Net-proton number fluctuations and the Quantum Chromodynamics critical point

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 126 (2021) 092301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1850675 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101068

Non-monotonic variation with collision energy ($\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$) of the moments of the net-baryon number distribution in heavy-ion collisions, related to the correlation length and the susceptibilities of the system, is suggested as a signature for the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) critical point. We report the first evidence of a non-monotonic variation in kurtosis times variance of the net-proton number (proxy for net-baryon number) distribution as a function of \rootsnn with 3.1$\sigma$ significance, for head-on (central) gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions measured using the STAR detector at RHIC. Data in non-central Au+Au collisions and models of heavy-ion collisions without a critical point show a monotonic variation as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$.

10 data tables

Event-by-event net-proton multiplicity distributions for central (0-5$\%$) Au+Au collisions from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV. The distributions are normalised to total number of events. The distributions are not corrected for proton and antiproton detection efficiency.

Cumulants of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for nine energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV for 0-5$\%$ and 70-80$\%$ centrality.

Cumulant ratios C3/C2 and C4/C2 of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for eight energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 62.4 GeV for 0-5$\%$ centrality. Also given are the derivative of the polynomial fits to the C3/C2 and C4/C2 vs energy at each energy and the Skellam baselines for the ratios.

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Azimuthal transverse single-spin asymmetries of inclusive jets and identified hadrons within jets from polarized $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 106 (2022) 072010, 2022.
Inspire Record 2087127 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130778

The STAR Collaboration reports measurements of the transverse single-spin asymmetries, $A_N$, for inclusive jets and identified `hadrons within jets' production at midrapidity from transversely polarized $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV, based on data recorded in 2012 and 2015. The inclusive jet asymmetry measurements include $A_N$ for inclusive jets and $A_N$ for jets containing a charged pion carrying a momentum fraction $z>0.3$ of the jet momentum. The identified hadron within jet asymmetry measurements include the Collins effect for charged pions, kaons and protons, and the Collins-like effect for charged pions. The measured asymmetries are determined for several distinct kinematic regions, characterized by the jet transverse momentum $p_{T}$ and pseudorapidity $\eta$, as well as the hadron momentum fraction $z$ and momentum transverse to the jet axis $j_{T}$. These results probe higher momentum scales ($Q^{2}$ up to $\sim$ 900 GeV$^{2}$) than current, semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering measurements, and they provide new constraints on quark transversity in the proton and enable tests of evolution, universality and factorization breaking in the transverse-momentum-dependent formalism.

127 data tables

Distribution of the normalized jet yield as a function of detector jet-$p_{T}$ in 2015 data and simulation. The lower panel shows the ratio between data and simulation.

Comparison of data with simulation for charged hadrons within jets in the 2015 data as a function of the hadron longitudinal momentum fraction, $z$, in two different ranges of jet-$p_{T}$.

Comparison of data with simulation for charged hadrons within jets in the 2015 data as a function of the hadron momentum transverse to the jet axis, $j_{T}$, in two different ranges of jet-$p_{T}$.

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Pion, Kaon, and (Anti-)Proton Production in U+U Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV in STAR

The STAR collaboration
2022.
Inspire Record 2129269 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132660

We present the first measurements of transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p(\bar{p})$ at midrapidity ($|y| < 0.1$) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV with the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of particle yields, average transverse momenta, particle ratios and kinetic freeze-out parameters are discussed. The results are compared with the published results from Au+Au collisions at \snn = 200 GeV in STAR. The results are also compared to those from A Multi Phase Transport (AMPT) model.

20 data tables

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{+}$ at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of $K^{+}$ at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of p at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

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Pair invariant mass to isolate background in the search for the chiral magnetic effect in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$= 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 106 (2022) 034908, 2022.
Inspire Record 1800376 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95210

Quark interactions with topological gluon configurations can induce local chirality imbalance and parity violation in quantum chromodynamics, which can lead to the chiral magnetic effect (CME) -- an electric charge separation along the strong magnetic field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The CME-sensitive azimuthal correlator observable ($\Delta\gamma$) is contaminated by background arising, in part, from resonance decays coupled with elliptic anisotropy ($v_{2}$). We report here differential measurements of the correlator as a function of the pair invariant mass ($m_{\rm inv}$) in 20-50% centrality Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$= 200 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. Strong resonance background contributions to $\Delta\gamma$ are observed. At large $m_{\rm inv}$ where this background is significantly reduced, the $\Delta\gamma$ value is found to be significantly smaller. An event-shape-engineering technique is deployed to determine the $v_{2}$ background shape as a function of $m_{\rm inv}$. We extract a $v_2$-independent and $m_{\rm inv}$-averaged signal $\Delta\gamma_{\rm sig}$ = (0.03 $\pm$ 0.06 $\pm$ 0.08) $\times10^{-4}$, or $(2\pm4\pm5)\%$ of the inclusive $\Delta\gamma(m_{\rm inv}>0.4$ GeV/$c^2$)$ =(1.58 \pm 0.02 \pm 0.02) \times10^{-4}$, within pion $p_{T}$ = 0.2 - 0.8~\gevc and averaged over pseudorapidity ranges of $-1 < \eta < -0.05$ and $0.05 < \eta < 1$. This represents an upper limit of $0.23\times10^{-4}$, or $15\%$ of the inclusive result, at $95\%$ confidence level for the $m_{\rm inv}$-integrated CME contribution.

