We present proton-nucleus dimuon-production cross sections for masses between 4 and 15 GeV, center-of-mass rapidities between -0.23 and 0.6 and incident energies of 200, 300, and 400 GeV. The data confirm scaling to the 20% level. The dependence of continuum 〈pT〉 on beam energy is also presented.
We have measured the production of π+ and π− in 200-, 300-, and 400-GeV p−p and 400-GeV p−d collisions for transverse momenta (p⊥) ranging from 0.77 to 7.67 GeV/c. At large values of x⊥=2p⊥s, where s is the c.m. energy, we have fitted the p−p data to the form A(1−x⊥)bp⊥−n; we obtain n=8.2±0.5 for π+ and 8.5±0.5 for π−. At x⊥>0.3 the π+π− ratio in p−p collisions rises appreciably with increasing x⊥ whereas the π+π− ratio obtained from the difference of p−d and p−p cross sections is ∼ 1.0 at all x⊥.
Axis error includes +- 0.0/0.0 contribution (5 AND 10//(C//).
Axis error includes +- 0.0/0.0 contribution (5 AND 10//(C//).
Axis error includes +- 0.0/0.0 contribution (5 AND 10//(C//).
Inclusive hadron production in muon-proton inelastic scattering has been measured for q2>0.5 (GeV/c)2 and 10<ν<135 GeV. The results are presented in the form of the transverse momentum distribution of charged hadrons and the hadron invariant structure function F(x′). Results are given for different regions of q2 and s.
We have studied muon-produced hadrons from a deuterium target. The structure functions and the charge ratios are reported for neutrons; the transverse momentum and azimuthal distributions are reported for deuterons. The structure function for the neutron is similar to that of the proton. The charge ratio of produced hadrons follows the expectation of a simple spin-½ quark model. Transverse-momentum results agree with those at lower energy and are similar to those from hadron-hadron interactions. No azimuthal anisotropy is seen.
Inclusive cross sections and longitudinal momentum distributions are presented for γ rays produced in K − p and K + p interactions at 32 GeV/c in the 4.5 m Mirabelle hydrogen bubble chamber at the Serpukhov accelerator. The average longitudinal and transverse momentum of neutral pions and the average π 0 multiplicity ▪ 〈 n π 0〉 are estimated. It is found that 〈 n π 0〉 is an increasing function of the number of charged prongs.
Inclusive production of Σ + , Σ − and Σ 0 hyperons in K − p interactions at 14.3 GeV/ c has been studied and compared to Λ production. Cross sections are presented as a function of longitudinal and transverse momenta and compared to the pp → Σ + + anything data.
Invariant mass spectrum of μ + μ − pairs produced by 70 GeV/ c protons in Be target are presented. Distinct enhancements in the mass regions of ϱ, ω mesons, φ meson and J/ψ particle are observed. For J/ψ production x and p ⊥ 2 distributions are given. The total cross section for the reaction p + Be → ( J ψ → μ + μ − ) + … is equal to 9.5 ± 2.5 nb/nucleus .
ASSUME B.R.(MU+MU-) = 0.069.
ASSUME A**(2/3) DEPENDENCE FOR SIGMA.
π±p elastic differential cross sections in the momentum range 1.72-2.80 GeV/c have been measured at the proton synchrotron "NIMROD" of the Rutherford High Energy Laboratory. The results are tabulated, and analyses of the differential cross sections employing optical models and Legendre polynomial expansions are advanced. A critical discussion of a recent interpretation of differential-cross-section structure in terms of interference between resonant and background amplitudes is presented.
The differential cross sections for π − p elastic scattering have been measured near 180°, in the momentum range 875–1580 MeV/c. The results are compared with recent phase shift analysis, showing some notable discrepancies.
We present the results of a study of muon pairs with invariant masses greater than 4.05 GeV/c2 produced in high-energy pion-nucleon interactions. The production cross section together with the inferred pion and nucleon structure functions are reported and compared with other experiments and with QCD predictions. The transverse-momentum distributions are also presented. Finally, the full angular distribution in cosθ and φ is given as a function of mass, Feynman x, and transverse momentum. Longitudinal photon polarization is seen in the lower portion of the mass range at high xπ. This result is compared with a higher-twist model.
Results are presented on a series of measurements of ρ-photoproduction from hydrogen, deuterium, and complex nuclei ranging up to lead, at photon energies ranging from 4 to 9 GeV. Detailed dipion mass-spectrum fits are presented, using a Drell-type nonresonant background and its interference with the resonant amplitude, with no other arbitrary backgrounds. For hydrogen and deuterium, the inelastic contributions have been subtracted. The A dependence of the cross sections is analyzed to yield values of γρ24π and σρN at average photon energies of 6.1, 6.5, and 8.8 GeV. The hydrogen-to-deuterium ratios indicate the presence of possible nondiffractive amplitudes at low energies which then decrease with energy.
