Version 2

Measurement of the total cross section and $\rho$-parameter from elastic scattering in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector
The
ATLAS
collaboration
Aad, Georges
;
Abbott, Braden Keim
;
Abbott, D.C.
;
*et al. *

Eur.Phys.J.C 83 (2023) 441, 2023.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/2122408
Inspire Record
2122408
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.128017
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.128017
In a special run of the LHC with $\beta^\star = 2.5~$km, proton-proton elastic-scattering events were recorded at $\sqrt{s} = 13~$TeV with an integrated luminosity of $340~\mu \textrm{b}^{-1}$ using the ALFA subdetector of ATLAS in 2016. The elastic cross section was measured differentially in the Mandelstam $t$ variable in the range from $-t = 2.5 \cdot 10^{-4}~$GeV$^{2}$ to $-t = 0.46~$GeV$^{2}$ using 6.9 million elastic-scattering candidates. This paper presents measurements of the total cross section $\sigma_{\textrm{tot}}$, parameters of the nuclear slope, and the $\rho$-parameter defined as the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the elastic-scattering amplitude in the limit $t \rightarrow 0$. These parameters are determined from a fit to the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem and different parameterizations of the $t$-dependence. The results for $\sigma_{\textrm{tot}}$ and $\rho$ are \begin{equation*} \sigma_{\textrm{tot}}(pp\rightarrow X) = \mbox{104.7} \pm 1.1 \; \mbox{mb} , \; \; \; \rho = \mbox{0.098} \pm 0.011 . \end{equation*} The uncertainty in $\sigma_{\textrm{tot}}$ is dominated by the luminosity measurement, and in $\rho$ by imperfect knowledge of the detector alignment and by modelling of the nuclear amplitude.

22
data tables

The
TOTEM
collaboration
Antchev, G.
;
Aspell, P.
;
Atanassov, I.
;
*et al. *

Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 263, 2022.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1974042
Inspire Record
1974042
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.127942
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.127942
The TOTEM collaboration at the CERN LHC has measured the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering at $\sqrt{s} = 8\ {\rm TeV}$ in the squared four-momentum transfer range $0.2\ {\rm GeV^{2}} < |t| < 1.9\ {\rm GeV^{2}}$. This interval includes the structure with a diffractive minimum ("dip") and a secondary maximum ("bump") that has also been observed at all other LHC energies, where measurements were made. A detailed characterisation of this structure for $\sqrt{s} = 8\ {\rm TeV}$ yields the positions, $|t|_{\rm dip} = (0.521 \pm 0.007)\ {\rm GeV^2}$ and $|t|_{\rm bump} = (0.695 \pm 0.026)\ {\rm GeV^2}$, as well as the cross-section values, ${{\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d} t}_{\rm dip} = (15.1 \pm 2.5)\ {\rm{\mu b/GeV^2}}$ and ${{\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d} t}_{\rm bump} = (29.7 \pm 1.8)\ {\rm{\mu b/GeV^2}}$, for the dip and the bump, respectively.

1
data table

Differential cross-section.

The
TOTEM
collaboration
Antchev, G.
;
Aspell, P.
;
Atanassov, I.
;
*et al. *

Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 91, 2020.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1710347
Inspire Record
1710347
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.127943
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.127943
The proton-proton elastic differential cross section ${\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d}t$ has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at $\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV energy with $\beta^{*}=11$ m beam optics. The Roman Pots were inserted to 13 times the transverse beam size from the beam, which allowed to measure the differential cross-section of elastic scattering in a range of the squared four-momentum transfer ($|t|$) from $0.36$ GeV$^{2}$ to $0.74$ GeV$^{2}$. The differential cross-section can be described with an exponential in the $|t|$-range between $0.36$ GeV$^{2}$ and $0.54$ GeV$^{2}$, followed by a diffractive minimum (dip) at $|t_{\rm dip}| = 0.61 \pm 0.03$ GeV$^{2}$ and a subsequent maximum (bump). The ratio of the ${\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d}t$ at the bump and at the dip is $1.7\pm 0.2$. When compared to the $\rm p\bar{p}$ measurement of the D0 experiment at $\sqrt s = 1.96$ TeV, a significant difference can be observed. Under the condition that the effects due to the energy difference between TOTEM and D0 can be neglected, the result provides evidence for a colourless 3-gluon bound state exchange in the $t$-channel of the proton-proton elastic scattering.

2
data tables

Differential cross-section.

Differential cross-section.

