$\rm \Lambda_{c}^{+}$ production and baryon-to-meson ratios in pp and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 127 (2021) 202301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1829739 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114213

The prompt production of the charm baryon $\rm \Lambda_{c}^{+}$ and the $\rm \Lambda_{c}^{+}/\mathrm {D^0}$ production ratios were measured at midrapidity with the ALICE detector in pp and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$TeV. These new measurements show a clear decrease of the $\rm \Lambda_{c}^{+}/\mathrm {D^0}$ ratio with increasing transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) in both collision systems in the range $2<p_{\rm T}<12$ GeV/$c$, exhibiting similarities with the light-flavour baryon-to-meson ratios ${\rm p}/\pi$ and $\Lambda/\mathrm {K^0_S}$. At low $p_{\rm T}$, predictions that include additional colour-reconnection mechanisms beyond the leading-colour approximation; assume the existence of additional higher-mass charm-baryon states; or include hadronisation via coalescence can describe the data, while predictions driven by charm-quark fragmentation processes measured in $\mathrm {e^+e^-}$ and $\mathrm {e^-p}$ collisions significantly underestimate the data. The results presented in this letter provide significant evidence that the established assumption of universality (colliding-system independence) of parton-to-hadron fragmentation is not sufficient to describe charm-baryon production in hadronic collisions at LHC energies.

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Backward Resonance Production in pi- p --> n pi+ pi- at 8-GeV/c

Eisenstein, Bob I. ; Elliott, J. ; Mollet, W. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 18 (1978) 1370-1381, 1978.
Inspire Record 136306 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.24374

We have studied backward meson and baryon production in π−p→nπ+π− at 8 GeV/c using a streamer chamber triggered by the detection of the interaction of the neutron in thick-plate optical spark chambers. Our data sample of 866 events is dominated by the quasi-two-body final states Δ−(1232)π+, nρ0, and nf0. We study the differential and total backward cross sections for these states and the decay angular distributions of the resonances. The results for the Δ− and ρ0 indicate that both nucleon and Δ exchange in the u channel are important in their production, while f0 production is, as expected, consistent with nucleon exchange.

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Charm production and fragmentation fractions at midrapidity in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca ; et al.
JHEP 12 (2023) 086, 2023.
Inspire Record 2697877 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145759

Measurements of the production cross sections of prompt ${\rm D^0}$, ${\rm D^+}$, ${\rm D^{\ast +}}$, ${\rm D_s^+}$, ${\rm \Lambda_{c}^{+}}$, and ${\rm \Xi_{c}^{+}}$ charm hadrons at midrapidity in proton$-$proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ALICE detector are presented. The D-meson cross sections as a function of transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) are provided with improved precision and granularity. The ratios of $p_{\rm T}$-differential meson production cross sections based on this publication and on measurements at different rapidity and collision energy provide a constraint on gluon parton distribution functions at low values of Bjorken-$x$ ($10^{-5}-10^{-4}$). The measurements of ${\rm \Lambda_{c}^{+}}$ (${\rm \Xi_{c}^{+}}$) baryon production extend the measured $p_{\rm T}$ intervals down to $p_{\rm T}=0(3)$~GeV$/c$. These measurements are used to determine the charm-quark fragmentation fractions and the ${\rm c\overline{c}}$ production cross section at midrapidity ($|y|<0.5$) based on the sum of the cross sections of the weakly-decaying ground-state charm hadrons ${\rm D^0}$, ${\rm D^+}$, ${\rm D_s^+}$, ${\rm \Lambda_{c}^{+}}$, ${\rm \Xi_{c}^{0}}$ and, for the first time, ${\rm \Xi_{c}^{+}}$, and of the strongly-decaying J/$psi$ mesons. The first measurements of ${\rm \Xi_{c}^{+}}$ and ${\rm \Sigma_{c}^{0,++}}$ fragmentation fractions at midrapidity are also reported. A significantly larger fraction of charm quarks hadronising to baryons is found compared to e$^+$e$^-$ and ep collisions. The ${\rm c\overline{c}}$ production cross section at midrapidity is found to be at the upper bound of state-of-the-art perturbative QCD calculations.

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Correlated production of p and anti-p in Au + Au collisions at s(NN)**(1/2) = 200-GeV.

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 649 (2007) 359-369, 2007.
Inspire Record 731666 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.143520

Correlations between p and pbar's at transverse momenta typical of enhanced baryon production in Au+Au collisions are reported. The PHENIX experiment measures same and opposite sign baryon pairs in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. Correlated production of p and p^bar with the trigger particle from the range 2.5 < p_T < 4.0 GeV/c and the associated particle with 1.8 < p_T < 2.5 GeV/c is observed to be nearly independent of the centrality of the collisions. Same sign pairs show no correlation at any centrality. The conditional yield of mesons triggered by baryons (and anti-baryons) and mesons in the same pT range rises with increasing centrality, except for the most central collisions, where baryons show a significantly smaller number of associated mesons. These data are consistent with a picture in which hard scattered partons produce correlated p and p^bar in the p_T region of the baryon excess.

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Determination of the total c anti-c production cross section in 340-GeV/c Sigma- nucleus interactions.

