Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-HIN-23-003, 2024.
Inspire Record 2747107 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146016

Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 $\pm$ 0.002 (stat) $\pm$ 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 $\pm$ 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions.

3 data tables

The event fraction distribution as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$, within the kinematic range of $|\eta|<0.5$ and extrapolated to the full $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ range, in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV. The $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$ value is normalized by its value in the $0-5\%$ centrality class ($N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{0}$).

The average transverse momentum of charged particles, $\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$, as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$, within the kinematic range of $|\eta|<0.5$ and extrapolated to the full $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ range in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV. Both $\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$ and $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$ are normalized by their values in the $0-5\%$ centrality class (${\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle}^{0}$ and $N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{0}$).

The speed of sound, $c^2_{\mathrm{s}}$, as a function of the effective temperature, $T_{\mathrm{eff}}$, with the CMS data point obtained from ultra-central PbPb collision data at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV.


Skewness and kurtosis of mean transverse momentum fluctuations at the LHC energies

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-187, 2023.
Inspire Record 2692420 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.147284

The first measurements of skewness and kurtosis of mean transverse momentum ($\langle p_\mathrm{T}\rangle$) fluctuations are reported in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV, Xe$-$Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$$=$ 5.44 TeV and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 5.02$ TeV using the ALICE detector. The measurements are carried out as a function of system size $\langle \mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta\rangle_{|\eta|<0.5}^{1/3}$, using charged particles with transverse momentum ($p_\mathrm{T}$) and pseudorapidity ($\eta$), in the range $0.2 < p_\mathrm{T} < 3.0$ GeV/$c$ and $|\eta| < 0.8$, respectively. In Pb$-$Pb and Xe$-$Xe collisions, positive skewness is observed in the fluctuations of $\langle p_\mathrm{T}\rangle$ for all centralities, which is significantly larger than what would be expected in the scenario of independent particle emission. This positive skewness is considered a crucial consequence of the hydrodynamic evolution of the hot and dense nuclear matter created in heavy-ion collisions. Furthermore, similar observations of positive skewness for minimum bias pp collisions are also reported here. Kurtosis of $\langle p_\mathrm{T}\rangle$ fluctuations is found to be in good agreement with the kurtosis of Gaussian distribution, for most central Pb$-$Pb collisions. Hydrodynamic model calculations with MUSIC using Monte Carlo Glauber initial conditions are able to explain the measurements of both skewness and kurtosis qualitatively from semicentral to central collisions in Pb--Pb system. Color reconnection mechanism in PYTHIA8 model seems to play a pivotal role in capturing the qualitative behavior of the same measurements in pp collisions.

9 data tables

Standardized skewness of $\langle p_\mathrm{T}\rangle$ as a function of $\langle\mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta\rangle^{1/3}_{|\eta|<0.5}$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV.

Standardized skewness of $\langle p_\mathrm{T}\rangle$ as a function of $\langle\mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta\rangle^{1/3}_{|\eta|<0.5}$ in Xe$-$Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

Standardized skewness of $\langle p_\mathrm{T}\rangle$ as a function of $\langle\mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta\rangle^{1/3}_{|\eta|<0.5}$ in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

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Higher-order moments of the elliptic flow distribution in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
JHEP 2024 (2024) 106, 2024.
Inspire Record 2724506 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132638

The hydrodynamic flow-like behavior of charged hadrons in high-energy lead-lead collisions is studied through multiparticle correlations. The elliptic anisotropy values based on different orders of multiparticle cumulants, $v_{2}\{2k\}$, are measured up to the tenth order ($k$ = 5) as functions of the collision centrality at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb$^{-1}$. A hierarchy is observed between the coefficients, with $v_{2}\{2\} > v_{2}\{4\} \gtrsim v_{2}\{6\} \gtrsim v_{2}\{8\} \gtrsim v_{2}\{10\}$. Based on these results, centrality-dependent moments for the fluctuation-driven event-by-event $v_{2}$ distribution are determined, including the skewness, kurtosis and, for the first time, superskewness. Assuming a hydrodynamic expansion of the produced medium, these moments directly probe the initial-state geometry in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions.

8 data tables

The $v_2\{2k\}$ ($k = 1, ..., 5$) values as functions of centrality in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02~\textrm{Te}\textrm{V}$. The measurement is performed with charged particles within the acceptance region.

