Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-HIN-23-003, 2024.
Inspire Record 2747107 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146016

Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 $\pm$ 0.002 (stat) $\pm$ 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 $\pm$ 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions.

3 data tables

The event fraction distribution as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$, within the kinematic range of $|\eta|<0.5$ and extrapolated to the full $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ range, in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV. The $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$ value is normalized by its value in the $0-5\%$ centrality class ($N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{0}$).

The average transverse momentum of charged particles, $\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$, as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$, within the kinematic range of $|\eta|<0.5$ and extrapolated to the full $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ range in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV. Both $\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$ and $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$ are normalized by their values in the $0-5\%$ centrality class (${\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle}^{0}$ and $N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{0}$).

The speed of sound, $c^2_{\mathrm{s}}$, as a function of the effective temperature, $T_{\mathrm{eff}}$, with the CMS data point obtained from ultra-central PbPb collision data at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV.


Search for Resonant Production of Dark Quarks in the Dijet Final State with the ATLAS Detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abeling, Kira ; et al.
JHEP 02 (2024) 128, 2024.
Inspire Record 2719976 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145191

This paper presents a search for a new $Z^\prime$ resonance decaying into a pair of dark quarks which hadronise into dark hadrons before promptly decaying back as Standard Model particles. This analysis is based on proton-proton collision data recorded at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider between 2015 and 2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$. After selecting events containing large-radius jets with high track multiplicity, the invariant mass distribution of the two highest-transverse-momentum jets is scanned to look for an excess above a data-driven estimate of the Standard Model multijet background. No significant excess of events is observed and the results are thus used to set 95 % confidence-level upper limits on the production cross-section times branching ratio of the $Z^\prime$ to dark quarks as a function of the $Z^\prime$ mass for various dark-quark scenarios.

13 data tables

Distribution of the di-jet invariant mass, $m_{\mathrm{JJ}}$ for the data, the simulated multi-jet background and of some representative signals (models A, B, C and D with $m_{Z'}=2.5$ TeV), shown after applying the preselections described in the text. The simulated background is normalised to the data and the signals are normalised to a production cross-section of 10 fb.

Distributions of the number of tracks associated to the leading jet, $n_{track,1}$, for the data, the simulated multi-jet background and of some representative signals (models A, B, C and D with $m_{Z^\prime}=2.5$ TeV), shown after applying the preselections described in the text. All distributions are normalised to unity. The uncertainty band around the background prediction corresponds to the modelling uncertainty described in Section 6.

Distributions of the number of tracks associated to the subleading jet, $n_{track,2}$, for the data, the simulated multi-jet background and of some representative signals (models A, B, C and D with $m_{Z^\prime}=2.5$ TeV), shown after applying the preselections described in the text. All distributions are normalised to unity. The uncertainty band around the background prediction corresponds to the modelling uncertainty described in Section 6.

More…

Search for exotic decays of the Higgs boson to a pair of pseudoscalars in the $\mu\mu$bb and $\tau\tau$bb final states

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-HIG-22-007, 2024.
Inspire Record 2760544 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145999

A search for exotic decays of the Higgs boson (H) with a mass of 125 GeV to a pair of light pseudoscalars $\mathrm{a}_1$ is performed in final states where one pseudoscalar decays to two b quarks and the other to a pair of muons or $\tau$ leptons. A data sample of proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ recorded with the CMS detector is analyzed. No statistically significant excess is observed over the standard model backgrounds. Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level (CL) on the Higgs boson branching fraction to $\mu\mu$bb and to $\tau\tau$bb, via a pair of $\mathrm{a}_1$s. The limits depend on the pseudoscalar mass $m_{\mathrm{a}_1}$ and are observed to be in the range (0.17-3.3) $\times$ 10$^{-4}$ and (1.7-7.7) $\times$ 10$^{2}$ in the $\mu\mu$bb and $\tau\tau$bb final states, respectively. In the framework of models with two Higgs doublets and a complex scalar singlet (2HDM+S), the results of the two final states are combined to determine model-independent upper limits on the branching fraction $\mathcal{B}$(H $\to$ $\mathrm{a}_1\mathrm{a}_1$ $\to$ $\ell\ell$bb) at 95% CL, with $\ell$ being a muon or a $\tau$ lepton. For different types of 2HDM+S, upper bounds on the branching fraction $\mathcal{B}$(H $\to$ $\mathrm{a}_1\mathrm{a}_1$) are extracted from the combination of the two channels. In most of the Type II 2HDM+S parameter space, $\mathcal{B}($H $\to$ $\mathrm{a}_1\mathrm{a}_1$) values above 0.23 are excluded at 95% CL for $m_{\mathrm{a}_1}$ values between 15 and 60 GeV.