The
TOTEM
collaboration
Antchev, G.
;
Aspell, P.
;
Atanassov, I.
;
*et al. *

Eur.Phys.J.C 79 (2019) 785, 2019.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1654549
Inspire Record
1654549
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.127945
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.127945
The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has performed the first measurement at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV of the $\rho$ parameter, the real to imaginary ratio of the nuclear elastic scattering amplitude at $t=0$, obtaining the following results: $\rho = 0.09 \pm 0.01$ and $\rho = 0.10 \pm 0.01$, depending on different physics assumptions and mathematical modelling. The unprecedented precision of the $\rho$ measurement, combined with the TOTEM total cross-section measurements in an energy range larger than 10 TeV (from 2.76 to 13 TeV), has implied the exclusion of all the models classified and published by COMPETE. The $\rho$ results obtained by TOTEM are compatible with the predictions, from alternative theoretical models both in the Regge-like framework and in the QCD framework, of a colourless 3-gluon bound state exchange in the $t$-channel of the proton-proton elastic scattering. On the contrary, if shown that the 3-gluon bound state $t$-channel exchange is not of importance for the description of elastic scattering, the $\rho$ value determined by TOTEM would represent a first evidence of a slowing down of the total cross-section growth at higher energies. The very low-$|t|$ reach allowed also to determine the absolute normalisation using the Coulomb amplitude for the first time at the LHC and obtain a new total proton-proton cross-section measurement $\sigma_{tot} = 110.3 \pm 3.5$ mb, completely independent from the previous TOTEM determination. Combining the two TOTEM results yields $\sigma_{tot} = 110.5 \pm 2.4$ mb.

1
data table

Differential cross-section.

The
TOTEM
collaboration
Antchev, G.
;
Aspell, P.
;
Atanassov, I.
;
*et al. *

Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 661, 2016.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1489188
Inspire Record
1489188
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.127946
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.127946
The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, |t|, from 6 x $10^{-4}$ GeV$^2$ to 0.2 GeV$^2$. Near the lower end of the |t|-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the $\rho$-parameter is found to be 0.12 $\pm$ 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are $\sigma_{tot}$ = (102.9 $\pm$ 2.3) mb and (103.0 $\pm$ 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements.

1
data table

Differential cross-section.

The
TOTEM
collaboration
Antchev, G.
;
Aspell, P.
;
Atanassov, I.
;
*et al. *

Eur.Phys.J.C 79 (2019) 861, 2019.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1710340
Inspire Record
1710340
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.127944
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.127944
The TOTEM collaboration has measured the elastic proton-proton differential cross section ${\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d}t$ at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV LHC energy using dedicated $\beta^{*}=90$ m beam optics. The Roman Pot detectors were inserted to 10$\sigma$ distance from the LHC beam, which allowed the measurement of the range $[0.04$ GeV$^{2};4 $GeV$^{2}] $ in four-momentum transfer squared $|t|$. The efficient data acquisition allowed to collect about 10$^{9}$ elastic events to precisely measure the differential cross-section including the diffractive minimum (dip), the subsequent maximum (bump) and the large-$|t|$ tail. The average nuclear slope has been found to be $B=(20.40 \pm 0.002^{\rm stat} \pm 0.01^{\rm syst})~$GeV$^{-2}$ in the $|t|$-range $0.04~$GeV$^{2}$ to $0.2~$GeV$^{2}$. The dip position is $|t_{\rm dip}|=(0.47 \pm 0.004^{\rm stat} \pm 0.01^{\rm syst})~$GeV$^{2}$. The differential cross section ratio at the bump vs. at the dip $R=1.77\pm0.01^{\rm stat}$ has been measured with high precision. The series of TOTEM elastic pp measurements show that the dip is a permanent feature of the pp differential cross-section at the TeV scale.

1
data table

Differential cross-section.

The
STAR
collaboration
Adam, Jaroslav
;
Adamczyk, Leszek
;
Adams, Joseph
;
*et al. *

Phys.Lett.B 808 (2020) 135663, 2020.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1791591
Inspire Record
1791591
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.94263
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.94263
We report results on the total and elastic cross sections in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV obtained with the Roman Pot setup of the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The elastic differential cross section was measured in the squared four-momentum transfer range $0.045 \leq -t \leq 0.135$ GeV$^2$. The value of the exponential slope parameter $B$ of the elastic differential cross section $d\sigma/dt \sim e^{-Bt}$ in the measured $-t$ range was found to be $B = 14.32 \pm 0.09 (stat.)^{\scriptstyle +0.13}_{\scriptstyle -0.28} (syst.)$ GeV$^{-2}$. The total cross section $\sigma_{tot}$, obtained from extrapolation of the $d\sigma/dt$ to the optical point at $-t = 0$, is $\sigma_{tot} = 54.67 \pm 0.21 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +1.28}_{\scriptstyle -1.38} (syst.)$ mb. We also present the values of the elastic cross section $\sigma_{el} = 10.85 \pm 0.03 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +0.49}_{\scriptstyle -0.41}(syst.)$ mb, the elastic cross section integrated within the STAR $t$-range $\sigma^{det}_{el} = 4.05 \pm 0.01 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle+0.18}_{\scriptstyle -0.17}(syst.)$ mb, and the inelastic cross section $\sigma_{inel} = 43.82 \pm 0.21 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +1.37}_{\scriptstyle -1.44} (syst.)$ mb. The results are compared with the world data.