The relative differences $(v_2\{2k\}-v_2\{10\})/v_2\{10\}$ ($k = 1, ..., 4$) as functions of centrality in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02~\textrm{Te}\textrm{V}$. The measurement is performed with charged particles within the acceptance region.

The $h_1$ and the $h_2$ hydrodynamic probes as functions of centrality in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02~\textrm{Te}\textrm{V}$. The measurement is performed with charged particles within the acceptance region.

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First measurement of the $|t|$-dependence of incoherent J/$\psi$ photonuclear production

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-080, 2023.
Inspire Record 2658375 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146880

The first measurement of the cross section for incoherent photonuclear production of J/$\psi$ vector meson as a function of the Mandelstam $|t|$ variable is presented. The measurement was carried out with the ALICE detector at midrapidity, $|y|<0.8$, using ultra-peripheral collisions of Pb nuclei at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV. This rapidity interval corresponds to a Bjorken-$x$ range $(0.3$$-$$1.4)\times 10^{-3}$. Cross sections are reported in five $|t|$ intervals in the range $0.04<|t|<1$~GeV$^2$ and compared to the predictions of different models. Models that ignore quantum fluctuations of the gluon density in the colliding hadron predict a $|t|$-dependence of the cross section much steeper than in data. The inclusion of such fluctuations in the same models provides a better description of the data.

1 data table

|t|-dependence of incoherent J/Psi photonuclear production cross section in Pb-Pb UPCs measured at midrapidity, |y| < 0.8


Pseudorapidity dependence of anisotropic flow and its decorrelations using long-range multiparticle correlations in Pb-Pb and Xe-Xe collisions

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 850 (2024) 138477, 2024.
Inspire Record 2679248 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146722

The pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic ($v_2$), triangular ($v_3$), and quadrangular ($v_4$) flow coefficients of charged particles measured in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV and in Xe-Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.44$ TeV with ALICE at the LHC are presented. The measurements are performed in the pseudorapidity range $-3.5 < \eta < 5$ for various centrality intervals using two- and multi-particle cumulants with the subevent method. The flow probability density function (p.d.f.) is studied with the ratio of flow coefficient $v_2$ calculated with four- and two-particle cumulant, and suggests that the variance of flow p.d.f. is independent of pseudorapidity. The decorrelation of the flow vector in the longitudinal direction is probed using two-particle correlations. The results measured with respect to different reference regions in pseudorapidity exhibit differences, argued to be a result of saturating decorrelation effect above a certain pseudorapidity separation, in contrast to previous publications which assign this observation to non-flow effects. The results are compared to $3+1$ dimensional hydrodynamic and the AMPT transport model calculations. Neither of the models is able to simultaneously describe the pseudorapidity dependence of measurements of anisotropic flow and its fluctuations. The results presented in this work highlight shortcomings in our current understanding of initial conditions and subsequent system expansion in the longitudinal direction. Therefore, they provide input for its improvement.

15 data tables

$v_{2}\{2\}$ versus $\eta$ for $x^{\pm}$ in $\mathrm{Pb}-\mathrm{Pb}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.023\,\mathrm{Te\!V}$

$v_{3}\{2\}$ versus $\eta$ for $x^{\pm}$ in $\mathrm{Pb}-\mathrm{Pb}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.023\,\mathrm{Te\!V}$

$v_{4}\{2\}$ versus $\eta$ for $x^{\pm}$ in $\mathrm{Pb}-\mathrm{Pb}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.023\,\mathrm{Te\!V}$

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Measurements of the suppression and correlations of dijets in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_\text{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, D.C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 107 (2023) 054908, 2023.
Inspire Record 2075431 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145875

Studies of the correlations of the two highest transverse momentum (leading) jets in individual Pb+Pb collision events can provide information about the mechanism of jet quenching by the hot and dense matter created in such collisions. In Pb+Pb and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_\text{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV, measurements of the leading dijet transverse momentum ($p_{\mathrm{T}}$) correlations are presented. Additionally, measurements in Pb+Pb collisions of the dijet pair nuclear modification factors projected along leading and subleading jet $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ are made. The measurements are performed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC with 260 pb$^{-1}$ of pp data collected in 2017 and 2.2 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb data collected in 2015 and 2018. An unfolding procedure is applied to the two-dimensional leading and subleading jet $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ distributions to account for experimental effects in the measurement of both jets. Results are provided for dijets with leading jet $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ greater than 100 GeV. Measurements of the dijet-yield-normalized $x_{\mathrm{J}}$ distributions in Pb+Pb collisions show an increased fraction of imbalanced jets compared to pp collisions; these measurements are in agreement with previous measurements of the same quantity at 2.76 TeV in the overlapping kinematic range. Measurements of the absolutely-normalized dijet rate in Pb+Pb and pp collisions are also presented, and show that balanced dijets are significantly more suppressed than imbalanced dijets in Pb+Pb collisions. It is observed in the measurements of the pair nuclear modification factors that the subleading jets are significantly suppressed relative to leading jets with $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ between 100 and 316 GeV for all centralities in Pb+Pb collisions.