9 data tables

The $m_{\rm inv}$ dependences of the OS and SS pion pair multiplicities in 20-50$\%$ Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

The $m_{\rm inv}$ dependences of the $\gamma_{OS}$, $\gamma_{SS}$ in 20-50$\%$ Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

$m_{\rm inv}$ dependences of the relative excess of OS over SS pion pairs in 20-50$\%$ Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

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Version 2
Invariant Jet Mass Measurements in $pp$ Collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 104 (2021) 052007, 2021.
Inspire Record 1853218 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102953

We present the first inclusive measurements of the invariant and SoftDrop jet mass in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV at STAR. The measurements are fully corrected for detector effects, and reported differentially in both the jet transverse momentum and jet radius parameter. We compare the measurements to established leading-order Monte Carlo event generators and find that STAR-tuned PYTHIA-6 reproduces the data, while LHC tunes of PYTHIA-8 and HERWIG-7 do not agree with the data, providing further constraints on parameter tuning. Finally, we observe that SoftDrop grooming, for which the contribution of wide-angle non-perturbative radiation is suppressed, shifts the jet mass distributions into closer agreement with the partonic jet mass as determined by both PYTHIA-8 and a next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy perturbative QCD calculation. These measurements complement recent LHC measurements in a different kinematic region, as well as establish a baseline for future jet mass measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC.

22 data tables

The uncorrected jet mass distribution for $R = 0.4$ anti-$k_{\rm{T}}$ jets with $20 < p_{\rm{T,jet}} < 25$ GeV$/c$. Updated to correct a small bug that had shifted the jet mass to slightly smaller values.

The uncorrected SoftDrop groomed jet mass distribution for $R = 0.4$ anti-$k_{\rm{T}}$ jets with $20 < p_{\rm{T,jet}} < 25$ GeV$/c$. Updated to correct a small bug that had shifted the jet mass to slightly smaller values.

The fully corrected jet mass distribution for $R = 0.4$ anti-$k_{\rm{T}}$ jets with $20 < p_{\rm{T,jet}} < 25$ GeV$/c$. Data are reported beyond the x-axis upper limit of the figure, for future reference. Updated to correct a small bug that had shifted the jet mass to slightly smaller values.

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Two-particle correlations on transverse rapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}=200$ GeV at STAR

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 106 (2022) 044906, 2022.
Inspire Record 2071694 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129290

Two-particle correlation measurements projected onto two-dimensional, transverse rapidity coordinates ($y_{T1},y_{T2}$), allow access to dynamical properties of the QCD medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions that angular correlation measurements are not sensitive to. We report non-identified charged-particle correlations for Au + Au minimum-bias collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV taken by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). Correlations are presented as 2D functions of transverse rapidity for like-sign, unlike-sign and all charged-particle pairs, as well as for particle pairs whose relative azimuthal angles lie on the near-side, the away-side, or at all relative azimuth. The correlations are constructed using charged particles with transverse momentum $p_T \geq 0.15$ GeV/$c$, pseudorapidity from $-$1 to 1, and azimuthal angles from $-\pi$ to $\pi$. The significant correlation structures that are observed evolve smoothly with collision centrality. The major correlation features include a saddle shape plus a broad peak with maximum near $y_T \approx 3$, corresponding to $p_T \approx$ 1.5 GeV/$c$. The broad peak is observed in both like- and unlike-sign charge combinations and in near- and away-side relative azimuthal angles. The all-charge, all-azimuth correlation measurements are compared with the theoretical predictions of {\sc hijing} and {\sc epos}. The results indicate that the correlations for peripheral to mid-central collisions can be approximately described as a superposition of nucleon + nucleon collisions with minimal effects from the QCD medium. Strong medium effects are indicated in mid- to most-central collisions.

137 data tables

Two-dimensional correlations of charged-hadrons, all-CI, projected onto (y_t1, y_t2), in centrality bin 84-93%.

Two-dimensional correlations of charged-hadrons, all-CI, projected onto (y_t1, y_t2), in centrality bin 74-84%.

Two-dimensional correlations of charged-hadrons, all-CI, projected onto (y_t1, y_t2), in centrality bin 64-74%.

