Beam Energy Dependence of Triton Production and Yield Ratio ($\mathrm{N}_t \times \mathrm{N}_p/\mathrm{N}_d^2$) in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdulhamid, Muhammad ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 130 (2023) 202301, 2023.
Inspire Record 2152917 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133992

We report the triton ($t$) production in mid-rapidity ($|y| <$ 0.5) Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$= 7.7--200 GeV measured by the STAR experiment from the first phase of the beam energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The nuclear compound yield ratio ($\mathrm{N}_t \times \mathrm{N}_p/\mathrm{N}_d^2$), which is predicted to be sensitive to the fluctuation of local neutron density, is observed to decrease monotonically with increasing charged-particle multiplicity ($dN_{ch}/d\eta$) and follows a scaling behavior. The $dN_{ch}/d\eta$ dependence of the yield ratio is compared to calculations from coalescence and thermal models. Enhancements in the yield ratios relative to the coalescence baseline are observed in the 0%-10% most central collisions at 19.6 and 27 GeV, with a significance of 2.3$\sigma$ and 3.4$\sigma$, respectively, giving a combined significance of 4.1$\sigma$. The enhancements are not observed in peripheral collisions or model calculations without critical fluctuation, and decreases with a smaller $p_{T}$ acceptance. The physics implications of these results on the QCD phase structure and the production mechanism of light nuclei in heavy-ion collisions are discussed.

68 data tables

Invariant yields of tritons at 7.7 GeV, all centralities. The first uncertainty is statistical uncertainty, the second is systematic uncertainty.

Invariant yields of tritons at 11.5 GeV, all centralities. The first uncertainty is statistical uncertainty, the second is systematic uncertainty.

Invariant yields of tritons at 14.5 GeV, all centralities. The first uncertainty is statistical uncertainty, the second is systematic uncertainty.

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Measurement of Differential Distributions of $B \to D^* \ell \bar \nu_\ell$ and Implications on $|V_{cb}|$

The Belle collaboration Prim, M.T. ; Bernlochner, F. ; Metzner, F. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 108 (2023) 012002, 2023.
Inspire Record 2624324 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.137767

We present a measurement of the differential shapes of exclusive $B\to D^* \ell \bar{\nu}_\ell$ ($B = B^-, \bar{B}^0 $ and $\ell = e, \mu$) decays with hadronic tag-side reconstruction for the full Belle data set of $711\,\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ integrated luminosity. We extract the Caprini-Lellouch-Neubert (CLN) and Boyd-Grinstein-Lebed (BGL) form factor parameters and use an external input for the absolute branching fractions to determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element and find $|V_{cb}|_\mathrm{CLN} = (40.1\pm0.9)\times 10^{-3}$ and $|V_{cb}|_\mathrm{BGL} = (40.6\pm 0.9)\times 10^{-3}$ with the zero-recoil lattice QCD point $\mathcal{F}(1) = 0.906 \pm 0.013$. We also perform a study of the impact of preliminary beyond zero-recoil lattice QCD calculations on the $|V_{cb}|$ determinations. Additionally, we present the lepton flavor universality ratio $R_{e\mu} = \mathcal{B}(B \to D^* e \bar{\nu}_e) / \mathcal{B}(B \to D^* \mu \bar{\nu}_\mu) = 0.990 \pm 0.021 \pm 0.023$, the electron and muon forward-backward asymmetry and their difference $\Delta A_{FB}=0.022\pm0.026\pm 0.007$, and the electron and muon $D^*$ longitudinal polarization fraction and their difference $\Delta F_L^{D^*} = 0.034 \pm 0.024 \pm 0.007$. The uncertainties quoted correspond to the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively.

8 data tables

Bins used in the average spectrum (equivalent to the B0 case binning)

Bins for each data point for B0 and B+ cases separately.

The fully averaged measured shape. The 40 entries correspond to 10 bins in w, cosThetaL, cosThetaV, and chi. For the binning see the file 'Binning.yaml'.

