Version 2
Beam-Energy Dependence of Directed Flow of $\Lambda$, $\bar{\Lambda}$, $K^\pm$, $K^0_s$ and $\phi$ in Au+Au Collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; Adkins, Kevin ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 120 (2018) 062301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1618747 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101750

Rapidity-odd directed flow measurements at midrapidity are presented for $\Lambda$, $\bar{\Lambda}$, $K^\pm$, $K^0_s$ and $\phi$ at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV in Au+Au collisions recorded by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements greatly expand the scope of data available to constrain models with differing prescriptions for the equation of state of quantum chromodynamics. Results show good sensitivity for testing a picture where flow is assumed to be imposed before hadron formation and the observed particles are assumed to form via coalescence of constituent quarks. The pattern of departure from a coalescence-inspired sum-rule can be a valuable new tool for probing the collision dynamics.

33 data tables

Directed flow $v_1$ as a function of rapidity $y$ for $K^{+}$ in 5%–10% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV.

Directed flow $v_1$ as a function of rapidity $y$ for $K^{+}$ in 10%–40% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV.

Directed flow $v_1$ as a function of rapidity $y$ for $K^{+}$ in 10%–40% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 62.4 and 200 GeV.

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Version 2
Global $\Lambda$ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions: evidence for the most vortical fluid

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Nature 548 (2017) 62-65, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510474 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77494

The extreme temperatures and energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy nuclei produce a state of matter with surprising fluid properties. Non-central collisions have angular momentum on the order of 1000$\hbar$, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to properly describe the fluid. It is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have so far been found. Here we present the first measurement of an alignment between the angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles, revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is by far the most vortical system ever observed. We find that $\Lambda$ and $\overline{\Lambda}$ hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few percent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. A previous measurement that reported a null result at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our new observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide the first experimental access to the vortical structure of the "perfect fluid" created in a heavy ion collision. They should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that quantitatively connect observations to the theory of the Strong Force. Our results extend the recent discovery of hydrodynamic spin alignment to the subatomic realm.

2 data tables

Lambda and AntiLambda polarization as a function of collision energy. A 0.8% error on the alpha value used in the paper is corrected in this table. Systematic error bars include those associated with particle identification (negligible), uncertainty in the value of the hyperon decay parameter (2%) and reaction plane resolution (2%) and detector efficiency corrections (4%). The dominant systematic error comes from statistical fluctuations of the estimated combinatoric background under the (anti-)$\Lambda$ mass peak.

Lambda and AntiLambda polarization as a function of collision energy calculated using the new $\alpha_\Lambda=0.732$ updated on PDG2020. Systematic error bars include those associated with particle identification (negligible), uncertainty in the value of the hyperon decay parameter (2%) and reaction plane resolution (2%) and detector efficiency corrections (4%). The dominant systematic error comes from statistical fluctuations of the estimated combinatoric background under the (anti-)$\Lambda$ mass peak.


Inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7 - 39 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Agakishiev, G. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 86 (2012) 054908, 2012.
Inspire Record 1119620 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102951

A systematic study is presented for centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and pseudorapidity ($\eta$) dependence of the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow ($v_2$) at midrapidity($|\eta| < 1.0$) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV. The results obtained with different methods, including correlations with the event plane reconstructed in a region separated by a large pseudorapidity gap and 4-particle cumulants ($v_2{4}$), are presented in order to investigate non-flow correlations and $v_2$ fluctuations. We observe that the difference between $v_2{2}$ and $v_2{4}$ is smaller at the lower collision energies. Values of $v_2$, scaled by the initial coordinate space eccentricity, $v_{2}/\varepsilon$, as a function of $p_T$ are larger in more central collisions, suggesting stronger collective flow develops in more central collisions, similar to the results at higher collision energies. These results are compared to measurements at higher energies at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 62.4 and 200 GeV) and at the Large Hadron Collider (Pb + Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV). The $v_2(p_T)$ values for fixed $p_T$ rise with increasing collision energy within the $p_T$ range studied ($< 2 {\rm GeV}/c$). A comparison to viscous hydrodynamic simulations is made to potentially help understand the energy dependence of $v_{2}(p_{T})$. We also compare the $v_2$ results to UrQMD and AMPT transport model calculations, and physics implications on the dominance of partonic versus hadronic phases in the system created at Beam Energy Scan (BES) energies are discussed.

12 data tables

The event plane resolutions for Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV as a function of collision centrality.

