Kinematic dependence of azimuthal anisotropies in $p$ $+$ Au, $d$ $+$ Au, $^3$He $+$ Au at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV 

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 024901, 2022.
Inspire Record 2026169 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132366

There is strong evidence for the formation of small droplets of quark-gluon plasma in $p/d/^{3}$He+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and in $p$+$p$/Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, the analysis of data at RHIC for different geometries obtained by varying the projectile size and shape has proven insightful. In the present analysis, we find excellent agreement with the previously published PHENIX at RHIC results on elliptical and triangular flow with an independent analysis via the two-particle correlation method, which has quite different systematic uncertainties and an independent code base. In addition, the results are extended to other detector combinations with different kinematic (pseudorapidity) coverage. These results provide additional constraints on contributions from nonflow and longitudinal decorrelations.

59 data tables

$v_2$ vs $p_T$, p+Au at 200 GeV, 0-5% central, BBCS-FVTXS-CNT detector combination

$v_2$ vs $p_T$, d+Au at 200 GeV, 0-5% central, BBCS-FVTXS-CNT detector combination

$v_2$ vs $p_T$, 3He+Au at 200 GeV, 0-5% central, BBCS-FVTXS-CNT detector combination

More…

Measurement of two-particle correlations with respect to second- and third-order event planes in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 99 (2019) 054903, 2019.
Inspire Record 1658594 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115992

We present measurements of azimuthal correlations of charged hadron pairs in $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV Au$+$Au collisions after subtracting an underlying event using a model that includes higher-order azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$, $v_3$, and $v_4$. After subtraction, the away-side ($\Delta\phi\sim\pi)$ of the highest transverse-momentum trigger ($p_T>4$ GeV/$c$) correlations is suppressed compared to that of correlations measured in $p$$+$$p$ collisions. At the lowest associated particle $p_T$, the away-side shape and yield are modified. These observations are consistent with the scenario of radiative-jet energy loss. For the lowest-$p_T$ trigger correlations, an away-side yield exists and we explore the dependence of the shape of the away-side within the context of an underlying-event model. Correlations are also studied differentially versus event-plane angle $\Psi_n$. The angular correlations show an asymmetry when selecting the sign of the trigger-particle azimuthal angle with respect to the $\Psi_2$ event plane. This asymmetry and the measured suppression of the pair yield out of plane is consistent with a path-length-dependent energy loss. No $\Psi_3$ dependence can be resolved within experimental uncertainties.

33 data tables

Higher-order flow harmonics for charged hadrons at midrapidity in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ and their systematics: $v_2$, $v_3$, $v_4$, and $v_4\{\Psi_2\}$. The source of systematic uncertainties are difference among RXN event-planes, matching cut width for CNT hadron tracks, and difference between $v_n$ measured with RXN and BBC event planes .

Per-trigger yields $Y(\Delta\phi)$ of dihadrons pairs measured in Au$+$Au collisions at$\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ after subtracting the underlying event model with several $p_T$ selections and centralities. Systematic uncertainties are due to track matching and the $v_n$ and due to ZYAM.

Per-trigger yields $Y(\Delta\phi)$ of dihadron pairs measured in Au$+$Au collisions after subtracting the underlying event-model with several $p_T$ selections of the trigger and associated particles ($p_T^{t,a}$ and several centralities. Systematic uncertainties are due to track matching and the $v_n$ and due to ZYAM.

More…

Low-$p_T$ direct-photon production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2057344 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133218

The measurement of direct photons from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV in the transverse-momentum range $0.4<p_T<3$ Gev/$c$ is presented by the PHENIX collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. A significant direct-photon yield is observed in both collision systems. A universal scaling is observed when the direct-photon $p_T$ spectra for different center-of-mass energies and for different centrality selections at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ GeV is scaled with $(dN_{\rm ch}/d\eta)^{\alpha}$ for $\alpha=1.21{\pm}0.04$. This scaling also holds true for direct-photon spectra from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV measured earlier by PHENIX, as well as the spectra from Pb$+$Pb at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=2760$ GeV published by ALICE. The scaling power $\alpha$ seems to be independent of $p_T$, center of mass energy, and collision centrality. The spectra from different collision energies have a similar shape up to $p_T$ of 2 GeV/$c$. The spectra have a local inverse slope $T_{\rm eff}$ increasing with $p_T$ of $0.174\pm0.018$ GeV/$c$ in the range $0.4<p_T<1.3$ GeV/$c$ and increasing to $0.289\pm0.024$ GeV/$c$ for $0.9<p_T<2.1$ GeV/$c$. The observed similarity of low-$p_T$ direct-photon production from $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}= 39$ to 2760 GeV suggests a common source of direct photons for the different collision energies and event centrality selections, and suggests a comparable space-time evolution of direct-photon emission.

12 data tables

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

Direct photon spectra for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical and systematic uncertainties, unless the central value is negative (arrows) or is consistent with zero within the statistical uncertainties (arrows with data point). In these cases upper limit with CL = 95$%$ are given.