The absolute electron-proton elastic scattering cross section has been measured by detecting the recoil protons. The proton charge form factor has been extracted for values of the square of the momentum transfer between 0.15 and 0.79 fm−2. The rms charge radius determined from these measurements is 0.81±0.04 fm. [NUCLEAR REACTIONS H1(e,p), E=55−130 MeV, measured σ(E;Ep,θ); deduced charge form factor, rms charge radius.]
We present the final analysis of the nuclear effects on the cross section of dimuon production, using simultaneously a hydrogen and a platinum target in a 150, 200 and 280 GeV pion beam. For the dimuon mass interval 4.1 to 8.5 GeV, the ratio of the cross sections is in agreement with the Drell-Yan model within a 10% error, mainly due to systematics. The variation of this ratio with the dimuon mass, x 1 and x 2 is also in good agreement, and no variation with the transverse momentum is observed.
Charged-current neutrino interactions have been analysed in a sample of pictures from BEBC equipped with a TST. Using a method independent of both the neutrino flux and nuclear interaction corrections, the ratio R = σ n / σ p has been measured. The result is R =1.98±0.19 for the ratio of total cross sections. Bjorken x distributions for proton and neutron targets and for u and d quarks are compared.
A significant rate of forward proton and antiproton production has been observed in 120 and 280 GeV muon-proton scattering. The z and p T 2 distributions are presented. The dependence of the normalized production cross section on the muon variables x and Q 2 is studied.
We have done an inclusive study of ϱ 0 production in π − p interactions at 15 GeV/ c . Evidence for two different production mechanisms, in addition to the known quasi two-body processes, is presented: production of ϱ 0 's in the central region of rapidity similar to the “pionization” region seen in the inclusive studies of pions; and forward production in the beam dissociation region of rapidity. Cross sections and rapidity distributions for the ϱ 0 are given inclusively and by topology, and the results are compared with similar studies at other energies and with other incident particles. Results are also presented for the semi-inclusive reaction π − p → p ϱ 0 + X − and the exclusive final state p π − ϱ 0 .
The production of K S 0 , Λ and Λ is measured in π + p reactions at 16 GeV/ c . The total strange particle cross section is found to be 4.0 ± 0.3 mb, about 20% of the inelastic cross section. Cross sections for single strange particles and for strange particle pairs are determined, both inclusively and as functions of the charged multiplicity. Relative production rates for different strange particle combinations are compared with the prediction of the isospin statistical model. Inclusive spectra for single particles are studied and it is found the K S 0 are produced mostly in the forward hemisphere, most probably by fragmentation of the incident pion into K K π . The Λ are mostly backwards, probably deriving from fragmentation of the proton into ΛK pairs. The Λ tend to be produced forwards, but evidence is found for central Λ Λ production. Distributions in rapidity of the Λ particles from π + p interactions are compared in terms of the factorisation hypothesis. Results are given on the Λ transversal polarisation.
We report on an improved measurement of the value of the strong coupling constant σ s at the Z 0 peak, using the asymmetry of the energy-energy correlation function. The analysis, based on second-order perturbation theory and a data sample of about 145000 multihadronic Z 0 decays, yields α s ( M z 0 = 0.118±0.001(stat.)±0.003(exp.syst.) −0.004 +0.0009 (theor. syst.), where the theoretical systematic error accounts for uncertainties due to hadronization, the choice of the renormalization scale and unknown higher-order terms. We adjust the parameters of a second-order matrix element Monte Carlo followed by string hadronization to best describe the energy correlation and other hadronic Z 0 decay data. The α s result obtained from this second-order Monte Carlo is found to be unreliable if values of the renormalization scale smaller than about 0.15 E cm are used in the generator.
Value of LAMBDA(MSBAR) and ALPHA_S.. The first systematic error is experimental, the second is from theory.
The EEC and its asymmetry at the hadron level, unfolded for initial-state radiation and for detector acceptance and resolution. Errors include full statistical and systematic uncertainties.
A factorial moment analysis has been performed on the differential multiplicity distributions of hadronic final states of the Z 0 recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP. The moments of the one-dimensional rapidity and the two-dimensional rapidity versus azimuthal angle distributions are found to exhibit “intermittent” behaviour attributable to the jet structure of the events. The moments are reproduced by both parton shower and matrix element QCD based hadronisation models. No evidence for fluctuations beyond those attributable to jet structure is observed.