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Search for the Chiral Magnetic Effect in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm{NN}}}}=27$ GeV with the STAR forward Event Plane Detectors

The STAR collaboration Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 839 (2023) 137779, 2023.
Inspire Record 2148920 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133216

A decisive experimental test of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is considered one of the major scientific goals at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) towards understanding the nontrivial topological fluctuations of the Quantum Chromodynamics vacuum. In heavy-ion collisions, the CME is expected to result in a charge separation phenomenon across the reaction plane, whose strength could be strongly energy dependent. The previous CME searches have been focused on top RHIC energy collisions. In this Letter, we present a low energy search for the CME in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm{NN}}}}=27$ GeV. We measure elliptic flow scaled charge-dependent correlators relative to the event planes that are defined at both mid-rapidity $|\eta|<1.0$ and at forward rapidity $2.1 < |\eta|<5.1$. We compare the results based on the directed flow plane ($\Psi_1$) at forward rapidity and the elliptic flow plane ($\Psi_2$) at both central and forward rapidity. The CME scenario is expected to result in a larger correlation relative to $\Psi_1$ than to $\Psi_2$, while a flow driven background scenario would lead to a consistent result for both event planes. In 10-50% centrality, results using three different event planes are found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, suggesting a flow driven background scenario dominating the measurement. We obtain an upper limit on the deviation from a flow driven background scenario at the 95% confidence level. This work opens up a possible road map towards future CME search with the high statistics data from the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Phase-II.

15 data tables

This dataset corresponds to Figure 2, the v2 value estimated by tpc (\Psi_2) in the paper

This dataset corresponds to Figure 2, the v2 value estimated by epd (\Psi_2) in the paper

This dataset corresponds to Figure 2, the v2 value estimated by epd (\Psi_1) in the paper

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Higher-Order Cumulants and Correlation Functions of Proton Multiplicity Distributions in $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au Collisions at the STAR Experiment

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 107 (2023) 024908, 2023.
Inspire Record 2631860 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134023

We report a measurement of cumulants and correlation functions of event-by-event proton multiplicity distributions from fixed-target Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV measured by the STAR experiment. Protons are identified within the rapidity ($y$) and transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) region $-0.9 < y<0$ and $0.4 < p_{\rm T} <2.0 $ GeV/$c$ in the center-of-mass frame. A systematic analysis of the proton cumulants and correlation functions up to sixth-order as well as the corresponding ratios as a function of the collision centrality, $p_{\rm T}$, and $y$ are presented. The effect of pileup and initial volume fluctuations on these observables and the respective corrections are discussed in detail. The results are compared to calculations from the hadronic transport UrQMD model as well as a hydrodynamic model. In the most central 5% collisions, the value of proton cumulant ratio $C_4/C_2$ is negative, drastically different from the values observed in Au+Au collisions at higher energies. Compared to model calculations including Lattice QCD, a hadronic transport model, and a hydrodynamic model, the strong suppression in the ratio of $C_4/C_2$ at 3 GeV Au+Au collisions indicates an energy regime dominated by hadronic interactions.

41 data tables

The uncorrected number of charged particles except protons ($N_{\rm ch}$) within the pseudorapidity $−2<\eta<0$ used for the centrality selection for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV. The centrality classes are expressed in % of the total cross section. The lower boundary of the particle multiplicity ($N_{\rm ch}$) is included for each centrality class. Values are provided for the average number of participants ($\langle N_{\rm part}\rangle$) and pileup fraction. The fraction of pileup for each centrality bin is also shown in the last column. The averaged pileup fraction from the minimum biased collisions is determined to be 0.46%. Values in the parentheses are systematic uncertainty.

The centrality definition determined by $N_{\rm part}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV from the UrQMD model. The centrality definition is only used in the UrQMD calculation.

Main contributors to systematic uncertainty to the proton cumulant ratios: $C_2/C_1$, $C_3/C_2$,and $C_4/C_2$ from 0–5% central 3 GeV Au+Au collisions. The first row shows the values and statistical uncertainties of those ratios. The corresponding values of these ratios along with the statistical uncertainties are listed in the table. The final total value is the quadratic sum of uncertainties from centrality, pileup, and the dominant contribution from TPC hits, DCA, TOF $m^2$, and detector efficiency. Clearly, this analysis is systematically dominant.