23 data tables

absolutely normalized dijet cross sections from pp collisions

absolutely normalized dijet yields scaled by 1/<TAA> in 0-10% central PbPb collisions

absolutely normalized dijet yields scaled by 1/<TAA> in 10-20% central PbPb collisions

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Prompt and non-prompt J$/\psi$ production at midrapidity in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca ; et al.
JHEP 02 (2024) 066, 2024.
Inspire Record 2692201 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146723

The transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) and centrality dependence of the nuclear modification factor $R_{\rm AA}$ of prompt and non-prompt J$/\psi$, the latter originating from the weak decays of beauty hadrons, have been measured by the ALICE collaboration in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The measurements are carried out through the ${\rm e}^{+}{\rm e}^{-}$ decay channel at midrapidity ($|y| < 0.9$) in the transverse momentum region $1.5 < p_{\rm T} < 10$ GeV/$c$. Both prompt and non-prompt J$/\psi$ measurements indicate a significant suppression for $p_{\rm T} >$ 5 GeV/$c$, which becomes stronger with increasing collision centrality. The results are consistent with similar LHC measurements in the overlapping $p_{\rm T}$ intervals, and cover the kinematic region down to $p_{\rm T}$ = 1.5 GeV/$c$ at midrapidity, not accessible by other LHC experiments. The suppression of prompt J$/\psi$ in central and semicentral collisions exhibits a decreasing trend towards lower transverse momentum, described within uncertainties by models implementing J$/\psi$ production from recombination of c and $\overline{\rm c}$ quarks produced independently in different partonic scatterings. At high transverse momentum, transport models including quarkonium dissociation are able to describe the suppression for prompt J$/\psi$. For non-prompt J$/\psi$, the suppression predicted by models including both collisional and radiative processes for the computation of the beauty-quark energy loss inside the quark$-$gluon plasma is consistent with measurements within uncertainties.

16 data tables

Non-prompt J/$\psi$ fraction as a function of transverse momentum in Pb-Pb at 5.02 TeV, centrality 0-10%

Non-prompt J/$\psi$ fraction as a function of transverse momentum in Pb-Pb at 5.02 TeV, centrality 10-30%

Non-prompt J/$\psi$ fraction as a function of transverse momentum in Pb-Pb at 5.02 TeV, centrality 30-50%

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Measurement of spin-orbital angular momentum interactions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 125 (2020) 012301, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762362 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127978

The first evidence of spin alignment of vector mesons ($K^{*0}$ and $\phi$) in heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is reported. The spin density matrix element $\rho_{00}$ is measured at midrapidity ($|y| <$ 0.5) in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy ($\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$) of 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector. $\rho_{00}$ values are found to be less than 1/3 (1/3 implies no spin alignment) at low transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T} <$ 2 GeV/$c$) for $K^{*0}$ and $\phi$ at a level of 3$\sigma$ and 2$\sigma$, respectively. No significant spin alignment is observed for the $K^0_S$ meson (spin = 0) in Pb-Pb collisions and for the vector mesons in $pp$ collisions. The measured spin alignment is unexpectedly large but qualitatively consistent with the expectation from models which attribute it to a polarization of quarks in the presence of angular momentum in heavy-ion collisions and a subsequent hadronization by the process of recombination.

28 data tables

$cos\theta^{*}$ distribution of $\rm{K}^{*0}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson w.r.t. Event Plane in transverse momentum range 0.8-1.2 GeV/$c$ measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV.

$cos\theta^{*}$ distribution of $\phi$ meson w.r.t. Event Plane in transverse momentum range 0.5-0.7 GeV/$c$ measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV.