4 data tables

Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL on B($\text{H} \rightarrow \text{a}_{1}\text{a}_{1} \rightarrow \mu\mu$bb) as functions of $m_{\text{a}_{1}}$. The inner and outer bands indicate the regions containing the distribution of limits located within 68 and 95% confidence intervals, respectively, of the expectation under the background-only hypothesis.

Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL on B($\text{H} \rightarrow \text{a}_{1}\text{a}_{1} \rightarrow \tau\tau$bb) in percent as functions of $m_{\text{a}_{1}}$, for the combination of the $\mu\tau_{\text{h}}$, $e\tau_{\text{h}}$, and $e\mu$ channels. The inner and outer bands indicate the regions containing the distribution of limits located within 68 and 95% confidence intervals, respectively, of the expectation under the background-only hypothesis.

Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL on B($\text{H} \rightarrow \text{a}_{1}\text{a}_{1} \rightarrow ll$bb) in percent, where $l$ stands for muons or $\tau$ leptons, obtained from the combination of the $\mu\mu$bb and $\tau\tau$bb channels. The results are obtained as functions $m_{\text{a}_{1}}$ for 2HDM+S models, independent of the type and tan $\beta$ parameter. The inner and outer bands indicate the regions containing the distribution of limits located within 68 and 95% confidence intervals, respectively, of the expectation under the background-only hypothesis.

More…

Study of $Z \to ll\gamma$ decays at $\sqrt s~$= 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
CERN-EP-2022-265, 2023.
Inspire Record 2712353 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.131524

This paper presents a study of $Z \to ll\gamma~$decays with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The analysis uses a proton-proton data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb$^{-1}$ collected at a centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. Integrated fiducial cross-sections together with normalised differential fiducial cross-sections, sensitive to the kinematics of final-state QED radiation, are obtained. The results are found to be in agreement with state-of-the-art predictions for final-state QED radiation. First measurements of $Z \to ll\gamma\gamma$ decays are also reported.

77 data tables

Unfolded $M(l^{+}\gamma)$ distribution for $Z \to ee\gamma$ process with dressed leptons and bkg subtraction. $M_{ll}>20$ GeV. Nexp.un f. = 63717.4 $\pm$ 252.4, NPowHeg truth =338714.

Unfolded $M(l^{-}\gamma)$ distribution for $Z \to ee\gamma$ process with dressed leptons and bkg subtraction. $M_{ll}>20$ GeV. Nexp.un f. = 63855.8 $\pm$ 252.7 , NPowHeg truth =338708.

Unfolded $M(l^{+}\gamma)$ distribution for $Z \to \mu\mu\gamma$ process with dressed leptons and bkg subtraction. $M_{ll}>20$ GeV. Nexp.un f. = 64809.8 $\pm$ 254.6, NPowHeg truth =634285.

More…

A precise measurement of the Z-boson double-differential transverse momentum and rapidity distributions in the full phase space of the decay leptons with the ATLAS experiment at $\sqrt s$ = 8 TeV

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abeling, Kira ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-171, 2023.
Inspire Record 2698794 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.144246

This paper presents for the first time a precise measurement of the production properties of the Z boson in the full phase space of the decay leptons. The measurement is obtained from proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2012 at $\sqrt s$ = 8 TeV at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb$^{-1}$. The results, based on a total of 15.3 million Z-boson decays to electron and muon pairs, extend and improve a previous measurement of the full set of angular coefficients describing Z-boson decay. The double-differential cross-section distributions in Z-boson transverse momentum p$_T$ and rapidity y are measured in the pole region, defined as 80 $<$ m $<$ 100 GeV, over the range $|y| <$ 3.6. The total uncertainty of the normalised cross-section measurements in the peak region of the p$_T$ distribution is dominated by statistical uncertainties over the full range and increases as a function of rapidity from 0.5-1.0% for $|y| <$ 2.0 to 2-7% at higher rapidities. The results for the rapidity-dependent transverse momentum distributions are compared to state-of-the-art QCD predictions, which combine in the best cases approximate N$^4$LL resummation with N$^3$LO fixed-order perturbative calculations. The differential rapidity distributions integrated over p$_T$ are even more precise, with accuracies from 0.2-0.3% for $|y| <$ 2.0 to 0.4-0.9% at higher rapidities, and are compared to fixed-order QCD predictions using the most recent parton distribution functions. The agreement between data and predictions is quite good in most cases.

10 data tables

Measured $p_T$ cross sections in full-lepton phase space for |y| < 0.4.

Measured $p_T$ cross sections in full-lepton phase space for 0.4 < |y| < 0.8.

Measured $p_T$ cross sections in full-lepton phase space for 0.8 < |y| < 1.2.