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Pion, Kaon, and (Anti-)Proton Production in U+U Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV in STAR

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 107 (2023) 024901, 2023.
Inspire Record 2629622 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132660

We present the first measurements of transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p(\bar{p})$ at midrapidity ($|y| < 0.1$) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV with the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of particle yields, average transverse momenta, particle ratios and kinetic freeze-out parameters are discussed. The results are compared with the published results from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV in STAR. The results are also compared to those from A Multi Phase Transport (AMPT) model.

20 data tables

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{+}$ at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of $K^{+}$ at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of p at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

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Observation of Global Spin Alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ Vector Mesons in Nuclear Collisions

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Nature 614 (2023) 244-248, 2023.
Inspire Record 2063245 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129067

Notwithstanding decades of progress since Yukawa first developed a description of the force between nucleons in terms of meson exchange, a full understanding of the strong interaction remains a major challenge in modern science. One remaining difficulty arises from the non-perturbative nature of the strong force, which leads to the phenomenon of quark confinement at distances on the order of the size of the proton. Here we show that in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, where quarks and gluons are set free over an extended volume, two species of produced vector (spin-1) mesons, namely $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$, emerge with a surprising pattern of global spin alignment. In particular, the global spin alignment for $\phi$ is unexpectedly large, while that for $K^{*0}$ is consistent with zero. The observed spin-alignment pattern and magnitude for the $\phi$ cannot be explained by conventional mechanisms, while a model with a connection to strong force fields, i.e. an effective proxy description within the Standard Model and Quantum Chromodynamics, accommodates the current data. This connection, if fully established, will open a potential new avenue for studying the behaviour of strong force fields.

38 data tables

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Example of combinatorial background subtracted invariant mass distributions and the extracted yields as a function of $\cos \theta^*$ for $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons. \textbf{a)} example of $\phi \rightarrow K^+ + K^-$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{b)} example of $K^{*0} (\overline{K^{*0}}) \rightarrow K^{-} \pi^{+} (K^{+} \pi^{-})$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{c)} extracted yields of $\phi$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{d)} extracted yields of $K^{*0}$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$.

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Constraining the Higgs boson self-coupling from single- and double-Higgs production with the ATLAS detector using $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 843 (2023) 137745, 2023.
Inspire Record 2175556 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135471

Constraints on the Higgs boson self-coupling are set by combining double-Higgs boson analyses in the $b\bar{b}b\bar{b}$, $b\bar{b}\tau^+\tau^-$ and $b\bar{b} \gamma \gamma$ decay channels with single-Higgs boson analyses targeting the $\gamma \gamma$, $ZZ^*$, $WW^*$, $\tau^+ \tau^-$ and $b\bar{b}$ decay channels. The data used in these analyses were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton$-$proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 126$-$139 fb$^{-1}$. The combination of the double-Higgs analyses sets an upper limit of $\mu_{HH} < 2.4$ at 95% confidence level on the double-Higgs production cross-section normalised to its Standard Model prediction. Combining the single-Higgs and double-Higgs analyses, with the assumption that new physics affects only the Higgs boson self-coupling ($\lambda_{HHH}$), values outside the interval $-0.4< \kappa_{\lambda}=(\lambda_{HHH}/\lambda_{HHH}^{\textrm{SM}})< 6.3$ are excluded at 95% confidence level. The combined single-Higgs and double-Higgs analyses provide results with fewer assumptions, by adding in the fit more coupling modifiers introduced to account for the Higgs boson interactions with the other Standard Model particles. In this relaxed scenario, the constraint becomes $-1.4 < \kappa_{\lambda} < 6.1$ at 95% CL.

44 data tables

Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the signal strength for double-Higgs production from the bbbb, bb$\tau\tau$ and bb$\gamma\gamma$ decay channels, and their statistical combination. The value $m_H$ = 125.09 GeV is assumed when deriving the predicted SM cross-section. The expected limit and the corresponding error bands are derived assuming the absence of the HH process and with all nuisance parameters profiled to the observed data.

