Net-proton number fluctuations and the Quantum Chromodynamics critical point

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 126 (2021) 092301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1850675 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101068

Non-monotonic variation with collision energy ($\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$) of the moments of the net-baryon number distribution in heavy-ion collisions, related to the correlation length and the susceptibilities of the system, is suggested as a signature for the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) critical point. We report the first evidence of a non-monotonic variation in kurtosis times variance of the net-proton number (proxy for net-baryon number) distribution as a function of \rootsnn with 3.1$\sigma$ significance, for head-on (central) gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions measured using the STAR detector at RHIC. Data in non-central Au+Au collisions and models of heavy-ion collisions without a critical point show a monotonic variation as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$.

10 data tables

Event-by-event net-proton multiplicity distributions for central (0-5$\%$) Au+Au collisions from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV. The distributions are normalised to total number of events. The distributions are not corrected for proton and antiproton detection efficiency.

Cumulants of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for nine energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV for 0-5$\%$ and 70-80$\%$ centrality.

Cumulant ratios C3/C2 and C4/C2 of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for eight energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 62.4 GeV for 0-5$\%$ centrality. Also given are the derivative of the polynomial fits to the C3/C2 and C4/C2 vs energy at each energy and the Skellam baselines for the ratios.

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Pion, Kaon, and (Anti-)Proton Production in U+U Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV in STAR

The STAR collaboration
2022.
Inspire Record 2129269 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132660

We present the first measurements of transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p(\bar{p})$ at midrapidity ($|y| < 0.1$) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV with the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of particle yields, average transverse momenta, particle ratios and kinetic freeze-out parameters are discussed. The results are compared with the published results from Au+Au collisions at \snn = 200 GeV in STAR. The results are also compared to those from A Multi Phase Transport (AMPT) model.

20 data tables

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{+}$ at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of $K^{+}$ at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

'Identified transverse momentum spectra of p at midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) in U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV'

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Pair invariant mass to isolate background in the search for the chiral magnetic effect in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$= 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 106 (2022) 034908, 2022.
Inspire Record 1800376 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95210

Quark interactions with topological gluon configurations can induce local chirality imbalance and parity violation in quantum chromodynamics, which can lead to the chiral magnetic effect (CME) -- an electric charge separation along the strong magnetic field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The CME-sensitive azimuthal correlator observable ($\Delta\gamma$) is contaminated by background arising, in part, from resonance decays coupled with elliptic anisotropy ($v_{2}$). We report here differential measurements of the correlator as a function of the pair invariant mass ($m_{\rm inv}$) in 20-50% centrality Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$= 200 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. Strong resonance background contributions to $\Delta\gamma$ are observed. At large $m_{\rm inv}$ where this background is significantly reduced, the $\Delta\gamma$ value is found to be significantly smaller. An event-shape-engineering technique is deployed to determine the $v_{2}$ background shape as a function of $m_{\rm inv}$. We extract a $v_2$-independent and $m_{\rm inv}$-averaged signal $\Delta\gamma_{\rm sig}$ = (0.03 $\pm$ 0.06 $\pm$ 0.08) $\times10^{-4}$, or $(2\pm4\pm5)\%$ of the inclusive $\Delta\gamma(m_{\rm inv}>0.4$ GeV/$c^2$)$ =(1.58 \pm 0.02 \pm 0.02) \times10^{-4}$, within pion $p_{T}$ = 0.2 - 0.8~\gevc and averaged over pseudorapidity ranges of $-1 < \eta < -0.05$ and $0.05 < \eta < 1$. This represents an upper limit of $0.23\times10^{-4}$, or $15\%$ of the inclusive result, at $95\%$ confidence level for the $m_{\rm inv}$-integrated CME contribution.

9 data tables

The $m_{\rm inv}$ dependences of the OS and SS pion pair multiplicities in 20-50$\%$ Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

The $m_{\rm inv}$ dependences of the $\gamma_{OS}$, $\gamma_{SS}$ in 20-50$\%$ Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

$m_{\rm inv}$ dependences of the relative excess of OS over SS pion pairs in 20-50$\%$ Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

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Tomography of Ultra-relativistic Nuclei with Polarized Photon-gluon Collisions

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2062296 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132921

A linearly polarized photon can be quantized from the Lorentz-boosted electromagnetic field of a nucleus traveling at ultra-relativistic speed. When two relativistic heavy nuclei pass one another at a distance of a few nuclear radii, the photon from one nucleus may interact through a virtual quark-antiquark pair with gluons from the other nucleus forming a short-lived vector meson (e.g. ${\rho^0}$). In this experiment, the polarization was utilized in diffractive photoproduction to observe a unique spin interference pattern in the angular distribution of ${\rho^0\rightarrow\pi^+\pi^-}$ decays. The observed interference is a result of an overlap of two wave functions at a distance an order of magnitude larger than the ${\rho^0}$ travel distance within its lifetime. The strong-interaction nuclear radii were extracted from these diffractive interactions, and found to be $6.53\pm 0.06$ fm ($^{197} {\rm Au }$) and $7.29\pm 0.08$ fm ($^{238} {\rm U}$), larger than the nuclear charge radii. The observable is demonstrated to be sensitive to the nuclear geometry and quantum interference of non-identical particles.