More…

Measurement of $\phi$-meson production in Cu$+$Au at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV and U$+$U at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Abdulameer, N.J. ; Acharya, U. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2121010 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132483

The PHENIX experiment reports systematic measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider of $\phi$-meson production in asymmetric Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV and in U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=193 GeV. Measurements were performed via the $\phi\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ decay channel at midrapidity $|\eta|<0.35$. Features of $\phi$-meson production measured in Cu$+$Cu, Cu$+$Au, Au$+$Au, and U$+$U collisions were found to not depend on the collision geometry, which was expected because the yields are averaged over the azimuthal angle and follow the expected scaling with nuclear-overlap size. The elliptic flow of the $\phi$ meson in Cu$+$Au, Au$+$Au, and U$+$U collisions scales with second order participant eccentricity and the length scale of the nuclear overlap region (estimated with the number of participating nucleons). At moderate $p_T$, $\phi$-meson production measured in Cu$+$Au and U$+$U collisions is consistent with coalescence-model predictions, whereas at high $p_T$ the production is in agreement with expectations for in-medium energy loss of parent partons prior to their fragmentation. The elliptic flow for $\phi$ mesons measured in Cu$+$Au and U$+$U collisions is well described by a (2+1)D viscous-hydrodynamic model with specific-shear viscosity $\eta/s=1/4\pi$.

14 data tables

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (a) Cu+Au and (b) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (c) Cu+Au and (d) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity. Data-to- Levy fit ratios.

The $\phi$-meson nuclear modification factors $R_{AB}$ measured as a function of $p_T$ in different centrality intervals of (a) to (d) Cu+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV and (e) to (h) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 193 GeV at midrapidity $|\eta|<0.35$. The normalization uncertainty from p+p of about $\sim9.7\%$ is not shown.

More…

Transverse single spin asymmetries of forward neutrons in $p+p$, $p+$Al and $p+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV as a function of transverse and longitudinal momenta

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 105 (2022) 032004, 2022.
Inspire Record 1944868 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.131759

In 2015 the PHENIX collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider recorded $p+p$, $p+$Al, and $p+$Au collision data at center of mass energies of $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV with the proton beam(s) transversely polarized. At very forward rapidities $\eta>6.8$ relative to the polarized proton beam, neutrons were detected either inclusively or in (anti)correlation with detector activity related to hard collisions. The resulting single spin asymmetries, that were previously reported, have now been extracted as a function of the transverse momentum of the neutron as well as its longitudinal momentum fraction $x_F$. The explicit kinematic dependence, combined with the correlation information allows for a closer look at the interplay of different mechanisms suggested to describe these asymmetries, such as hadronic interactions or electromagnetic interactions in ultra-peripheral collisions, UPC. Events that are correlated with a hard collision indeed display a mostly negative asymmetry that increases in magnitude as a function of transverse momentum with only little dependence on $x_F$. In contrast, events that are not likely to have emerged from a hard collision display positive asymmetries for the nuclear collisions with a kinematic dependence that resembles that of a UPC based model. Because the UPC interaction depends strongly on the charge of the nucleus, those effects are very small for $p+p$ collisions, moderate for $p+$Al collisions, and large for $p+$Au collisions.

8 data tables

Measured forward neutron single spin asymmetries in p+p collisions as a function of pT in bins of xF

Measured forward neutron single spin asymmetries in p+Al collisions as a function of pT in bins of xF

Measured forward neutron single spin asymmetries in p+Au collisions as a function of pT in bins of xF

More…

Production of $\pi^0$, $\eta$, and $K_S$ mesons in U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=192$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 064905, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798526 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132824

The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider measured $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons at midrapidity in U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=192$ GeV in a wide transverse momentum range. Measurements were performed in the $\pi^0(\eta)\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$ decay modes. A strong suppression of $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ meson production at high transverse momentum was observed in central U$+$U collisions relative to binary scaled $p$$+$$p$ results. Yields of $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons measured in U$+$U collisions show similar suppression pattern to the ones measured in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV for similar numbers of participant nucleons. The $\eta$/$\pi^0$ ratios do not show dependence on centrality or transverse momentum, and are consistent with previously measured values in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, nucleus-nucleus, and $e^+e^-$ collisions.

41 data tables

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 2a from minimum bias U+U collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 2a from 0-20% U+U collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

$\pi^0$ spectra from figure 2a from 20-40% U+U collisions. Type A uncertainties are uncorrelated point-to-point. Type B uncertainties are correlated point-to-point. Type C uncertainties affect the scale of the data.