More…

Version 2
Search for a scalar or pseudoscalar dilepton resonance produced in association with a massive vector boson or top quark-antiquark pair in multilepton events at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
CMS-EXO-21-018, 2024.
Inspire Record 2759506 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132367

A search for beyond the standard model spin-0 bosons, $\phi$, that decay into pairs of electrons, muons, or tau leptons is presented. The search targets the associated production of such bosons with a W or Z gauge boson, or a top quark-antiquark pair, and uses events with three or four charged leptons, including hadronically decaying tau leptons. The proton-proton collision data set used in the analysis was collected at the LHC from 2016 to 2018 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$. The observations are consistent with the predictions from standard model processes. Upper limits are placed on the product of cross sections and branching fractions of such new particles over the mass range of 15 to 350 GeV with scalar, pseudoscalar, or Higgs-boson-like couplings, as well as on the product of coupling parameters and branching fractions. Several model-dependent exclusion limits are also presented. For a Higgs-boson-like $\phi$ model, limits are set on the mixing angle of the Higgs boson with the $\phi$ boson. For the associated production of a $\phi$ boson with a top quark-antiquark pair, limits are set on the coupling to top quarks. Finally, limits are set for the first time on a fermiophilic dilaton-like model with scalar couplings and a fermiophilic axion-like model with pseudoscalar couplings.

140 data tables

Binned representation of the control and signal regions for the combined multilepton event selection and the combined 2016–2018 data set. The control region bins follow their definitions as given in Table 1 of the paper, and the signal region bins correspond to the channels as defined by the lepton flavor composition. The normalizations of the background samples in the control regions are described in Sections 5.1 and 5.2 of the paper. All three (four) lepton events are required to have $\mathrm{Q_{\ell}=1 (0)}$, and those satisfying any of the control region requirements are removed from the signal region bins. All subsequent selections given in Tables 2 and 3 of the paper are based on events given in the signal region bins. The lower panel shows the ratio of observed events to the total expected SM background prediction (Obs/Exp), and the gray band represents the statistical uncertainties in the background prediction.

The $M_{OSSF}$ spectrum for the combined 2L1T, 2L2T, 3L, 3L1T, and 4L event selection (excluding the $\mathrm{Z\gamma}$ control region) and the combined 2016-2018 data set. All three (four) lepton events are required to have $\mathrm{Q_{\ell}=1 (0)}$. The lower panel shows the ratio of observed events to the total expected SM background prediction (Obs/Exp), and the gray band represents the statistical uncertainties in the background prediction.

Dilepton mass spectra for the low mass $W\phi($ee$)$ SR1 event selections for the combined 2016–2018 data set. The lower panel shows the ratio of observed events to the total expected SM background prediction (Obs/Exp), and the gray band represents the sum of statistical and systematic uncertainties in the background prediction. The expected background distributions and the uncertainties are shown after the data is fit under the background-only hypothesis. For illustration, two example signal hypotheses for the production and decay of a scalar and a pseudoscalar $\phi$ boson are shown, and their masses (in units of GeV) are indicated in the legend. The signals are normalized to the product of the cross section and branching fraction of 10 fb.

More…

A search for bottom-type vector-like quark pair production in dileptonic and fully hadronic final states in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-B2G-20-014, 2024.
Inspire Record 2760468 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145997

A search is described for the production of a pair of bottom-type vector-like quarks (B VLQs) with mass greater than 1000 GeV. Each B VLQ decays into a b quark and a Higgs boson, a b quark and a Z boson, or a t quark and a W boson. This analysis considers both fully hadronic final states and those containing a charged lepton pair from a Z boson decay. The products of the H $to$ bb boson decay and of the hadronic Z or W boson decays can be resolved as two distinct jets or merged into a single jet, so the final states are classified by the number of reconstructed jets. The analysis uses data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ collected in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC from 2016 to 2018. No excess over the expected background is observed. Lower limits are set on the B VLQ mass at 95% confidence level. These depend on the B VLQ branching fractions and are 1570 and 1540 GeV for 100% B $\to$ bH and 100% B $\to$ bZ, respectively. In most cases, the mass limits obtained exceed previous limits by at least 100 GeV.

23 data tables

Distributions of reconstructed VLQ mass for expected postfit background (blue histogram), signal plus background (colored lines), and observed data (black points) for events in the hadronic 4-jet bHbH channel.

Distributions of reconstructed VLQ mass for expected postfit background (blue histogram), signal plus background (colored lines), and observed data (black points) for events in the hadronic 4-jet bHbZ channel.

Distributions of reconstructed VLQ mass for expected postfit background (blue histogram), signal plus background (colored lines), and observed data (black points) for events in the hadronic 4-jet bZbZ channel.