14 data tables

The invariant mass distribution of pi+pi- pairs collected from Au+Au and U+U collisions.

Two-dimensional $\rho^0$ momentum distribution from Au+Au collisions.

Two-dimensional $\rho^0$ momentum distribution from Au+Au collisions.

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Evidence for Nonlinear Gluon Effects in QCD and their $A$ Dependence at STAR

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 129 (2022) 092501, 2022.
Inspire Record 1972873 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115421

The STAR Collaboration reports measurements of back-to-back azimuthal correlations of di-$\pi^0$s produced at forward pseudorapidities ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) in $p$+$p$, $p+$Al, and $p+$Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV. We observe a clear suppression of the correlated yields of back-to-back $\pi^0$ pairs in $p+$Al and $p+$Au collisions compared to the $p$+$p$ data. The observed suppression of back-to-back pairs as a function of transverse momentum suggests nonlinear gluon dynamics arising at high parton densities. The larger suppression found in $p+$Au relative to $p+$Al collisions exhibits a dependence of the saturation scale, $Q_s^2$, on the mass number, $A$. A linear scaling of the suppression with $A^{1/3}$ is observed with a slope of $-0.09$$\pm$$0.01$.

15 data tables

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p$+$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p+$Al collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

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Search for the chiral magnetic effect via charge-dependent azimuthal correlations relative to spectator and participant planes in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 128 (2022) 092301, 2022.
Inspire Record 1869023 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127969

The chiral magnetic effect (CME) refers to charge separation along a strong magnetic field due to imbalanced chirality of quarks in local parity and charge-parity violating domains in quantum chromodynamics. The experimental measurement of the charge separation is made difficult by the presence of a major background from elliptic azimuthal anisotropy. This background and the CME signal have different sensitivities to the spectator and participant planes, and could thus be determined by measurements with respect to these planes. We report such measurements in Au+Au collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. It is found that the charge separation, with the flow background removed, is consistent with zero in peripheral (large impact parameter) collisions. Some indication of finite CME signals is seen in mid-central (intermediate impact parameter) collisions. Significant residual background effects may, however, still be present.

16 data tables

The centrality dependencies of the $v_{2}\{\psi_\mathrm{TPC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

The centrality dependencies of the $v_{2}\{\psi_\mathrm{ZDC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

The centrality dependencies of the $\Delta\gamma\{\psi_\mathrm{TPC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

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Azimuthal Harmonics in Small and Large Collision Systems at RHIC Top Energies

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 122 (2019) 172301, 2019.
Inspire Record 1716552 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105870

The first ($v_1^{\text{even}}$), second ($v_2$) and third ($v_3$) harmonic coefficients of the azimuthal particle distribution at mid-rapidity, are extracted for charged hadrons and studied as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) and mean charged particle multiplicity density $\langle \mathrm{N_{ch}} \rangle$ in U+U ($\roots =193$~GeV), Au+Au, Cu+Au, Cu+Cu, $d$+Au and $p$+Au collisions at $\roots = 200$~GeV with the STAR Detector. For the same $\langle \mathrm{N_{ch}} \rangle$, the $v_1^{\text{even}}$ and $v_3$ coefficients are observed to be independent of collision system, while $v_2$ exhibits such a scaling only when normalized by the initial-state eccentricity ($\varepsilon_2$). The data also show that $\ln(v_2/\varepsilon_2)$ scales linearly with $\langle \mathrm{N_{ch}} \rangle^{-1/3}$. These measurements provide insight into initial-geometry fluctuations and the role of viscous hydrodynamic attenuation on $v_n$ from small to large collision systems.