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Measurement of $\rm ^4_{\Lambda}H$ and $\rm ^4_{\Lambda}He$ binding energy in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 3 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 834 (2022) 137449, 2022.
Inspire Record 2105274 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132662

Measurements of mass and $\Lambda$ binding energy of $\rm ^4_{\Lambda}H$ and $\rm ^4_{\Lambda}He$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=3$ GeV are presented, with an aim to address the charge symmetry breaking (CSB) problem in hypernuclei systems with atomic number A = 4. The $\Lambda$ binding energies are measured to be $\rm 2.22\pm0.06(stat.) \pm0.14(syst.)$ MeV and $\rm 2.38\pm0.13(stat.) \pm0.12(syst.)$ MeV for $\rm ^4_{\Lambda}H$ and $\rm ^4_{\Lambda}He$, respectively. The measured $\Lambda$ binding-energy difference is $\rm 0.16\pm0.14(stat.)\pm0.10(syst.)$ MeV for ground states. Combined with the $\gamma$-ray transition energies, the binding-energy difference for excited states is $\rm -0.16\pm0.14(stat.)\pm0.10(syst.)$ MeV, which is negative and comparable to the value of the ground states within uncertainties. These new measurements on the $\Lambda$ binding-energy difference in A = 4 hypernuclei systems are consistent with the theoretical calculations that result in $\rm \Delta B_{\Lambda}^4(1_{exc}^{+})\approx -\Delta B_{\Lambda}^4(0_{g.s.}^{+})<0$ and present a new method for the study of CSB effect using relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

3 data tables

The measurement of $\Lambda$ binding energies of $^4_{\Lambda}H$ and $^4_{\Lambda}He$ in ground and excited states.

The measurement of $\Lambda$ binding energy difference between $^4_{\Lambda}H$ and $^4_{\Lambda}He$ in ground states.

The measurement of $\Lambda$ binding energy difference between $^4_{\Lambda}H$ and $^4_{\Lambda}He$ in excited states.


Version 2
Centrality and transverse momentum dependence of higher-order flow harmonics of identified hadrons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 064911, 2022.
Inspire Record 2051708 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.128148

We present high-precision measurements of elliptic, triangular, and quadrangular flow $v_{2}$, $v_{3}$, and $v_{4}$, respectively, at midrapidity ($|\eta|<1.0$) for identified hadrons $\pi$, $p$, $K$, $\varphi$, $K_s$, $\Lambda$ as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at the center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=$ 200 GeV. We observe similar $v_{n}$ trends between light and strange mesons which indicates that the heavier strange quarks flow as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. The number-of-constituent-quark scaling for $v_{2}$, $v_{3}$, and $v_{4}$ is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for 0-10$\%$, 10-40$\%$ and 40-80$\%$ collision centrality intervals. The results are compared to several viscous hydrodynamic calculations with varying initial conditions, and could serve as an additional constraint to the development of hydrodynamic models.

94 data tables

The transverse momentum dependence of elliptic, triangular and quadrangular flow of particles, antiparticles and their difference for 0-80 central Au+Au collisions.

The transverse momentum dependence of elliptic, triangular and quadrangular flow of particles, antiparticles and their difference for 0-80 central Au+Au collisions.

The transverse momentum dependence of elliptic, triangular and quadrangular flow of particles, antiparticles and their difference for 0-80 central Au+Au collisions.

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Tomography of Ultra-relativistic Nuclei with Polarized Photon-gluon Collisions

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2062296 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132921

A linearly polarized photon can be quantized from the Lorentz-boosted electromagnetic field of a nucleus traveling at ultra-relativistic speed. When two relativistic heavy nuclei pass one another at a distance of a few nuclear radii, the photon from one nucleus may interact through a virtual quark-antiquark pair with gluons from the other nucleus forming a short-lived vector meson (e.g. ${\rho^0}$). In this experiment, the polarization was utilized in diffractive photoproduction to observe a unique spin interference pattern in the angular distribution of ${\rho^0\rightarrow\pi^+\pi^-}$ decays. The observed interference is a result of an overlap of two wave functions at a distance an order of magnitude larger than the ${\rho^0}$ travel distance within its lifetime. The strong-interaction nuclear radii were extracted from these diffractive interactions, and found to be $6.53\pm 0.06$ fm ($^{197} {\rm Au }$) and $7.29\pm 0.08$ fm ($^{238} {\rm U}$), larger than the nuclear charge radii. The observable is demonstrated to be sensitive to the nuclear geometry and quantum interference of non-identical particles.

14 data tables

The invariant mass distribution of pi+pi- pairs collected from Au+Au and U+U collisions.

Two-dimensional $\rho^0$ momentum distribution from Au+Au collisions.

Two-dimensional $\rho^0$ momentum distribution from Au+Au collisions.

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Evidence for Nonlinear Gluon Effects in QCD and their $A$ Dependence at STAR

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 129 (2022) 092501, 2022.
Inspire Record 1972873 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115421

The STAR Collaboration reports measurements of back-to-back azimuthal correlations of di-$\pi^0$s produced at forward pseudorapidities ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) in $p$+$p$, $p+$Al, and $p+$Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV. We observe a clear suppression of the correlated yields of back-to-back $\pi^0$ pairs in $p+$Al and $p+$Au collisions compared to the $p$+$p$ data. The observed suppression of back-to-back pairs as a function of transverse momentum suggests nonlinear gluon dynamics arising at high parton densities. The larger suppression found in $p+$Au relative to $p+$Al collisions exhibits a dependence of the saturation scale, $Q_s^2$, on the mass number, $A$. A linear scaling of the suppression with $A^{1/3}$ is observed with a slope of $-0.09$$\pm$$0.01$.

15 data tables

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p$+$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p+$Al collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

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