Measurements of multiparticle correlations in $d$$+$Au collisions at 200, 62.4, 39, and 19.6 GeV and $p$$+$Au collisions at 200 GeV and implications for collective behavior

The PHENIX collaboration Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; Alfred, M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 120 (2018) 062302, 2018.
Inspire Record 1610655 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.151393

Recently, multiparticle-correlation measurements of relativistic $p/d/^3$He$+$Au, $p$$+$Pb, and even $p$$+$$p$ collisions have shown surprising collective signatures. Here we present beam-energy-scan measurements of 2-, 4-, and 6-particle angular correlations in $d$$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200, 62.4, 39, and 19.6 GeV. We also present measurements of 2- and 4-particle angular correlations in $p$$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV. We find the 4-particle cumulant to be real-valued for $d$$+$Au collisions at all four energies. We also find that the 4-particle cumulant in $p$$+$Au has the opposite sign as that in $d$$+$Au, indicating that the correlations are geometrical and therefore collective in origin. Further we find that the 6-particle cumulant agrees with the 4-particle cumulant in $d$$+$Au collisions at 200 GeV, which indicates that nonflow effects are subdominant and provides strong evidence of collectivity.

15 data tables

Components $\langle\langle$4$\rangle\rangle$ and 2$\langle\langle$2$\rangle\rangle^{2}$ and cumulant $c_2${4} = $\langle\langle$4$\rangle\rangle$ - 2$\langle\langle$2$\rangle\rangle^{2}$ as a function of $N^{FVTX}_{tracks}$. (a) and (b) show the components and cumulant, respectively, in $p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. (c) and (d) show the components and cumulant, respectively, in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. (b) and (d) also show the cumulant as measured in AMPT for $p$+Au and $d$+Au, respectively, indicated by the green line. The shaded green band indicates the statistical uncertainty on the AMPT values.

Components $\langle\langle$4$\rangle\rangle$ and 2$\langle\langle$2$\rangle\rangle^{2}$ and cumulant $c_2${4} = $\langle\langle$4$\rangle\rangle$ - 2$\langle\langle$2$\rangle\rangle^{2}$ as a function of $N^{FVTX}_{tracks}$. (a) and (b) show the components and cumulant, respectively, in $p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. (c) and (d) show the components and cumulant, respectively, in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. (b) and (d) also show the cumulant as measured in AMPT for $p$+Au and $d$+Au, respectively, indicated by the green line. The shaded green band indicates the statistical uncertainty on the AMPT values.

$v_2${2}, $v_2${2, |$\Delta\eta$| > 2}, and $v_2${4} as a function of $N^{FVTX}_{tracks}$ in $d$+Au collisions with $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= (a) 200 GeV, (b) 62.4 GeV, (c) 39 GeV, and (d) 19.6 GeV; also shown in (a) is $v_2${6} for $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 200 GeV. The arrowheads on the statistical uncertainties indicate cases where the standard 1$\sigma$ uncertainty on the $c_2${4} crosses zero. For 19.6 GeV, the combined confidence interval for $v_2${4} to be real is 79%.

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Jet structure from dihadron correlations in d + Au collisions at s(NN)**(1/2) = 200-GeV.

The PHENIX collaboration Adler, S.S. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 73 (2006) 054903, 2006.
Inspire Record 694429 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.151167

Dihadron correlations at high transverse momentum in d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV at midrapidity are measured by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). From these correlations we extract several structural characteristics of jets; the root-mean-squared (RMS) transverse momentum of fragmenting hadrons with respect to the jet sqrt(<j_T^2>), the mean sine-squared angle between the scattered partons <sin^2(phi_jj)>, and the number of particles produced within the dijet that are associated with a high-p_T particle (dN/dx_E distributions). We observe that the fragmentation characteristics of jets in d+Au collisions are very similar to those in p+p collisions and that there is also little dependence on the centrality of the d+Au collision. This is consistent with the nuclear medium having little influence on the fragmentation process. Furthermore, there is no statistically significant increase in the value of <sin^2(phi_jj)> from p+p to d+Au collisions. This constrains the amount of multiple scattering that partons undergo in the cold nuclear medium before and after a hard-collision.

46 data tables

Measured $\gamma\gamma$ invariant mass distribution for 6 < $p_T$ < 7 GeV/$c$ in central $d$+Au collisions.