25 data tables

Two-particle azimuthal correlation functions for various systems for $<Nch>=21\pm3$

Second-order cumulant $c_{2}${4}($\times10^{6})$ vs $<N_{ch}>$ for various systems

$v_{1}^{fluc}$ as a function of $p_{T}(GeV/c)$ for various systems for $<Nch>=21\pm3$

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Quasifree photoproduction of $\eta$ mesons off protons and neutrons

The A2 collaboration Werthmüller, D. ; Witthauer, L. ; Keshelashvili, I. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 90 (2014) 015205, 2014.
Inspire Record 1308107 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130235

Differential and total cross sections for the quasifree reactions $\gamma p\rightarrow\eta p$ and $\gamma n\rightarrow\eta n$ have been determined at the MAMI-C electron accelerator using a liquid deuterium target. Photons were produced via bremsstrahlung from the 1.5 GeV incident electron beam and energy-tagged with the Glasgow photon tagger. Decay photons of the neutral decay modes $\eta\rightarrow 2\gamma$ and $\eta\rightarrow 3\pi^0 \rightarrow 6\gamma$ and coincident recoil nucleons were detected in a combined setup of the Crystal Ball and the TAPS calorimeters. The $\eta$-production cross sections were measured in coincidence with recoil protons, recoil neutrons, and in an inclusive mode without a condition on recoil nucleons, which allowed a check of the internal consistency of the data. The effects from nuclear Fermi motion were removed by a kinematic reconstruction of the final-state invariant mass and possible nuclear effects on the quasifree cross section were investigated by a comparison of free and quasifree proton data. The results, which represent a significant improvement in statistical quality compared to previous measurements, agree with the known neutron-to-proton cross-section ratio in the peak of the $S_{11}(1535)$ resonance and confirm a peak in the neutron cross section, which is absent for the proton, at a center-of-mass energy $W = (1670\pm 5)$ MeV with an intrinsic width of $\Gamma\approx 30$ MeV.

90 data tables

Total cross section as a function of c.m. energy W.

Total cross section as a function of c.m. energy W.

Differential cross section at W= 1.4925 GeV

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Search for the chiral magnetic effect with isobar collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$=200 GeV by the STAR Collaboration at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 014901, 2022.
Inspire Record 1914564 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115993

The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is predicted to occur as a consequence of a local violation of $\cal P$ and $\cal CP$ symmetries of the strong interaction amidst a strong electro-magnetic field generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Experimental manifestation of the CME involves a separation of positively and negatively charged hadrons along the direction of the magnetic field. Previous measurements of the CME-sensitive charge-separation observables remain inconclusive because of large background contributions. In order to better control the influence of signal and backgrounds, the STAR Collaboration performed a blind analysis of a large data sample of approximately 3.8 billion isobar collisions of $^{96}_{44}$Ru+$^{96}_{44}$Ru and $^{96}_{40}$Zr+$^{96}_{40}$Zr at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV. Prior to the blind analysis, the CME signatures are predefined as a significant excess of the CME-sensitive observables in Ru+Ru collisions over those in Zr+Zr collisions, owing to a larger magnetic field in the former. A precision down to 0.4% is achieved, as anticipated, in the relative magnitudes of the pertinent observables between the two isobar systems. Observed differences in the multiplicity and flow harmonics at the matching centrality indicate that the magnitude of the CME background is different between the two species. No CME signature that satisfies the predefined criteria has been observed in isobar collisions in this blind analysis.

225 data tables

fig2_left_low_isobarpaper_star_blue_case2_zrzr_nonzeros.

fig2_left_low_isobarpaper_star_grey_data_zrzr_nonzeros.

fig2_left_low_isobarpaper_star_red_case3_zrzr_nonzeros.

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Single $\pi^0$ Production Off Neutrons Bound in Deuteron with Linearly Polarized Photons

The A2 at MAMI collaboration Mullen, C. ; Gardner, S. ; Glazier, D.I. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.A 57 (2021) 205, 2021.
Inspire Record 1851649 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127968

The quasifree $\overrightarrow{\gamma} d\to\pi^0n(p)$ photon beam asymmetry, $\Sigma$, has been measured at photon energies, $E_\gamma$, from 390 to 610 MeV, corresponding to center of mass energy from 1.271 to 1.424 GeV, for the first time. The data were collected in the A2 hall of the MAMI electron beam facility with the Crystal Ball and TAPS calorimeters covering pion center-of-mass angles from 49 to 148$^\circ$. In this kinematic region, polarization observables are sensitive to contributions from the $\Delta (1232)$ and $N(1440)$ resonances. The extracted values of $\Sigma$ have been compared to predictions based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of the existing pion photoproduction database. Our comparison includes the SAID, MAID, and Bonn-Gatchina analyses; while a revised SAID fit, including the new $\Sigma$ measurements, has also been performed. In addition, isospin symmetry is examined as a way to predict $\pi^0n$ photoproduction observables, based on fits to published data in the channels $\pi^0p$, $\pi^+n$, and $\pi^-p$.

12 data tables

Photon beam asymmetry Sigma at W= 1.2711 GeV

Photon beam asymmetry Sigma at W= 1.2858 GeV

Photon beam asymmetry Sigma at W= 1.3003 GeV

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