We detected 1–10 MeV neutrons at laboratory angles from 80° to 140° in coincidence with 470 GeV muons deep inelastically scattered from H, D, C, Ca, and Pb targets. The neutron energy spectrum for Pb can be fitted with two components with temperature parameters of 0.7 and 5.0 MeV. The average neutron multiplicity for 40<ν<400 GeV is about 5 for Pb, and less than 2 for Ca and C. These data are consistent with a process in which the emitted hadrons do not interact with the rest of the nucleus within distances smaller than the radius of Ca, but do interact within distances on the order of the radius of Pb in the measured kinematic range. For all targets the lack of high nuclear excitation is surprising.
The proton and deuteron structure functions F2p and F2d are measured in inelastic muon scattering with an average beam energy of 470 GeV. The data were taken at Fermilab experiment E665 during 1991 and 1992 using liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. The F2 measurements are reported in the range 0.0008<x<0.6 and 0.2<Q2<75 GeV2. These are the first precise measurements of F2 in the low x and Q2 range of the data. In the high x range of the data where they overlap in x and Q2 with the measurements from NMC, the two measurements are in agreement. The E665 data also overlap in x with the DESY HERA data, and there is a smooth connection in Q2 between the two data sets. At high Q2 the E665 measurements are consistent with QCD-evolved leading twist structure function models. The data are qualitatively described by structure function models incorporating the hadronic nature of the photon at low Q2. The Q2 and the W dependence of the data measure the transition in the nature of the photon between a pointlike probe at high Q2 and a hadronic object at low Q2.
The ratio of the deuteron to proton structure functions is measured at very small Bjorken x (down to 10–6) and for Q2>0.001 GeV2 from scattering of 470 GeV muons on liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. The ratio F2n/F2p extracted from these measurements is found to be constant, at a value of 0.935±0.008±0.034, for x<0.01. This result suggests the presence of nuclear shadowing effects in the deuteron. The dependence of the ratio on Q2 is also examined; no significant variation is found.
Nuclear transparencies measured in exclusive incoherent ρ0 meson production from hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead in muon-nucleus scattering are reported. The data were obtained with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the nuclear transparencies are observed as the virtuality of the photon increases, in qualitative agreement with the expectations of color transparency.
Inelastic scattering of 490 GeV μ + from deuterium and xenon nuclei has been studied for x Bj > s .001. The ratio of the xenon/deuterium cross section per nucleon is observed to vary with x Bj , with a depletion in the kinematic range 0.001 < x Bj < 0.025 which exhibits no significant Q 2 dependence. An electromagnetic calorimeter was used to verify the radiative corrections.
Longitudinal and transverse momentum spectra of final state hadrons produced in deep-inelastic muon-deuterium scattering at incident muon energy of 490 GeV have been measured up to a hadronic center of mass energy of 30 GeV. The longitudinal distributions agree well with data from earlier muon-nucleon scattering experiments; these distributions tend to increase in steepness as the center of mass energy increases. Comparisons with e + e − data at comparable center of mass energies indicate slight differences. The transverse momentum distributions show an increase in mean p T 2 with an increase in the center of mass energy.
Results are reported concerning the charged-particle multiplicity distribution obtained in an exposure of the high-resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC to a beam of 800 GeV protons at the Fermilab MPS. This is the first time that such data have been available at this energy. The distribution of the number n ch of charged particles produced in inelastic interactions obeys KNO-scaling. The average multiplicity is 〈 n ch 〉 = 10.26±0.15. For n ch ⩾8 the data can be well fitted to a negative binomial. The difference between the overall experimental multiplicity distribution and that resulting from the latter fit is in agreement with the contribution expected from diffractive processes.
Measurements of inclusive transverse-momentum spectra for KS0 mesons produced in proton-antiproton collisions at s of 630 and 1800 GeV are presented and compared with data taken at lower energies. The ratio, as a function of pT, of the cross section for KS0 to that for charged hadrons is very similar to what is observed at lower energies. At 1800 GeV, we calculate the strangeness-suppression factor λ=0.40±0.05.