The comparison of near-side yield, near-side width, far-side yield, and far-side width as a function of $p_T$ of charged hadrons. These are obtained for $\pi^{\pm}$ - $h^{\pm}$ correlation from PYTHIA, with a trigger pion of 6 - 10 GeV/$c$.

Fully corrected assorted charged pion-hadron conditional pair distributions for $d$+Au collisions centrality 0-80% and $p$+$p$ collisions. The trigger $\pi^{\pm}$s are within 5 < $p_{T,trig}$ < 10 GeV/$c$ and are correlated with hadrons with $p_{T,assoc}$ 0.4-1.0 GeV/$c$, 1.0-2.0 GeV/$c$, 2.0-3.0 GeV/$c$, and 3.0-5.0 GeV/$c$.

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Multi-particle azimuthal correlations for extracting event-by-event elliptic and triangular flow in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 99 (2019) 024903, 2019.
Inspire Record 1670164 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.150019

We present measurements of elliptic and triangular azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles detected at forward rapidity $1<|\eta|<3$ in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV, as a function of centrality. The multiparticle cumulant technique is used to obtain the elliptic flow coefficients $v_2\{2\}$, $v_2\{4\}$, $v_2\{6\}$, and $v_2\{8\}$, and triangular flow coefficients $v_3\{2\}$ and $v_3\{4\}$. Using the small-variance limit, we estimate the mean and variance of the event-by-event $v_2$ distribution from $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$. In a complementary analysis, we also use a folding procedure to study the distributions of $v_2$ and $v_3$ directly, extracting both the mean and variance. Implications for initial geometrical fluctuations and their translation into the final state momentum distributions are discussed.

21 data tables

Centrality dependence of (a) $v_2${2} and (b) $v_2${4}. (a) The red points indicate no pseudorapidity gap whereas the magenta points indicate a pseudorapidity gap of |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0. (b) The black points indicate $v_2${4} with no pseudorapidity gap, the blue points indicate a two-subevent method with |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0 but where some short-range pairs are allowed, and the red points indicate a two-subevent method with |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0 where no short-range pairs are allowed.

Centrality dependence of (a) $v_2${2} and (b) $v_2${4}. (a) The red points indicate no pseudorapidity gap whereas the magenta points indicate a pseudorapidity gap of |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0. (b) The black points indicate $v_2${4} with no pseudorapidity gap, the blue points indicate a two-subevent method with |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0 but where some short-range pairs are allowed, and the red points indicate a two-subevent method with |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0 where no short-range pairs are allowed.

Centrality dependence of (a) $v_2${2} and (b) $v_2${4}. (a) The red points indicate no pseudorapidity gap whereas the magenta points indicate a pseudorapidity gap of |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0. (b) The black points indicate $v_2${4} with no pseudorapidity gap, the blue points indicate a two-subevent method with |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0 but where some short-range pairs are allowed, and the red points indicate a two-subevent method with |$\Delta\eta$| > 2.0 where no short-range pairs are allowed.

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Systematic Study of Azimuthal Anisotropy in Cu$+$Cu and Au$+$Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 62.4$ and 200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 034913, 2015.
Inspire Record 1332240 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.150018

We have studied the dependence of azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ for inclusive and identified charged hadrons in Au$+$Au and Cu$+$Cu collisions on collision energy, species, and centrality. The values of $v_2$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ and centrality in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV and 62.4 GeV are the same within uncertainties. However, in Cu$+$Cu collisions we observe a decrease in $v_2$ values as the collision energy is reduced from 200 to 62.4 GeV. The decrease is larger in the more peripheral collisions. By examining both Au$+$Au and Cu$+$Cu collisions we find that $v_2$ depends both on eccentricity and the number of participants, $N_{\rm part}$. We observe that $v_2$ divided by eccentricity ($\varepsilon$) monotonically increases with $N_{\rm part}$ and scales as ${N_{\rm part}^{1/3}}$. The Cu$+$Cu data at 62.4 GeV falls below the other scaled $v_{2}$ data. For identified hadrons, $v_2$ divided by the number of constituent quarks $n_q$ is independent of hadron species as a function of transverse kinetic energy $KE_T=m_T-m$ between $0.1<KE_T/n_q<1$ GeV. Combining all of the above scaling and normalizations, we observe a near-universal scaling, with the exception of the Cu$+$Cu data at 62.4 GeV, of $v_2/(n_q\cdot\varepsilon\cdot N^{1/3}_{\rm part})$ vs $KE_T/n_q$ for all measured particles.

