We detected 1–10 MeV neutrons at laboratory angles from 80° to 140° in coincidence with 470 GeV muons deep inelastically scattered from H, D, C, Ca, and Pb targets. The neutron energy spectrum for Pb can be fitted with two components with temperature parameters of 0.7 and 5.0 MeV. The average neutron multiplicity for 40<ν<400 GeV is about 5 for Pb, and less than 2 for Ca and C. These data are consistent with a process in which the emitted hadrons do not interact with the rest of the nucleus within distances smaller than the radius of Ca, but do interact within distances on the order of the radius of Pb in the measured kinematic range. For all targets the lack of high nuclear excitation is surprising.
Longitudinal and transverse momentum spectra of final state hadrons produced in deep-inelastic muon-deuterium scattering at incident muon energy of 490 GeV have been measured up to a hadronic center of mass energy of 30 GeV. The longitudinal distributions agree well with data from earlier muon-nucleon scattering experiments; these distributions tend to increase in steepness as the center of mass energy increases. Comparisons with e + e − data at comparable center of mass energies indicate slight differences. The transverse momentum distributions show an increase in mean p T 2 with an increase in the center of mass energy.
Inelastic scattering of 490 GeV μ + from deuterium and xenon nuclei has been studied for x Bj > s .001. The ratio of the xenon/deuterium cross section per nucleon is observed to vary with x Bj , with a depletion in the kinematic range 0.001 < x Bj < 0.025 which exhibits no significant Q 2 dependence. An electromagnetic calorimeter was used to verify the radiative corrections.
The diffractive production of ρ0(770 @#@) mesons in muon-proton interactions is studied in the kinematic region 0.15 GeV2< Q2< 20 GeV2 and 20 GeV < ? < 420 GeV. The data were obtained in the Fermilab fixed-target experiment E665 with primary muons of 470 GeV energy. Results are presented on the Q2, x and ? dependence of the cross section, on the shape of the ρ+ρt - mass spectrum, on the slope of the diffraction peak and on the production and decay angular distributions of the ρ0(770). The cross section for diffractive production of ρ0 by virtual photons on protons depends mainly on Q2. At fixed Q2, no significant dependence on x or ? is observed. The extrapolation to Q2 = 0 yields a photoproduction cross section of (10.30 ± 0.33) μb. The slope of the t′ distribution has a value of (7.0 ± 0.2) GeV−2, with a tendency to decrease as Q2 increases. The production and decay angular distributions of the ρ0 depend strongly on Q2 and are consistent with s-channel helicity conservation. The ratio R = σl/σt deduced from the decay angular distributions rises strongly with Q2, passing the value of 1 at Q2≈ 2 GeV2.
The proton and deuteron structure functions F2p and F2d are measured in inelastic muon scattering with an average beam energy of 470 GeV. The data were taken at Fermilab experiment E665 during 1991 and 1992 using liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. The F2 measurements are reported in the range 0.0008<x<0.6 and 0.2<Q2<75 GeV2. These are the first precise measurements of F2 in the low x and Q2 range of the data. In the high x range of the data where they overlap in x and Q2 with the measurements from NMC, the two measurements are in agreement. The E665 data also overlap in x with the DESY HERA data, and there is a smooth connection in Q2 between the two data sets. At high Q2 the E665 measurements are consistent with QCD-evolved leading twist structure function models. The data are qualitatively described by structure function models incorporating the hadronic nature of the photon at low Q2. The Q2 and the W dependence of the data measure the transition in the nature of the photon between a pointlike probe at high Q2 and a hadronic object at low Q2.
The ratio of the deuteron to proton structure functions is measured at very small Bjorken x (down to 10–6) and for Q2>0.001 GeV2 from scattering of 470 GeV muons on liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. The ratio F2n/F2p extracted from these measurements is found to be constant, at a value of 0.935±0.008±0.034, for x<0.01. This result suggests the presence of nuclear shadowing effects in the deuteron. The dependence of the ratio on Q2 is also examined; no significant variation is found.