This paper analyzes π−N→π−π−π+N events from Fermilab experiment E-580, using 200-GeV/c particles on a segmented target of plastic scintillator. Starting with 48 657 triggers, data-quality cuts and a cut on missing mass squared of M2<16 GeV2 lead to a final sample of 7205 events. The xF distribution of the 3π system shows almost all events in a sharp peak at xF=1, suggesting the presence of beam diffraction into three pions. The overall t’ distribution is fit to the sum of three exponential terms corresponding to coherent diffraction from carbon nuclei, diffraction from individual nucleons, and background. Cross sections per nucleon and exponential slopes are reported for each of the three components as a function of 3π effective mass. The cross section for diffraction from the nucleons in the target is 0.34±0.04 mb/nucleon. The cross section for coherent diffraction from carbon is 1.08±0.12 mb/nucleus. The exponential slope for diffraction is observed to decrease with increasing 3π effective mass. The fraction of coherent carbon diffraction in the total cross section is observed to decrease with increasing 3π effective mass. In the π−π+ effective-mass spectrum the ρ0(770) and f0(1270) are observed and their cross sections per nucleon are calculated. In the π−π−π+ effective-mass spectrum the A1−/A2− and A3− enhancements are observed and a cross section for the A3− is calculated.
We have studied muon pairs with an invariant mass between 4 and 9 GeV/c2 produced in p¯N and π−N interactions at an incident momentum of 125 GeV/c. The experiment was performed at Fermilab using a tungsten target and a special beam enriched to contain 18% antiprotons. We compare differential distributions as functions of the dimuon invariant mass, Feynman x, transverse momentum, and decay angles of the dimuon to the predictions of the Drell-Yan model including QCD corrections. Quark structure functions for the p¯ and π− are extracted. Comparisons of the antiproton data to the Drell-Yan model are significant because the cross sections depend principally on the valence-quark structure functions which are accurately determined by deep-inelastic scattering measurements. The measured absolute cross section (integrated over positive Feynman x and all transverse momenta) is 0.106±0.005±0.008 nb/nucleon for the p¯N interaction and 0.107±0.003±0.009 nb/nucleon for the π−N interaction, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. Normalization (K) factors that are required to bring the naive Drell-Yan and first-order QCD predictions into agreement with the measurements are extracted, and the uncertainties involved in such comparisons are examined.
Total cross sections for Sigma- and pi- on beryllium, carbon, polyethylene and copper as well as total cross sections for protons on beryllium and carbon have been measured in a broad momentum range around 600GeV/c. These measurements were performed with a transmission technique adapted to the SELEX hyperon-beam experiment at Fermilab. We report on results obtained for hadron-nucleus cross sections and on results for sigma_tot(Sigma- N) and sigma_tot(pi- N), which were deduced from nuclear cross sections.
The two-spin parameter A LL in inclusive π 0 productionby longitudinally-polarized protons and antiprotons on a longitudinally-polarized proton target has been measured at the 200 GeV Fermilab spin physics facility, for π 0 's at x F =0 with 1⩽ p t ⩽3 GeV/ c . The results exclude, at the 95% confidence level, values of A LL (pp) > 0.1 and < − 0.1 for π 0 's produced by protons, and values of A LL ( p p) > 0.1 and < −0.2 for incident antiprotons. The relevance of A LL (pp) for the gluon spin density is discussed. The data are in good agreement with “conventional”, small or zero, gluon polarization.
A measurement of the single-spin asymmetry A N in p↑ + p→ π 0 + X at 200 GeV with x F = 0 shows a transition in the production process from a “ low -x T ” regime with A N = 0, through an intermediate region of negative asymmetry, to a “ high -x T ” regime with A N > 0.3. This transition occurs at x T ≈ 0.4 and is consistent with x T -scaling of A N in pion production using polarized beams or targets from √− s =5.2 to 19.4 GeV. Results for A N in η production by polarized protons and in π 0 production by polarized antiprotons are also presented.
The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in x F is observed in which A N increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing x F for the π + data and decreases from 0 to −0.38 with increasing x F for π − data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2⩽ x F ⩽0.9 and 0.2⩽ p T ⩽2.0 GeV / c . In a simple model our data indicate that at large x F the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents.
We report a measurement of the p p total cross section at √ s =1.8 TeV using a luminosity-independent method. Our result is σ T =72.1±3.3 mb ; we also derive the total elastic cross section σ el =16.6±1.6 mb. A value is obtained for the total single diffraction cross section of 11.7±2.3 mb.