75 data tables

$v_2$ for inclusive charged hadrons in Au+Au at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

$v_2$ for inclusive charged hadrons in Au+Au at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

$v_2$ for inclusive charged hadrons in Au+Au at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

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Single identified hadron spectra from s(NN)**1/2 = 130-GeV Au + Au collisions.

The PHENIX collaboration Adcox, K. ; Adler, S.S. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 69 (2004) 024904, 2004.
Inspire Record 623413 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.149578

Transverse momentum spectra and yields of hadrons are measured by the PHENIX collaboration in Au + Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 130 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The time-of-flight resolution allows identification of pions to transverse momenta of 2 GeV/c and protons and antiprotons to 4 GeV/c. The yield of pions rises approximately linearly with the number of nucleons participating in the collision, while the number of kaons, protons, and antiprotons increases more rapidly. The shape of the momentum distribution changes between peripheral and central collisions. Simultaneous analysis of all the p_T spectra indicates radial collective expansion, consistent with predictions of hydrodynamic models. Hydrodynamic analysis of the spectra shows that the expansion velocity increases with collision centrality and collision energy. This expansion boosts the particle momenta, causing the yield from soft processes to exceed that for hard to large transverse momentum, perhaps as large as 3 GeV/c.

30 data tables

The sources of systematic uncertainties in $\langle p_T \rangle$ and $dN$/$dy$.

The $dN$/$dy$ at midrapidity for hadrons produced at midrapidity in each centrality class.

The resulting inverse slopes in MeV after fitting an $m_T$ exponential to the spectra in the range $m_T$-$m_0$ < 1 GeV in each event centrality classes. The pion resonance region is excluded in the fits. The equivalent $p_T$ fit range for each particle is shown accordingly.

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Centrality dependence of charged hadron production in deuteron+gold and nucleon+gold collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adler, S.S. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 77 (2008) 014905, 2008.
Inspire Record 758544 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146750

We present transverse momentum (p_T) spectra of charged hadrons measured in deuteron-gold and nucleon-gold collisions at \sqrts = 200 GeV for four centrality classes. Nucleon-gold collisions were selected by tagging events in which a spectator nucleon was observed in one of two forward rapidity detectors. The spectra and yields were investigated as a function of the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, \nu, suffered by deuteron nucleons. A comparison of charged particle yields to those in p+p collisions show that the yield per nucleon-nucleon collision saturates with \nu for high momentum particles. We also present the charged hadron to neutral pion ratios as a function of p_T.

21 data tables

<p>Charged hadron spectra for centrality selected d+Au collisions.</p>

<p>Charged hadron spectra for centrality selected d+Au collisions.</p>

<p>Charged hadron spectra for centrality selected d+Au collisions.</p>

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Measurements of directed, elliptic, and triangular flow in Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 94 (2016) 054910, 2016.
Inspire Record 1394897 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146752

Measurements of anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) for inclusive charged particles and identified hadrons $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p$, and $\bar{p}$ produced at midrapidity in Cu+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV are presented. The data were collected in 2012 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The particle azimuthal distributions with respect to different order symmetry planes $\Psi_n$, for $n$~=~1, 2, and 3 are studied as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ over a broad range of collisions centralities. Mass ordering, as expected from hydrodynamic flow, is observed for all three harmonics. The charged-particle results are compared to hydrodynamical and transport model calculations. We also compare these Cu$+$Au results with those in Cu$+$Cu and Au$+$Au collisions at the same $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$, and find that the $v_2$ and $v_3$, as a function of transverse momentum, follow a common scaling with $1/(\varepsilon_n N_{\rm part}^{1/3})$.

37 data tables

$v_1$ ($p_T$) for charged hadrons measured with respect to the Cu spectator neutrons at midrapidity in Cu + Au collisions at $\sqrt{S_{NN}}$ 200 GeV.

$v_2(p_T)$ for charged hadrons measured at midrapidity in Cu + Au collisions at $\sqrt{S_N{N}}$ = 200 GeV.

$v_3(p_T)$ for charged hadrons measured at midrapidity in Cu + Au collisions at $\sqrt{S_N{N}}$ = 200 GeV.