The comparison of $v_2$ as a function of $p_T$ between GF-cumulant and Q-cumulant methods in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 39 GeV.

The $p_T$ (> 0.2 GeV/c) and $\eta$ ($∣\eta∣$ < 1) integrated $v_2$ as a function of collision centrality for Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV, 11.5 GeV, 19.6 GeV, 27 GeV and 39 GeV.

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Beam energy dependence of rapidity-even dipolar flow in Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 784 (2018) 26-32, 2018.
Inspire Record 1669807 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100168

New measurements of directed flow for charged hadrons, characterized by the Fourier coefficient \vone, are presented for transverse momenta $\mathrm{p_T}$, and centrality intervals in Au+Au collisions recorded by the STAR experiment for the center-of-mass energy range $\mathrm{\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}} = 7.7 - 200$ GeV. The measurements underscore the importance of momentum conservation and the characteristic dependencies on $\mathrm{\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}}$, centrality and $\mathrm{p_T}$ are consistent with the expectations of geometric fluctuations generated in the initial stages of the collision, acting in concert with a hydrodynamic-like expansion. The centrality and $\mathrm{p_T}$ dependencies of $\mathrm{v^{even}_{1}}$, as well as an observed similarity between its excitation function and that for $\mathrm{v_3}$, could serve as constraints for initial-state models. The $\mathrm{v^{even}_{1}}$ excitation function could also provide an important supplement to the flow measurements employed for precision extraction of the temperature dependence of the specific shear viscosity.

5 data tables

$v_{11}$ vs. $p_{T}^{b}$ for several selections of $p_{T}^{a}$ for 0-5 central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 200$ GeV. The curve shows the result of the simultaneous fit.

Extracted values of $v^{even}_{1}$ vs. $p_{T}$ for 0-10 central Au+Au collisions for several values of $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ as indicated; the $v^{even}_{1}$ values are obtained via fits. The curve in panel (a) shows the result from a viscous hydrodynamically based predictions.

(a) Centrality dependence of $v^{even}_{1}$ for $0.4 \lt p_{T} \lt 0.7$ GeV/c for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 200, 39$ and $19.6$ GeV; (b) $K$ vs. $\langle N_{ch} \rangle^{-1}$ for the $v^{even}_{1}$ values shown in (a). The $\langle N_{ch} \rangle$ values correspond to the centrality intervals indicated in panel (a).

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K/pi Fluctuations at Relativistic Energies

The STAR collaboration Abelev, B.I. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 103 (2009) 092301, 2009.
Inspire Record 810902 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98971

We report results for $K/\pi$ fluctuations from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Our results for $K/\pi$ fluctuations in central collisions show little dependence on the incident energies studied and are on the same order as results observed by NA49 at the Super Proton Synchrotron in central Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 12.3 and 17.3 GeV. We also report results for the collision centrality dependence of $K/\pi$ fluctuations as well as results for $K^{+}/\pi^{+}$, $K^{-}/\pi^{-}$, $K^{+}/\pi^{-}$, and $K^{-}/\pi^{+}$ fluctuations. We observe that the $K/\pi$ fluctuations scale with the multiplicity density, $dN/d\eta$, rather than the number of participating nucleons.

5 data tables

(Color online) The event-by-event $K/\pi$ ratio for 200 GeV Au+Au central collisions (0-5%) compared with the same quantity calculated from mixed events. The inset shows the ratio of the distribution from real events to that from mixed events. The errors shown are statistical.

(Color online) The event-by-event $K/\pi$ ratio for 200 GeV Au+Au central collisions (0-5%) compared with the same quantity calculated from mixed events. The inset shows the ratio of the distribution from real events to that from mixed events. The errors shown are statistical.

(Color online) Measured dynamical $K/\pi$ fluctuations in terms of σdyn for central collisions (0 - 5%) of 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV Au+Au compared with the central collisions (0 - 3.5%) of Pb+Pb from NA49 [7] and the statistical hadronization (SH) model of Ref. [14]. The solid line represents the relationship of the incident energy dependence of $\sigma_{dyn}$ in central collisions to the collision centrality dependence of $\nu_{dyn,K\pi}$ at higher energies. Both statistical (vertical line with horizontal bar) and systematic (no vertical line) error bars are shown for the experimental data.