The differential cross section for elastic antiproton—proton scattering at s =1.8 TeV has been measured over the t range 0.034⩽| t |⩽0.65 (GeV/ c ) 2 . A logarithmic slope parameter, B , of 16.3±0.3 (GeV/ c ) −2 is obtained. In contrast to lower energy experiments, no change in slope is observed over this t range.
The invariant double-differential cross section, E 1 E 2 d 6 σ / d p 3 1 d p 3 2 , and the double-spin asymmetry, A LL , for inclusive multi-γ pair production in which γ-rays came from neutral mesons were measured with a 200 GeV / c longitudinally-polarized proton beam and a longitudinally-polarized proton target. Most of the multi-γ pairs comes from two-jet type events which are sensitive to partonic interaction. The A LL values were found to be consistent with zero. The invariant double-differential cross section for inclusive π 0 π 0 production was also measured. These measured cross sections are consistent with LUND Monte Carlo simulations. Using the LUND Monte Carlo simulation package with the Carlitz-Kaur model of spin dependent distribution functions of valence quarks, the A LL values have been compared with theoretical predictions of gluon polarization, ΔG / G . The results put restrictions on the size of ΔG / G in the region of 0.05 ⪅ x ⪅ 0.35.
Differential cross sections for p p elastic scattering have been measured for very small momentum transfers at six different incident antiproton momenta in the range 3.7 to 6.2 GeV/c by the detection of recoil protons at scattering angles close to 90°. Forward scattering parameters σ T , b , and ϱ have been determined. For the ϱ-parameter, up to an order of magnitude higher level of precision has been achieved compared to that in earlier experiments. It is found that existing dispersion theory predictions are in disagreement with our results for the ϱ-parameter.
The polarization parameter for K + p elastic scattering has been measured at 1.60, 1.80, 2.11 and 3.31 GeV/ c incident momenta over the entire angular range with an emphasis on the backward region. The results in the extreme backward region appear to be small and consistent with zero.
We present results from an experiment studying the production of single particles and jets (groups of particles) with high p ⊥ (transverse momentum) in 200 GeV/ c interactions on a beryllium target. We give a detailed discussion of the ambiguities in the jet definition. The jet and single-particle cross sections have a similar shape but the jet cross section is over two orders of magnitude larger. The events show evidence for the coplanar structure suggested by constituent models, and the momentum distributions of charged particles give strong support to a simple quark-quark scattering model.
For the reaction π−N→V0X, where V0 is a Ks0, Λ, and Λ¯ and X are charged particles, we measured the transverse- and longitudinal-momentum distributions, and inclusive cross sections for the V0 and for K*±(892), Σ±(1385), and Ξ±(1321). We compare our results with predictions of quark-counting rules, and conclude that valence quarks play an important role in strange-particle production.
We present results on the production of hadrons in collisions of 400-GeV/c protons with beryllium, copper, and tungsten nuclei. The data cover the region from 5.6 to 8.0 GeV/c in the transverse momentum of the final-state hadron and from 73° to 102° in the proton-nucleon center-of-momentum frame production angle theta*. The restriction of the data to values of xT (xT=2pT/ √s ) greater than 0.4 enriches the sample with hard collisions of valence quarks. Asymmetries about theta*=90° reflect the presence of neutrons in the target nuclei. The variation of the atomic-weight dependence parameter α with production angle is discussed in the context of the phenomenology of nucleonic structure within nuclei. We also extrapolate our measurements to a ‘‘deuteron’’ target to minimize nuclear effects and compare the result to QCD calculations.
We report results on a precision measurement of the ratio R=σLσT in deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering in the kinematic range 0.2≤x≤0.5 and 1≤Q2≤10 (GeV/c)2. Our results show, for the first time, a clear falloff of R with increasing Q2. Our R results are in agreement with QCD predictions only when corrections for target mass effects and some additional higher twist effects are included. At small x, the data on R favor structure functions with a large gluon contribution. We also report results on the differences RA−RD and the cross section ratio σAσD between Fe and Au nuclei and the deuteron. Our results for RA−RD are consistent with zero for all x, Q2 indicating that possible contributions to R from nuclear higher twist effects and spin-0 constituents in nuclei are not different from those in nucleons. The ratios σAσD from all recent experiments, at all x, Q2 values, are now in agreement.