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Measurement of the relative yields of $\psi(2S)$ to $\psi(1S)$ mesons produced at forward and backward rapidity in $p$$+$$p$, $p$$+$Al, $p$$+$Au, and $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 95 (2017) 034904, 2017.
Inspire Record 1487575 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.149529

The PHENIX Collaboration has measured the ratio of the yields of $\psi(2S)$ to $\psi(1S)$ mesons produced in $p$$+$$p$, $p$$+$Al, $p$$+$Au, and $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV over the forward and backward rapidity intervals $1.2<|y|<2.2$. We find that the ratio in $p$$+$$p$ collisions is consistent with measurements at other collision energies. In collisions with nuclei, we find that in the forward ($p$-going or $^{3}$He-going) direction, the relative yield of $\psi(2S)$ mesons to $\psi(1S)$ mesons is consistent with the value measured in \pp collisions. However, in the backward (nucleus-going) direction, the $\psi(2S)$ is preferentially suppressed by a factor of $\sim$2. This suppression is attributed in some models to breakup of the weakly-bound $\psi(2S)$ through final state interactions with comoving particles, which have a higher density in the nucleus-going direction. These breakup effects may compete with color screening in a deconfined quark-gluon plasma to produce sequential suppression of excited quarkonia states.

9 data tables

Summary of the measured ratios of $\Psi$(2S)/$\Psi$(1S) mesons.

Summary of the measured ratios of $\Psi$(2S)/$\Psi$(1S) mesons.

Summary of the measured ratios of $\Psi$(2S)/$\Psi$(1S) mesons.

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Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=7.7-200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 011901, 2016.
Inspire Record 1378005 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146751

We report the measurement of cumulants ($C_n, n=1\ldots4$) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity ($|\eta|<0.35$) in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=7.7-200$ GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g. $C_1/C_2$, $C_3/C_1$) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in the ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. The measured values of $C_1/C_2 = \mu/\sigma^2$ and $C_3/C_1 = S\sigma^3/\mu$ can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperature and the baryon chemical potential at each center-of-mass energy.

10 data tables

Efficiency corrected cumulants of net-charge distributions as a function of $\langle N_{part} \rangle$ from Au+Au collisions at different collision energies.

Efficiency corrected cumulants of net-charge distributions as a function of $\langle N_{part} \rangle$ from Au+Au collisions at different collision energies.

Efficiency corrected cumulants of net-charge distributions as a function of $\langle N_{part} \rangle$ from Au+Au collisions at different collision energies.

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Trends in Yield and Azimuthal Shape Modification in Dihadron Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 104 (2010) 252301, 2010.
Inspire Record 845169 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146557

Fast parton probes produced by hard scattering and embedded within collisions of large nuclei have shown that partons suffer large energy loss and that the produced medium may respond collectively to the lost energy. We present measurements of neutral pion trigger particles at transverse momenta p^t_T = 4-12 GeV/c and associated charged hadrons (p^a_T = 0.5-7 GeV/c) as a function of relative azimuthal angle Delta Phi at midrapidity in Au+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. These data lead to two major observations. First, the relative angular distribution of low momentum hadrons, whose shape modification has been interpreted as a medium response to parton energy loss, is found to be modified only for p^t_T &lt; 7 GeV/c. At higher p^t_T, the data are consistent with unmodified or very weakly modified shapes, even for the lowest measured p^a_T. This observation presents a quantitative challenge to medium response scenarios. Second, the associated yield of hadrons opposite to the trigger particle in Au+Au relative to that in p+p (I_AA) is found to be suppressed at large momentum (IAA ~ 0.35-0.5), but less than the single particle nuclear modification factor (R_AA ~0.2).

16 data tables

Average away-side $I^{head}_{AA}$ above 2 GeV/$c$ for various $\pi^0$ trigger momenta in central and midcentral collisions where $|\Delta\phi - \pi| < \pi/6$. Note: a 6% scale uncertainty applies to all $I_{AA}$ values.

Away-side jet widths from a Gaussian fit by $h^{\pm}$ partner momentum for various $\pi^0$ trigger momenta in $p+p$ collisions.

Away-side jet widths from a Gaussian fit by $h^{\pm}$ partner momentum for various $\pi^0$ trigger momenta in Au+Au collisions.

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