Showing 10 of 11 results
The multiplicity distributions of charged particles in full phase space and in restricted rapidity intervals for events with a fixed number of jets measured by the DELPHI detector are presented. The data are well reproduced by the Lund Parton Shower model and can also be well described by fitted negative binomial distributions. The properties of these distributions in terms of the clan model are discussed. In symmetric 3-jet events the candidate gluon jet is found not to be significantly different in average multiplicity than the mean of the other two jets, thus supporting previous results of the HRS and OPAL experiments. Similar results hold for events generated according to the LUND PS and to the HERWIG models, when the jets are defined by the JADE jet finding algorithm. The method seems to be insensitive for measuring the color charge ratio between gluons and quarks.
The structure of hadronic events fromZ0 decay is studied by measuring event shape variables, factorial moments, and the energy flow distribution. The distributions, after correction for detector effects and initial and final state radiation, are compared with the predictions of different QCD Monte Carlo programs with optimized parameter values. These Monte Carlo programs use either the second order matrix element or the parton shower evolution for the perturbative QCD calculations and use the string, the cluster, or the independent fragmentation model for hadronization. Both parton shower andO(α2s matrix element based models with string fragmentation describe the data well. The predictions of the model based on parton shower and cluster fragmentation are also in good agreement with the data. The model with independent fragmentation gives a poor description of the energy flow distribution. The predicted energy evolutions for the mean values of thrust, sphericity, aplanarity, and charge multiplicity are compared with the data measured at different center-of-mass energies. The parton shower based models with string or cluster fragmentation are found to describe the energy dependences well while the model based on theO(α2s calculation fails to reproduce the energy dependences of these mean values.
The multiplicity distributions of charged particles in restricted rapidity intervals inZ0 hadronic decays measured by the DELPHI detector are presented. The data reveal a shoulder structure, best visible for intervals of intermediate size, i.e. for rapidity limits around ±1.5. The whole set of distributions including the shoulder structure is reproduced by the Lund Parton Shower model. The structure is found to be due to important contributions from 3-and 4-jet events with a hard gluon jet. A different model, based on the concept of independently produced groups of particles, “clans”, fluctuating both in number per event and particle content per clan, has also been used to analyse the present data. The results show that for each interval of rapidity the average number of clans per event is approximately the same as at lower energies.
Previously published and as yet unpublished QCD results obtained with the ALEPH detector at LEP1 are presented. The unprecedented statistics allows detailed studies of both perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of strong interactions to be carried out using hadronic Z and tau decays. The studies presented include precise determinations of the strong coupling constant, tests of its flavour independence, tests of the SU(3) gauge structure of QCD, study of coherence effects, and measurements of single-particle inclusive distributions and two-particle correlations for many identified baryons and mesons.
This analysis, based on a sample of 170000 hadronic Z0 decays, provides a measurement of the K ± and p/ p differential cross sections which is compared to string- and cluster fragmentation models. The total multiplicities for K ± and p/ p per hadronic event were found to be: NK = 2.26 ± 0.18 and N p = 1.07 ± 0.14. The positions ξ * of the maxima of the differential cross sections as a function of ξ = ln(1/ x p ) for K ± and p/ p were determined to be 2.63 ± 0.07 and 2.96 ± 0.16 respectively. A comparison of the ξ * values for various identified particles measured at LEP with the prediction of the Modified Leading Logarithm Approximation with Local Parton Hadron Duality model has been performed. The measured ξ * position as a function of the hadron mass, after corrections due to particle decays, is in agreement with the model calculation.
The Λ b polarization in hadronic Z decays is measured in semileptonic decays from the average energies of the charged lepton and the neutrino. In a data sample of approximately 3 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP between 1991 and 1994, 462 ± 31 Λ b candidates are selected using ( Λπ + )-lepton correlations. From this event sample, the Λ b polarization is measured to be P Λ b = −0.23 −0.20 +0.24 (stat.) −0.07 +0.08 (syst.).
We present a study of the inclusive production of π 0 , η, K s 0 and Λ based on 929,000 hadronic Z decays recorded with the L3 detector at LEP. The measured inclusive momentum distributions have been compared with predictions from parton shower models as well as an analytical Quantum Chromodynamics calculation. Comparing to low energy e + e - data, we find that QCD describes the energy evolution of the hadron spectrum.
We present a study of jet multiplicities based on 37 000 hadronic Z 0 boson decays. From this data we determine the strong coupling constant α s =0.115±0.005 ( exp .) −0.010 +0.012 (theor.) to second order QCD at √ s =91.22GeV.
We present a study of the inclusive η production based on 300 000 hadronic Z 0 decays. The measured inclusive momentum distribution can be reproduced by parton shower Monte Carlo programs and also by an analytical QCD calculation. Comparing our results with low energy e + e − data, we find that QCD describes both the shape and the energy evolution of the η spectrum. The comparison of η production rates in quark- and gluon-enriched jet samples does not show statistically significant evidence for more abundant production of η mesons in gluon fragmentation.
The charged particle multiplicity distribution of hadronic Z decays was measured on the peak of the Z resonance using the ALEPH detector at LEP. Using a model independent unfolding procedure the distribution was found to have a mean 〈 n 〉=20.85±0.24 and a dispersion D =6.34±0.12. Comparison with lower energy data supports the KNO scaling hypothesis in the energy range s =29−91.25 GeV. At s =91.25 GeV the shape of the multiplicity distribution is well described by a log-normal distribution, as predicted from a cascading model for multi-particle production. The same model also successfully describes the energy dependence of the mean and width of the multiplicity distribution. A next-to-leading order QCD prediction in the framework of the modified leading-log approximation and local parton-hadron duality is found to fit the energy dependence of the mean but not the width of the charged multiplicity distribution, indicating that the width of the multiplicity distribution is a sensitive probe for higher order QCD or non-perturbative effects.