$ in 0%–50% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_4$ via the two-particle correlation method for charge-combined $\pi^{\pm}$ in 0%–50% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

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$J/\psi$ suppression at forward rapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 84 (2011) 054912, 2011.
Inspire Record 894560 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100086

Heavy quarkonia are observed to be suppressed in relativistic heavy ion collisions relative to their production in p+p collisions scaled by the number of binary collisions. In order to determine if this suppression is related to color screening of these states in the produced medium, one needs to account for other nuclear modifications including those in cold nuclear matter. In this paper, we present new measurements from the PHENIX 2007 data set of J/psi yields at forward rapidity (1.2<|y|<2.2) in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV. The data confirm the earlier finding that the suppression of J/psi at forward rapidity is stronger than at midrapidity, while also extending the measurement to finer bins in collision centrality and higher transverse momentum (pT). We compare the experimental data to the most recent theoretical calculations that incorporate a variety of physics mechanisms including gluon saturation, gluon shadowing, initial-state parton energy loss, cold nuclear matter breakup, color screening, and charm recombination. We find J/psi suppression beyond cold-nuclear-matter effects. However, the current level of disagreement between models and d+Au data precludes using these models to quantify the hot-nuclear-matter suppression.

6 data tables

J/psi invariant yield in Au+Au collisions as a function of $N_{part}$ at forward rapidity ($p_{T}$ integrated). The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

J/psi nuclear modification $R_{AA}$ in Au+Au collisions as a function of $N_{part}$ at forward rapidity ($p_T$ integrated). The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

J/psi invariant yield in Au+Au collisions as a function of transverse momentum for the 0-20% centrality class at forward rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

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Transverse single-spin asymmetries of midrapidity $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons in polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 103 (2021) 052009, 2021.
Inspire Record 1833997 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105043

We present a measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry for $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons in $p^\uparrow$$+$$p$ collisions in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta|<0.35$ and at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. In comparison with previous measurements in this kinematic region, these results have a factor of 3 smaller uncertainties. As hadrons, $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons are sensitive to both initial- and final-state nonperturbative effects for a mix of parton flavors. Comparisons of the differences in their transverse single-spin asymmetries have the potential to disentangle the possible effects of strangeness, isospin, or mass. These results can constrain the twist-3 trigluon collinear correlation function as well as the gluon Sivers function.

2 data tables

Data from Figs. 2, 4, and 5 of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of neutral pions measured at $|\eta|<0.35$ in $p^\uparrow$$+$$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. An additional scale uncertainty of 3.4\% due to the polarization uncertainty is not shown. The total $\sigma_{\rm syst}$ in the lowest $p_T$ bin includes an additional systematic uncertainty of $1.06\times10^{-4}$ from bunch shuffling.

Data from Figs. 3 and 4 of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of eta mesons measured at $|\eta|<0.35$ in $p^\uparrow$$+$$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. An additional scale uncertainty of 3.4\% due to the polarization uncertainty is not shown. The total $\sigma_{\rm syst}$ in the lowest $p_T$ bin includes an additional systematic uncertainty of $6.20\times10^{-4}$ from bunch shuffling.


Measurement of Direct Photons in Au+Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 109 (2012) 152302, 2012.
Inspire Record 1116179 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110427

We report the measurement of direct photons at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 200 GeV. The direct photon signal was extracted for the transverse-momentum range of 4 GeV/c < p_T < 22 GeV/c, using a statistical method to subtract decay photons from the inclusive-photon sample. The direct-photon nuclear-modification factor R_AA was calculated as a function of p_T for different Au+Au collision centralities using the measured p+p direct-photon spectrum and compared to theoretical predictions. R_AA was found to be consistent with unity for all centralities over the entire measured p_T range. Theoretical models that account for modifications of initial-direct-photon production due to modified-parton-distribution functions in Au and the different isospin composition of the nuclei, predict a modest change of R_AA from unity and are consistent with the data. Models with compensating effects of the quark-gluon plasma on high-energy photons, such as suppression of jet-fragmentation photons and induced-photon bremsstrahlung from partons traversing the medium, are also consistent with this measurement.

2 data tables

Direct photon spectra for all centrality selections in Au+Au.