Corrected factorial moments of the rapidity distribution with respect to the sphericity axis. The errors shown are statistical only but include the statistical error onthe correction factor, added in quadrature.
Corrected factorial moments of the rapidity distribution with respect to the electron beam axis. The errors shown are statistical only but include the statistical error onthe correction factor, added in quadrature.
Corrected factorial moments of the rapidity (with respect to the sphericityaxis) versus PHI distribution. For each point the NUMBER of bins are constructe d from equal numbers of YRAP and PHI bins. The errors shown are statistical only but include the statistical error onthe correction factor, added in quadrature.
3600 two-pronged events, obtained in p−p interactions at 2 Bev in the BNL 20-in. hydrogen bubble chamber, have been analyzed. Cross sections have been measured for elastic scattering, for the two modes of single-pion production, p+p→p+n+π+, p+p→p+p+π0, and for strange-particle production. The branching ratio for the two one-pion production reactions is σ(pnπ+)σ(ppπ0)=4.17±0.25. Momentum distributions and Q values indicate that single-pion production proceeds almost entirely through the (32, 32) resonant state. The data have been considered in terms of the extended isobar model and also a one-pion exchange model for production. The branching ratio and momentum distributions can be explained by including a small effect from the I=12 resonant state in addition to the dominant I=32 resonance. The c.m. angular distribution of the nucleons in single-pion production shows very marked backward-forward peaking indicating a one-pion exchange mechanism. Absolute differential cross sections as a function of laboratory kinetic energy have been calculated from Selleri's equation for the pnπ+ reaction. There is good agreement with the data for low four-momentum transfers [q2<0.15(Bev/c)2], but for higher momentum transfers the theoretical cross sections are larger than the experimental cross sections.
The photoproduction of charged pions from deuterium has been studied using a "monochromatic" gamma-ray beam of 292±8 Mev. The energy spectra of both positive and negative pions at the laboratory angle of 120° were determined and both agreed within experimental error with that predicted by the theory of Lax and Feshbach. The negative-to-positive ratio at 120° was 1.07±0.16, and within experimental error, was independent of meson energy. At an angle of 73° the ratio was 0.90±0.23 for 98.7 Mev mesons. The measured negative-to-positive ratio disagrees both with the simple classical picture of Brueckner and the phenomenological theory of Watson. Some results on the ratio using a bremsstrahlung beam are given.
This paper reports experimental findings on the Dirac (F1) and Pauli (F2) form factors of the proton. The form factors have been obtained by using the Rosenbluth formula and the method of intersecting ellipses in analyzing the elastic electron-proton scattering cross sections. A range of energies covering the interval 200-1000 Mev for the incident electrons is explored. Scattering angles vary from 35° to 145°. Values as high as q2≅31 f−2 (q=energy−momentumtransfer) are investigated, but form factors can be reliably determined only up to about q2=25 f−2. Splitting of the form factors is confirmed. The newly measured data are in good agreement with earlier Stanford data on the form factors and also with the predictions of a recent theoretical model of the proton. Consistency in determining the values of the form factors at different energies and angles gives support to the techniques of quantum electrodynamics up to q2≅25 f−2. At the extreme conditions of this experiment (975 Mev, 145°) the behavior of the form factors may be exhibiting some anomaly.
The process γ+p→π0+p has been studied by detecting recoil protons from a liquid hydrogen target which was bombarded by the bremsstrahlung beam of the California Institute of Technology electron synchrotron. The angle and momentum of the recoil protons were measured by a magnetic spectrometer-three scintillation counter coincidence system. The process has been studied between photon laboratory energies of 490 and 940 Mev and between pion center-of-mass angles of 31.5° and 147°. Protons which arose from meson pair production were significant at forward laboratory angles. A correction for this contamination is discussed. The results of these measurements show two interesting features. One is that the total cross section, which falls very rapidly above the 32−32 resonance energy near 320 Mev, reaches a minimum at about 600 Mev, and then increases to a broad maximum near 800 or 900 Mev. The other striking feature of the data is that the shape of the angular distribution seems to change rather suddenly near 900 Mev.
Measurements of π0 photoproduction have been made at 235, 285, 335, and 435 MeV, using a beam of polarized x rays. Using a calculated value of polarization, an analysis is made which indicates a possible need for γ, ρ, π, or γ, ω, π coupling. The polarization calculations are checked by measurements made as a function of photon production angle at 335 MeV.