$cos\theta^{*}$ distribution of $\rm{K}^{*0}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson w.r.t. Production Plane in transverse momentum range 0.4-1.2 GeV/$c$ measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV.

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Charged-particle production as a function of the relative transverse activity classifier in pp, p$-$Pb, and Pb$-$Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca ; et al.
JHEP 01 (2024) 199, 2024.
Inspire Record 2709103 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146104

Measurements of charged-particle production in pp, p$-$Pb, and Pb$-$Pb collisions in the toward, away, and transverse regions with the ALICE detector are discussed. These regions are defined event-by-event relative to the azimuthal direction of the charged trigger particle, which is the reconstructed particle with the largest transverse momentum ($p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm trig}$) in the range $8<p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm trig}<15$ GeV$/c$. The toward and away regions contain the primary and recoil jets, respectively; both regions are accompanied by the underlying event (UE). In contrast, the transverse region perpendicular to the direction of the trigger particle is dominated by the so-called UE dynamics, and includes also contributions from initial- and final-state radiation. The relative transverse activity classifier, $R_{\mathrm{T}}=N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{\mathrm{T}}/\langle N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$, is used to group events according to their UE activity, where $N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{\mathrm{T}}$ is the charged-particle multiplicity per event in the transverse region and $\langle N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$ is the mean value over the whole analysed sample. The energy dependence of the $R_{\mathrm{T}}$ distributions in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=2.76$, 5.02, 7, and 13 TeV is reported, exploring the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling properties of the multiplicity distributions. The first measurements of charged-particle $p_{\rm T}$ spectra as a function of $R_{\mathrm{T}}$ in the three azimuthal regions in pp, p$-$Pb, and Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV are also reported. Data are compared with predictions obtained from the event generators PYTHIA 8 and EPOS LHC. This set of measurements is expected to contribute to the understanding of the origin of collective-like effects in small collision systems (pp and p$-$Pb).

28 data tables

$R_\mathrm{T}$ distribution using events with trigger particles $5<p_\mathrm{T}^\mathrm{trig}<40~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in the pseudorapidity range of $|\eta|<0.8$ and with $p_\mathrm{T}>0.5~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=2.76~\mathrm{TeV}$

$R_\mathrm{T}$ distribution using events with trigger particles $5<p_\mathrm{T}^\mathrm{trig}<40~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in the pseudorapidity range of $|\eta|<0.8$ and with $p_\mathrm{T}>0.5~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=5.02~\mathrm{TeV}$

$R_\mathrm{T}$ distribution using events with trigger particles $5<p_\mathrm{T}^\mathrm{trig}<40~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in the pseudorapidity range of $|\eta|<0.8$ and with $p_\mathrm{T}>0.5~\mathrm{GeV}/c$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7~\mathrm{TeV}$

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System size dependence of hadronic rescattering effect at LHC energies

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-175, 2023.
Inspire Record 2691823 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146076

The first measurements of $\mathrm{K^{*}(892)^{0}}$ resonance production as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in Xe$-$Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=$ 5.44 TeV and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 5.02 TeV using the ALICE detector are presented. The resonance is reconstructed at midrapidity ($|y|< 0.5$) using the hadronic decay channel $\mathrm{K^{*0}} \rightarrow \mathrm{K^{\pm} \pi^{\mp}}$. Measurements of transverse-momentum integrated yield, mean transverse-momentum, nuclear modification factor of $\mathrm{K^{*0}}$, and yield ratios of resonance to stable hadron ($\mathrm{K^{*0}}$/K) are compared across different collision systems (pp, p$-$Pb, Xe$-$Xe, and Pb$-$Pb) at similar collision energies to investigate how the production of $\mathrm{K^{*0}}$ resonances depends on the size of the system formed in these collisions. The hadronic rescattering effect is found to be independent of the size of colliding systems and mainly driven by the produced charged-particle multiplicity, which is a proxy of the volume of produced matter at the chemical freeze-out. In addition, the production yields of $\mathrm{K^{*0}}$ in Xe$-$Xe collisions are utilized to constrain the dependence of the kinetic freeze-out temperature on the system size using HRG-PCE model.

27 data tables

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\rm{K}^{*}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson measured in pp collisions at \sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV for 0-1\% multiplicity class.

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\rm{K}^{*}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson measured in pp collisions at \sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV for 1-5\% multiplicity class.

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\rm{K}^{*}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson measured in pp collisions at \sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV for 5-10\% multiplicity class.

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