More…

Probing gluon spin-momentum correlations in transversely polarized protons through midrapidity isolated direct photons in $p^\uparrow+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 127 (2021) 162001, 2021.
Inspire Record 1848987 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.131760

Studying spin-momentum correlations in hadronic collisions offers a glimpse into a three-dimensional picture of proton structure. The transverse single-spin asymmetry for midrapidity isolated direct photons in $p^\uparrow+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV is measured with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Because direct photons in particular are produced from the hard scattering and do not interact via the strong force, this measurement is a clean probe of initial-state spin-momentum correlations inside the proton and is in particular sensitive to gluon interference effects within the proton. This is the first time direct photons have been used as a probe of spin-momentum correlations at RHIC. The uncertainties on the results are a fifty-fold improvement with respect to those of the one prior measurement for the same observable, from the Fermilab E704 experiment. These results constrain gluon spin-momentum correlations in transversely polarized protons.

2 data tables

The direct photon background fraction from Figure 1. This is the estimated fraction of photons in the isolated direct photon sample that came from either $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ or $\eta \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decays but the second decay photon is not measured and so these background photons are not eliminated by the tagging cut. These fractions are calculated for the PHENIX EMCal during the 2015 $p$+$p$ run

The transverse single-spin asymmetry of isolated direct photons for $|\eta|<0.35$ in $p^\uparrow$$+$$p$ collisions with $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. This data appears in both Figure 2 and Table I. An additional scale uncertainty of 3.4% due to the polarization uncertainty is not included.


Nuclear-modification factor of charged hadrons at forward and backward rapidity in $p$$+$Al and $p$$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; Alfred, M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 101 (2020) 034910, 2020.
Inspire Record 1741109 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.106658

The PHENIX experiment has studied nuclear effects in $p$$+$Al and $p$$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV on charged hadron production at forward rapidity ($1.4<\eta<2.4$, $p$-going direction) and backward rapidity ($-2.2<\eta<-1.2$, $A$-going direction). Such effects are quantified by measuring nuclear modification factors as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in various collision multiplicity selections. In central $p$$+$Al and $p$$+$Au collisions, a suppression (enhancement) is observed at forward (backward) rapidity compared to the binary scaled yields in $p$+$p$ collisions. The magnitude of enhancement at backward rapidity is larger in $p$$+$Au collisions than in $p$$+$Al collisions, which have a smaller number of participating nucleons. However, the results at forward rapidity show a similar suppression within uncertainties. The results in the integrated centrality are compared with calculations using nuclear parton distribution functions, which show a reasonable agreement at the forward rapidity but fail to describe the backward rapidity enhancement.

11 data tables

RpA of charged hadrons as a function of pT at forward and backward rapidity in p+Al 0%-100% centrality.

RpA of charged hadrons as a function of pT at forward and backward rapidity in p+Au 0%-100% centrality.

RpA of charged hadrons as a function of eta at forward and backward rapidity in p+Al and p+Au 0%-100% centrality.

More…

Identified charged particle spectra and yields in Au+Au collisions at S(NN)**1/2 = 200-GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adler, S.S. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 69 (2004) 034909, 2004.
Inspire Record 624474 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.106657

The centrality dependence of transverse momentum distributions and yields for pi^+/-, K^+/-, p and p^bar in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV at mid-rapidity are measured by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. We observe a clear particle mass dependence of the shapes of transverse momentum spectra in central collisions below ~ 2 GeV/c in p_T. Both mean transverse momenta and particle yields per participant pair increase from peripheral to mid-central and saturate at the most central collisions for all particle species. We also measure particle ratios of pi^-/pi^+, K^-/K^+, p^bar/p, K/pi, p/pi and p^bar/pi as a function of p_T and collision centrality. The ratios of equal mass particle yields are independent of p_T and centrality within the experimental uncertainties. In central collisions at intermediate transverse momenta ~ 1.5-4.5 GeV/c, proton and anti-proton yields constitute a significant fraction of the charged hadron production and show a scaling behavior different from that of pions.

25 data tables

Centrality dependence of the $p_{T}$ distribution for $\pi^{+}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Errors are statistical only.

Centrality dependence of the $p_{T}$ distribution for $\pi^{-}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Errors are statistical only.

Centrality dependence of the $p_{T}$ distribution for $K^{+}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Errors are statistical only.

More…

Improving constraints on gluon spin-momentum correlations in transversely polarized protons via midrapidity open-heavy-flavor electrons in $p^{\uparrow}+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2072832 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130883

Polarized proton-proton collisions provide leading-order access to gluons, presenting an opportunity to constrain gluon spin-momentum correlations within transversely polarized protons and enhance our understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the proton. Midrapidity open-heavy-flavor production at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV is dominated by gluon-gluon fusion, providing heightened sensitivity to gluon dynamics relative to other production channels. Transverse single-spin asymmetries of electrons and positrons from heavy-flavor hadron decays are measured at midrapidity using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These charge-separated measurements are sensitive to gluon correlators that can in principle be related to gluon orbital angular momentum via model calculations. Explicit constraints on gluon correlators are extracted for two separate models, one of which had not been constrained previously.

1 data table

Data from Figure 1 of open heavy flavor $e^{\pm}$ transverse single-spin asymmetries in transversely polarized p+p collisions as a function of $p_{T}$.