Observed and expected 95% CL exclusion limits on the production cross-sections of the combined ggF HH and VBF HH processes as a function of $\kappa_\lambda$, for the three double-Higgs search channels and their combination. The expected limits assume no HH production. The red line shows the theory prediction for the combined ggF HH and VBF HH cross-section as a function of $\kappa_\lambda$ where all parameters and couplings are set to their SM values except for $\kappa_\lambda$. The band surrounding the red cross-section lines indicate the theoretical uncertainty of the predicted cross-section.

Observed and expected 95% CL exclusion limits on the production cross-sections of the VBF HH process as a function of $\kappa_{2V}$, for the three double-Higgs search channels and their combination. The expected limits assume no VBF HH production. The red line shows the predicted VBF HH cross-section as a function of $\kappa_{2V}$. The bands surrounding the red cross-section lines indicate the theoretical uncertainty of the predicted cross-section. The uncertainty band is smaller than the width of the plotted line.

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Search for the chiral magnetic effect via charge-dependent azimuthal correlations relative to spectator and participant planes in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 128 (2022) 092301, 2022.
Inspire Record 1869023 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127969

The chiral magnetic effect (CME) refers to charge separation along a strong magnetic field due to imbalanced chirality of quarks in local parity and charge-parity violating domains in quantum chromodynamics. The experimental measurement of the charge separation is made difficult by the presence of a major background from elliptic azimuthal anisotropy. This background and the CME signal have different sensitivities to the spectator and participant planes, and could thus be determined by measurements with respect to these planes. We report such measurements in Au+Au collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. It is found that the charge separation, with the flow background removed, is consistent with zero in peripheral (large impact parameter) collisions. Some indication of finite CME signals is seen in mid-central (intermediate impact parameter) collisions. Significant residual background effects may, however, still be present.

16 data tables

The centrality dependencies of the $v_{2}\{\psi_\mathrm{TPC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

The centrality dependencies of the $v_{2}\{\psi_\mathrm{ZDC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

The centrality dependencies of the $\Delta\gamma\{\psi_\mathrm{TPC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

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Direct observation of the dead-cone effect in QCD

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Acharya, S. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
Nature 605 (2022) 440-446, 2022.
Inspire Record 1867966 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130725

In particle collider experiments, elementary particle interactions with large momentum transfer produce quarks and gluons (known as partons) whose evolution is governed by the strong force, as described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These partons subsequently emit further partons in a process that can be described as a parton shower which culminates in the formation of detectable hadrons. Studying the pattern of the parton shower is one of the key experimental tools for testing QCD. This pattern is expected to depend on the mass of the initiating parton, through a phenomenon known as the dead-cone effect, which predicts a suppression of the gluon spectrum emitted by a heavy quark of mass $m_{\rm{Q}}$ and energy $E$, within a cone of angular size $m_{\rm{Q}}$/$E$ around the emitter. Previously, a direct observation of the dead-cone effect in QCD had not been possible, owing to the challenge of reconstructing the cascading quarks and gluons from the experimentally accessible hadrons. We report the direct observation of the QCD dead cone by using new iterative declustering techniques to reconstruct the parton shower of charm quarks. This result confirms a fundamental feature of QCD. Furthermore, the measurement of a dead-cone angle constitutes a direct experimental observation of the non-zero mass of the charm quark, which is a fundamental constant in the standard model of particle physics.

1 data table

The $R(\theta)$ variable for charm/inclusive emissions in three bins of $E_{Rad}$: 5-10, 10-20 and 20-35 GeV.


Photoproduction of the omega meson off the proton near threshold

Strakovsky, I.I. ; Prakhov, S. ; Azimov, Ya. I. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 91 (2015) 045207, 2015.
Inspire Record 1306288 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130198

An experimental study of $\omega$ photoproduction on the proton was conducted by using the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. The $\gamma p\to\omega p$ differential cross sections are measured from threshold to the incident-photon energy $E_\gamma=1.40$ GeV ($W=1.87$ GeV for the center-of-mass energy) with 15-MeV binning in $E_\gamma$ and full production-angle coverage. The quality of the present data near threshold gives access to a variety of interesting physics aspects. As an example, an estimation of the $\omega N$ scattering length $\alpha_{\omega p}$ is provided.

21 data tables

Total cross section as a function of c.m. energy W.

Differential cross section at W= 1.7245 GeV

Differential cross section at W= 1.7319 GeV

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