More…

Search for nearly mass-degenerate higgsinos using low-momentum mildly-displaced tracks in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Aakvaag, Erlend ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; et al.
CERN-EP-2024-012, 2024.
Inspire Record 2751400 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146944

Higgsinos with masses near the electroweak scale can solve the hierarchy problem and provide a dark matter candidate, while detecting them at the LHC remains challenging if their mass-splitting is $\mathcal{O}$(1 GeV). This Letter presents a novel search for nearly mass-degenerate higgsinos in events with an energetic jet, missing transverse momentum, and a low-momentum track with a significant transverse impact parameter using 140 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment. For the first time since LEP, a range of mass-splittings between the lightest charged and neutral higgsinos from 0.3 GeV to 0.9 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level, with a maximum reach of approximately 170 GeV in the higgsino mass.

31 data tables

Number of expected and observed data events in the SR (top), and the model-independent upper limits obtained from their consistency (bottom). The symbol $\tau_{\ell}$ ($\tau_{h}$) refers to fully-leptonic (hadron-involved) tau decays. The Others category includes contributions from minor background processes including $t\bar{t}$, single-top and diboson. The individual uncertainties can be correlated and do not necessarily sum up in quadrature to the total uncertainty. The bottom section shows the observed 95% CL upper limits on the visible cross-section ($\langle\epsilon\sigma\rangle_{\mathrm{obs}}^{95}$), on the number of generic signal events ($S_{\mathrm{obs}}^{95}$) as well as the expected limit ($S_{\mathrm{exp}}^{95}$) given the expected number (and $\pm 1\sigma$ deviations from the expectation) of background events.

Expected (dashed black line) and observed (solid red line) 95% CL exclusion limits on the higgsino simplified model being considered. These are shown with $\pm 1\sigma_{\mathrm{exp}}$ (yellow band) from experimental systematic and statistical uncertainties, and with $\pm 1\sigma_{\mathrm{theory}}^{\mathrm{SUSY}}$ (red dotted lines) from signal cross-section uncertainties, respectively. The limits set by the latest ATLAS searches using the soft lepton and disappearing track signatures are illustrated by the blue and green regions, respectively, while the limit imposed by the LEP experiments is shown in gray. The dot-dashed gray line indicates the predicted mass-splitting for the pure higgsino scenario.

Expected (dashed black line) and observed (solid red line) 95% CL exclusion limits on the higgsino simplified model being considered. These are shown with $\pm 1\sigma_{\mathrm{exp}}$ (yellow band) from experimental systematic and statistical uncertainties, and with $\pm 1\sigma_{\mathrm{theory}}^{\mathrm{SUSY}}$ (red dotted lines) from signal cross-section uncertainties, respectively. The limits set by the latest ATLAS searches using the soft lepton and disappearing track signatures are illustrated by the blue and green regions, respectively, while the limit imposed by the LEP experiments is shown in gray. The dot-dashed gray line indicates the predicted mass-splitting for the pure higgsino scenario.

More…

Search for fractionally charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-EXO-19-006, 2024.
Inspire Record 2758805 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146758

A search is presented for fractionally charged particles with charge below 1$e$, using their small energy loss in the tracking detector as a key variable to observe a signal. The analyzed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions collected at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV in 2016-2018 at the CERN LHC. This is the first search at the LHC for new particles with charges between $e/$3 and $e$. Masses up to 640 GeV and charges as low as $e/$3 are excluded at 95% confidence level. These are the most stringent limits to date for the considered Drell-Yan-like production mode.

9 data tables

Signal yields for two charge scenarios considered in the analysis, as well as their associated uncertainties.

Signal yields for two charge scenarios considered in the analysis, as well as their associated uncertainties.

Signal yields for two charge scenarios considered in the analysis, as well as their associated uncertainties.

More…

Version 2
Observation of WW$\gamma$ production and search for H$\gamma$ production in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-SMP-22-006, 2023.
Inspire Record 2709669 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.144361

The observation of WW$\gamma$ production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ is presented. The observed (expected) significance is 5.6 (4.7) standard deviations. Events are selected by requiring exactly two leptons (one electron and one muon) of opposite charge, moderate missing transverse momentum, and a photon. The measured fiducial cross section for WW$\gamma$ is 6.0 $\pm$ 0.8 (stat) $\pm$ 0.7 (syst) $\pm$ 0.6 (modeling) fb, in agreement with the next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics prediction. The analysis is extended with a search for the associated production of the Higgs boson and a photon, which is generated by a coupling of the Higgs boson to light quarks. The result is used to constrain the Higgs boson couplings to light quarks.

7 data tables

The Measured and theoretical cross sections in the fiducial volume.

The number of events in data and simulations after the fit to data in the Top$\gamma$ CR, SS$WW\gamma$ CR, and signal region.

Upper limits on the cross section and derived limits in terms of Yukawa coupling at 95% CL for Hγ production initiated by light quarks.

More…