The WA89 collaboration Adamovich, M.I. ; Alexandrov, Yu.A. ; Barberis, D. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 13 (2000) 247-254, 2000.
Inspire Record 506075 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.43334

The production of charmed particles by Sigma- of 340 Gev/c momentum was studied in the hyperon beam experiment WA89 at the CERN-SPS, using the Omega-spectrometer. In two data-taking periods in 1993 and 1994 an integrated luminosity of 1600 microb^-1 on copper and carbon targets was recorded. From the reconstruction of 930 +- 90 charm particle decays in 10 decay channels production cross sections for D, antiD, Ds and Lambdac were determined in the region xF>0. Assuming an A^1 dependence of the cross section on the nucleon number, we calculate a total ccbar production cross section of sigma(x_F > 0) = 5.3+- 0.4(stat)+-1.0(syst)+1.0(Xi_c) microb per nucleon. The last term is an upper limit on the unknown contribution from charmed-strange baryon production.

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Enhancement of strange and multi-strange baryons and anti-baryons in S W interactions at 200-GeV/c.

The WA85 collaboration Antinori, F. ; Barnes, R.P. ; Bayes, A.C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 447 (1999) 178-182, 1999.
Inspire Record 500180 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.28123

Strange and multistrange baryon production is expected to be enhanced in heavy ion interactions if a phase transition from hadronic matter to a Quark-Gluon Plasma takes place. The production yields of Λ s, Λ s, Ξ − s, and Ξ + s relative to the production of negative particles are presented for sulphur-tungsten interactions at 200 GeV/ c per nucleon. These production yields are compared to those produced in proton-tungsten interactions and the enhancements of strange and multistrange baryons and antibaryons are presented.

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Exploring the non-universality of charm hadronisation through the measurement of the fraction of jet longitudinal momentum carried by $\Lambda_{\rm c}^+$ baryons in pp collisions

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 109 (2024) 072005, 2024.
Inspire Record 2628372 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.151164

Recent measurements of charm-baryon production in hadronic collisions have questioned the universality of charm-quark fragmentation across different collision systems. In this work the fragmentation of charm quarks into charm baryons is probed, by presenting the first measurement of the longitudinal jet momentum fraction carried by $\Lambda_{\rm c}^{+}$ baryons, $z^{\mathrm{ch}}_\mathrm{||}$, in hadronic collisions. The results are obtained in proton-proton (pp) collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV at the LHC, with $\Lambda_{\rm c}^{+}$ baryons and charged (track-based) jets reconstructed in the transverse momentum intervals of $3 \leq p_{\rm T}^{\Lambda_{\rm c}^{+}} < 15$ GeV/$c$ and $7 \leq p_{\rm T}^{\rm jet\;ch} < 15$ GeV/$c$, respectively. The $z^{\mathrm{ch}}_\mathrm{||}$ distribution is compared to a measurement of ${\rm D}^0$-tagged charged jets in pp collisions as well as to PYTHIA 8 simulations. The data hints that the fragmentation of charm quarks into charm baryons is softer with respect to charm mesons, in the measured kinematic interval, as predicted by hadronisation models which include colour correlations beyond leading-colour in the string formation.

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Identified Charged Particles in Quark and Gluon Jets

The DELPHI collaboration Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; Adye, T. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 17 (2000) 207-222, 2000.
Inspire Record 524696 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.50064

A sample of 2.2 million hadronic Z decays, selected from the data recorded by the Delphi detector at LEP during 1994-1995 was used for an improved measurement of inclusive distributions of pi+, K+ and p and their antiparticles in gluon and quark jets. The production spectra of the individual identified particles were found to be softer in gluon jets compared to quark jets, with a higher multiplicity in gluon jets as observed for inclusive charged particles. A significant proton enhancement in gluon jets is observed indicating that baryon production proceeds directly from colour objects. The maxima, xi^*, of the xi-distributions for kaons in gluon and quark jets are observed to be different.

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Inclusive $\phi$ Meson Production in Electron - Positron Interactions in the Energy Region of the $\Upsilon$ Resonances

The ARGUS collaboration Albrecht, H. ; Bockmann, P. ; Glaser, R. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 41 (1989) 557, 1989.
Inspire Record 262551 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15528

We report on a high precision measurement of ϕ-meson production in continuum events and in direct decays of the Υ(1S)- and Υ(2S)-mesons. The ratio of the total production rate of ϕ-mesons in direct Υ(1S)- and Υ(2S)-decays over that in continuum events is 1.32±0.08±0.09 and 1.07±0.13±0.11 respectively. This is compatible with the corresponding ratio obtained for lighter mesons, but is appreciably smaller than the relative baryon production rate.

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Inclusive Baryon Production in e+ e- Annihilation

Piccolo, M. ; Peruzzi, I. ; Luke, D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 39 (1977) 1503, 1977.
Inspire Record 121395 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.20965

The inclusive production of antiprotons and Λ's in e+e− annihilation has been measured as a function of the c.m. energy in the range 3.7-7.6 GeV. We find that the baryon cross section has a behavior different from the total hadronic production. Our results show a rapid rise in the ratio σp¯σμμ between 4.4 and 5 GeV, consistent with what would be expected from charmed baryon production. Λ¯ production is 10-15% of p¯ production at all energies.

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