3
data tables

The
ALICE
collaboration
Acharya, Shreyasi
;
Adamova, Dagmar
;
Adhya, Souvik Priyam
;
*et al. *

Phys.Lett.B 797 (2019) 134822, 2019.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1735349
Inspire Record
1735349
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.90845
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.90845
This work presents new constraints on the existence and the binding energy of a possible $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ bound state, the H-dibaryon, derived from $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ femtoscopic measurements by the ALICE collaboration. The results are obtained from a new measurement using the femtoscopy technique in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV, combined with previously published results from p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ scattering parameter space, spanned by the inverse scattering length $f_0^{-1}$ and the effective range $d_0$, is constrained by comparing the measured $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlation function with calculations obtained within the Lednicky model. The data are compatible with hypernuclei results and lattice computations, both predicting a shallow attractive interaction, and permit to test different theoretical approaches describing the $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ interaction. The region in the $(f_0^{-1},d_0)$ plane which would accommodate a $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ bound state is substantially restricted compared to previous studies. The binding energy of the possible $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ bound state is estimated within an effective-range expansion approach and is found to be $B_{\Lambda\Lambda}=3.2^{+1.6}_{-2.4}\mathrm{(stat)}^{+1.8}_{-1.0}\mathrm{(syst)}$ MeV.

8
data tables

p-p correlation function in p-p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

$\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlation function in p-p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

$\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlation function in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV.

The
ATLAS
collaboration
Aaboud, Morad
;
Aad, Georges
;
Abbott, Brad
;
*et al. *

Phys.Lett.B 761 (2016) 158-178, 2016.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1477585
Inspire Record
1477585
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.73997
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.73997
A measurement of the total $pp$ cross section at the LHC at $\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV is presented. An integrated luminosity of $500$ $\mu$b$^{-1}$ was accumulated in a special run with high-$\beta^{\star}$ beam optics to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable $t$. The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the $-t$ range from $0.014$ GeV$^2$ to $0.1$ GeV$^2$ to extrapolate $t\rightarrow 0$, the total cross section, $\sigma_{\mathrm{tot}}(pp\rightarrow X)$, is measured via the optical theorem to be: $\sigma_{\mathrm{tot}}(pp\rightarrow X) = {96.07} \; \pm 0.18 \; ({{stat.}}) \pm 0.85 \; ({{exp.}}) \pm 0.31 \; ({extr.}) \; {mb} \;,$ where the first error is statistical, the second accounts for all experimental systematic uncertainties and the last is related to uncertainties in the extrapolation $t\rightarrow 0$. In addition, the slope of the exponential function describing the elastic cross section at small $t$ is determined to be $B = 19.74 \pm 0.05 \; ({{stat.}}) \pm 0.23 \; ({{syst.}}) \; {GeV}^{-2}$.

6
data tables

The total elastic cross section and the observed elastic cross section within the fiducial volume.

The
TOTEM
collaboration
Antchev, G.
;
Aspell, P.
;
Atanassov, I.
;
*et al. *

Nucl.Phys.B 899 (2015) 527-546, 2015.

https://inspirehep.net/literature/1356731
Inspire Record
1356731
DOI
10.17182/hepdata.73431
https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.73431
The TOTEM experiment has made a precise measurement of the elastic proton-proton differential cross-section at the centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 8 TeV based on a high-statistics data sample obtained with the beta* = 90 optics. Both the statistical and systematic uncertainties remain below 1%, except for the t-independent contribution from the overall normalisation. This unprecedented precision allows to exclude a purely exponential differential cross-section in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.027 < |t| < 0.2 GeV^2 with a significance greater than 7 sigma. Two extended parametrisations, with quadratic and cubic polynomials in the exponent, are shown to be well compatible with the data. Using them for the differential cross-section extrapolation to t = 0, and further applying the optical theorem, yields total cross-section estimates of (101.5 +- 2.1) mb and (101.9 +- 2.1) mb, respectively, in agreement with previous TOTEM measurements.

1
data table