Nuclear transparencies measured in exclusive incoherent ρ0 meson production from hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead in muon-nucleus scattering are reported. The data were obtained with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the nuclear transparencies are observed as the virtuality of the photon increases, in qualitative agreement with the expectations of color transparency.
Results on the production of charged hadrons in muon-deuteron and muon-xenon interactions are presented. The data were taken with the E665 spectrometer, which was exposed to the 490 GeV muon beam of the Tevatron at Fermilab. The use of a streamer chamber as vertex detector provides nearly 4π acceptance for charged particles. The μD data are compared with the μXe data in terms of multiplicity distributions, average multiplicities, forward-backward multiplicity correlations, rapidity and transverse momentum distributions and of two-particle rapidity correlations of charged hadrons. The data cover a range of invariant hadronic massesW from 8 to 30 GeV.
The production ofK0, Λ and\(\bar \Lambda \) particles is studied in the E665 muon-nucleon experiment at Fermilab. The average multiplicities and squared transverse momenta are measured as a function ofxF andW2. Most features of the data can be well described by the Lund model. Within this model, the data on the K0/π± ratios and on the averageK0 multiplicity in the forward region favor a strangeness suppression factors/u in the fragmentation process near 0.20. Clear evidence for QCD effects is seen in the average squared transverse momentum ofK0 and Λ particles.
Nuclear shadowing is observed in the per-nucleon cross-sections of positive muons on carbon, calcium and lead as compared to deuterium. The data were taken by Fermilab experiment E665 using inelastically scattered muons of mean incident momentum 470 GeV/c. Cross-section ratios are presented in the kinematic region 0.0001 < XBj <0.56 and 0.1 < Q**2 < 80 GeVc. The data are consistent with no significant nu or Q**2 dependence at fixed XBj. As XBj decreases, the size of the shadowing effect, as well as its A dependence, are found to approach the corresponding measurements in photoproduction.
We present results on the cross-section ratio for inelastic muon scattering on neutrons and protons as a function of Bjorken chi;. The data extend to χ values two orders of magnitude smaller than in previous measurements, down to 2×10 −5 , for Q 2 >0.01 GeV 2 . The ratio is consistent with unity throughout this new range.
The nuclear dependence for 800 GeV/c proton production of neutron D mesons has been measured near xF=0 in Experiment 789 at Fermilab. D mesons from beryllium and gold targets were detected with a pair spectrometer and a silicon vertex detector via their decay D→Kπ. No nuclear dependence is found, with a measured α=1.02±0.03±0.02. The measured differential cross section, dσ/dxF, for neutral-D-meson production at 〈xF〉=0.031 is 58±3±7 μb/nucleon. The integrated cross section obtained by extrapolation of the measured cross section to all xF is 17.7±0.9±3.4 μb/nucleon and is consistent with previous measurements.
We have observed the production of the Ds± by a high-energy neutron beam on nuclear targets. The Ds± was observed in the decay mode Ds±→φπ±, φ→K+K−. The average of the inclusive cross sections for Ds+ and Ds− hadroproduction is measured to be BdσdxF=2.85±0.80±0.86 μb/nucleon at xF=0.175 on the assumption of a linear A dependence, where B≡Γ(Ds±→φπ±)Γ(Ds±→all).
We present an analysis of 800-GeV proton-induced Drell-Yan production data from isoscalar targets 2H and C, and from W, which has a large neutron excess. The ratio of cross sections per nucleon, R-σW/σIS, is sensitive to the difference between the d¯(x) and u¯(x) structure functions of the proton. We find that R is close to unity in the range 0.04≤x≤0.27, allowing upper limits to be set on the d¯-u¯ asymmetry. Additionally, the shape of the differential cross section m3 d2σ/dxF dm for 2H at xF≊0 shows no evidence of an asymmetric sea in the proton. We examine the implications of these data for various models of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule in deep-inelastic lepton scattering.
A precise measurement of the atomic-mass dependence of dimuon production induced by 800-GeV protons is reported. Over 450 000 muon pairs with dimuon mass M≥4 GeV were recorded from targets of H2, C, Ca, Fe, and W. The ratio of dimuon yield per nucleon for nuclei versus H2, R=YA/Y2H, is sensitive to modifications of the antiquark sea in nuclei. No nuclear dependence of this ratio is observed over the range of target-quark momentum fraction 0.1<xt<0.3. For xt<0.1 the ratio is slightly less than unity for the heavy nuclei. These results are compared with predictions of models of the European Muon Collaboration effect.