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Transverse energy production and charged-particle multiplicity at midrapidity in various systems from $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=7.7$ to 200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 024901, 2016.
Inspire Record 1394433 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96601

Measurements of midrapidity charged particle multiplicity distributions, $dN_{\rm ch}/d\eta$, and midrapidity transverse-energy distributions, $dE_T/d\eta$, are presented for a variety of collision systems and energies. Included are distributions for Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$, 130, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 14.5, and 7.7 GeV, Cu$+$Cu collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ and 62.4 GeV, Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV, U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193$ GeV, $d$$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV, $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV, and $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. Centrality-dependent distributions at midrapidity are presented in terms of the number of nucleon participants, $N_{\rm part}$, and the number of constituent quark participants, $N_{q{\rm p}}$. For all $A$$+$$A$ collisions down to $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=7.7$ GeV, it is observed that the midrapidity data are better described by scaling with $N_{q{\rm p}}$ than scaling with $N_{\rm part}$. Also presented are estimates of the Bjorken energy density, $\varepsilon_{\rm BJ}$, and the ratio of $dE_T/d\eta$ to $dN_{\rm ch}/d\eta$, the latter of which is seen to be constant as a function of centrality for all systems.

28 data tables

Transverse energy in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

Multiplicity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

Transverse energy in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 130 GeV

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Bulk Properties of the Medium Produced in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions from the Beam Energy Scan Program

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 96 (2017) 044904, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510593 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76977

We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV using identified hadrons ($\pi^\pm$, $K^\pm$, $p$ and $\bar{p}$) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity ($|y|<$0.1) results for multiplicity densities $dN/dy$, average transverse momenta $\langle p_T \rangle$ and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed in heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of energy (or baryon chemical potential) at RHIC.

106 data tables

The average number of participating nucleons (⟨Npart⟩) for various collision centralities in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7–39 GeV.

Midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) transverse momentum spectra for (b) π- in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 GeV for different centralities. The spectra for centralities other than 0–5% are scaled for clarity as shown in the figure. The curves represent the Bose-Einstein, mT -exponential, and double-exponential function fits to 0–5% central data for pions, kaons, and (anti)protons, respectively. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic added in quadrature.

Midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) transverse momentum spectra for (a) π+ in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 GeV for different centralities. The spectra for centralities other than 0–5% are scaled for clarity as shown in the figure. The curves represent the Bose-Einstein, mT -exponential, and double-exponential function fits to 0–5% central data for pions, kaons, and (anti)protons, respectively. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic added in quadrature.

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Charged particle multiplicities in nuclear collisions at 200-GeV/N

The NA35 collaboration Bächler, J. ; Bartke, J. ; Bialkowska, H. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 51 (1991) 157-162, 1991.
Inspire Record 320907 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14983

Data on multiplicities of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon are presented. It is shown that the mean multiplicity of negative particles is proportional to the mean number of nucleons participating in the collision both for nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions. The apparent consistency of pion multiplicity data with the assumption of an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions is critically discussed.

4 data tables

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Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 113 (2014) 052302, 2014.
Inspire Record 1288917 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73457

Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect (CME). The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this paper, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39 and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy, and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. The implications of these results for the CME will be discussed.

15 data tables

The three-point correlator, $\gamma$, as a function of centrality for Au+Au collisions at 62.4 GeV.

The three-point correlator, $\gamma$, as a function of centrality for Au+Au collisions at 39 GeV.

The three-point correlator, $\gamma$, as a function of centrality for Au+Au collisions at 27 GeV.

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Inclusive Strange Particle Production in $\pi^+ p$ Interactions at 32-{GeV}/$c$

Azhinenko, I.V. ; Belokopytov, Yu.A. ; Borovikov, A.A. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 165 (1980) 1-18, 1980.
Inspire Record 141734 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.8000

The production of K s 0 , Λ and Λ is measured in π + p interactions at 32 GeV/ c . The total inclusive cross sections are found to be 2.07±0.14, 1.00±0.10 and 0.14±0.04 mb, respectively. The energy dependence of total inclusive cross sections and inclusive distributions is discussed and a comparison is made with p, p , K + and K − induced reactions. We find that the factorization hypothesis is satisfied for the inclusive reactions π + p→ Λ X and K + p→ Λ X. Multi-strange-particle production is similar in π + p and K + p interactions at 32 GeV/ c . There is evidence for beam fragmentation in Λ production. The hierarchy of Λ inclusive cross sections in p , K + , π + and K − induced reactions at 32 GeV/ c is qualitatively explained by a quark recombination model. The cross sections for inclusive K ∗ + (892) and Σ + (1385) production in 32 GeV/ c π + p interactions are 1.07±0.57 mb and 0.19±0.08 mb, respectively.

12 data tables

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