Direct photon nuclear modification factor ($R_{AA}$)


Production of $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons in Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 98 (2018) 054903, 2018.
Inspire Record 1672859 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100192

Production of $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons has been measured at midrapidity in Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV. Measurements were performed in $\pi^0(\eta)\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$ decay channel in the 1(2)-20 GeV/$c$ transverse momentum range. A strong suppression is observed for $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ meson production at high transverse momentum in central Cu$+$Au collisions relative to the $p$$+$$p$ results scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions. In central collisions the suppression is similar to Au$+$Au with comparable nuclear overlap. The $\eta/\pi^0$ ratio measured as a function of transverse momentum is consistent with $m_T$-scaling parameterization down to $p_T=$2 GeV/$c$, its asymptotic value is constant and consistent with Au$+$Au and $p$$+$$p$ and does not show any significant dependence on collision centrality. Similar results were obtained in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in $e^+e^-$ collisions in a range of collision energies $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=$3--1800 GeV. This suggests that the quark-gluon-plasma medium produced in Cu$+$Cu collisions either does not affect the jet fragmentation into light mesons or it affects the $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ the same way.

48 data tables

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 3a from minimum bias Cu+Au collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 3a from 0-10% central Cu+Au collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 3a from 10-20% central Cu+Au collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

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Version 2
J/psi Production in s(NN)**(1/2) = 200-GeV Cu+Cu Collisions

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, Christine Angela ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 101 (2008) 122301, 2008.
Inspire Record 776624 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.57327

Yields for J/psi production in Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt (s_NN)= 200 GeV have been measured by the PHENIX experiment over the rapidity range |y| < 2.2 at transverse momenta from 0 to beyond 5 GeV/c. The invariant yield is obtained as a function of rapidity, transverse momentum and collision centrality, and compared with results in p+p and Au+Au collisions at the same energy. The Cu+Cu data provide greatly improved precision over existing Au+Au data for J/psi production in collisions with small to intermediate numbers of participants, providing a key constraint that is needed for disentangling cold and hot nuclear matter effects.

12 data tables

J/PSI yield versus transverse momentum PT, at mid rapidity : -0.35<y<0.35, for a centrality range of 0-20%.

J/PSI yield versus transverse momentum PT, at mid rapidity : -0.35<y<0.35, for a centrality range of 20-40%.

J/PSI yield versus transverse momentum PT, at mid rapidity : -0.35<y<0.35, for a centrality range of 40-60%.

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Transverse momentum dependence of meson suppression $\eta$ suppression in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 82 (2010) 011902, 2010.
Inspire Record 856259 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.106472

New measurements by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC for eta production at midrapidity as a function of transverse momentum (p_T) and collision centrality in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV Au+Au and p+p collisions are presented. They indicate nuclear modification factors (R_AA) that are similar both in magnitude and trend to those found in earlier pi^0 measurements. Linear fits to R_AA in the 5--20 GeV/c p_T region show that the slope is consistent with zero within two standard deviations at all centralities although a slow rise cannot be excluded. Having different statistical and systematic uncertainties the pi^0 and eta measurements are complementary at high p_T/ thus, along with the extended p_T range of these data they can provide additional constraints for theoretical modeling and the extraction of transport properties.

25 data tables

$E\frac{dN^3}{dp^3}$ vs. $p_T$, 0% to 5% centrality $Au+Au$. 90% Limit on 18-20 and 20-22 GeV/c bins.

$E\frac{dN^3}{dp^3}$ vs. $p_T$, 0% to 10% centrality $Au+Au$. 90% Limit on 18-20 and 20-22 GeV/c bins.

$E\frac{dN^3}{dp^3}$ vs. $p_T$, 10% to 20% centrality $Au+Au$.

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Measurement of jet-medium interactions via direct photon-hadron correlations in Au$+$Au and $d$ $+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 054910, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798493 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101752

We present direct photon-hadron correlations in 200 GeV/A Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p collisions, for direct photon pT from 5–12 GeV/c, collected by the PHENIX Collaboration in the years from 2006 to 2011. We observe no significant modification of jet fragmentation in d+Au collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are small or absent. Hadrons carrying a large fraction of the quark's momentum are suppressed in Au+Au compared to p+p and d+Au. As the momentum fraction decreases, the yield of hadrons in Au+Au increases to an excess over the yield in p+p collisions. The excess is at large angles and at low hadron pT and is most pronounced for hadrons associated with lower momentum direct photons. Comparison to theoretical calculations suggests that the hadron excess arises from medium response to energy deposited by jets.

14 data tables

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in Au+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 5-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in d+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 7-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Integrated away-side $\gamma_{dir}$-h per-trigger yields of Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p, as a function of $\xi$.

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