Hadronic production of charmed particles in association with muons from their semileptonic decay has been observed in a high-resolution streamer-chamber experiment performed at Fermilab. A miss-distance analysis of the pictures gives a signal of 17.3±4.7 events. Depending on the production model this corresponds to a range of neutron-nucleon cross sections from 8 to 50 μb, assuming an A23 dependence.
Charged hadronic four-body decays of D 0 mesons have been studied in the E687 photoproduction experiment at Fermilab. Branching ratios relative to the D 0 → K − π + π + π − decay mode for the Cabibbo-suppressed decays D 0 → π − π + π − π + , D 0 → K − K + π − π + have been measured and the first evidence of the D 0 → K − K + K − π + decay mode is reported. An analysis of the D 0 → K − K + π − π + resonance structure is also presented.
A precise measurement of the ratios of the Drell-Yan cross section per nucleon for an 800 GeV/c proton beam incident on Be, Fe and W targets is reported. The behavior of the Drell-Yan ratios at small target parton momentum fraction is well described by an existing fit to the shadowing observed in deep-inelastic scattering. The cross section ratios as a function of the incident parton momentum fraction set tight limits on the energy loss of quarks passing through a cold nucleus.
We present a measurement of the polarization observed for bottomonium states produced in p-Cu collisions at sqrt(s)=38.8 GeV. The angular distribution of the decay dimuons of the Upsilon(1S) state show no polarization at small xF and pT but significant positive transverse production polarization for either pT > 1.8 GeV/c or for xF > 0.35. The Upsilon(2S+3S) unresolved states show a large transverse production polarization at all values of xF and pT measured. These observations are compared with an NRQCD calculation that predicts a transverse polarization in bottomonium production arising from quark-antiquark fusion and gluon-gluon fusion diagrams.
Measurements of elastic photoproduction cross sections for the J / ψ meson from 100 GeV to 375 GeV are presented. The results indicate that the cross section increases slowly in this range. The shape of the energy dependence agrees well with the photon-gluon fusion model prediction.
A search for charm production in the coherent diffractive dissociation reaction pSi→XSi was carried out for the modes D 0 → K − π + , D 0 → K − π + π + π − , and D + → K − π + π + . No charm signals were observed, and the 90% confidence level upper limit for coherent charm pair production was determined to be 26 μ b per silicon nucleus. The results are interpreted as an upper limit of 0.2% on the amount of intrinsic charm in the proton.
We present total and differential cross sections for charm mesons produced in 600 GeV/ c π - emulsion interactions. Fits to d 2 σ / dx F dp T 2 ∞ (1−| x F |) n exp (- bp T 2 ) for 676 electronically reconstructed D mesons with x F >0 give n =4.25±0.24 ( stat .)±0.23 ( syst .) and b =0.76±0.03±0.03 ( GeV / c ) -2 . The total inclusive D + and D 0 cross sections are σ ( π - N → D ± ; x F >0) = 8.66±0.46±1.96 μb nucleon and σ(π - N→D 0 D 0 ; x F >0)=22.05±1.37±4.82μb nucleonk, where a linear dependence on the mean atomic weight of the target is assumed. These results are compared to next-to-leading order QCD predictions.
Measurements of the cross section for production of massive dihadrons by 800-GeV protons incident on a tungsten target are presented. These are compared with measurements taken at lower and higher s and with perturbative-QCD predictions. Scaling and A-dependence behaviors observed at lower energies are confirmed, and good agreement with QCD is obtained. Model dependences of earlier measurements are discussed.
We present results on charm pair correlations measured in proton-emulsion interactions at s =38.7 GeV. The predictions of leading order QCD for the distributions in invariant mass, rapidity gap, x F , and polar angle in the charm pair CMS are qualitatively consistent with our measurements. The mean p T of the pairs is equal within errors to that measured in dilepton production at the same energy and mass range.