We have used the Fermilab 30-in. bubble-chamber hybrid spectrometer to study multiparticle production in the interactions of 200-GeV/c protons and π+ and K+ mesons with nuclei of gold, silver, and magnesium. We find that the multiplicities of produced particles and negative particles increase linearly with the number of projectile collisions, with no beam or target dependence. The number of secondary collisions in the nucleus increases significantly less rapidly with the number of projectile collisions than has been reported by a streamer chamber experiment. The properties of secondary collisions suggest that they arise from rescattering of recoil nucleons rather than intranuclear cascade of produced particles. Dispersions of multiplicity distributions at fixed impact parameter are in better agreement with a model of independent sources than with Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling.
We report on the interactions of an incident 200 GeV / c beam composed of 33% protons, 16% kaons, and 48% pions on targets of silver and gold mounted in the Fermilab 30″ bubble chamber. Within our limited statistics, we find the total cross sections and average multiplicities to agree with previously published data. We find the KNO scaling distribution curve to be broader for heavy nuclei than for hydrogen. We present the first data for V 0 production on gold and silver. We also present, for the first time, evidence for a positive charge excess among the sample of relativistic tracks from interactions on gold and silver. We observe a trend where the positive charge excess increases with target atomic number and with increasing charged particle multiplicity. We find the charge excess to exist among the sample of particles having greater than 2 GeV / c momentum and to persist in the sample with momentum greater than 4 GeV / c .
We have used the Fermilab 30-in. bubble-chamber-hybrid spectrometer to study neutral-strange-particle production in the interactions of 200-GeV/c protons and π+ and K+ mesons with nuclei of gold, silver, and magnesium. Average multiplicities and inclusive cross sections for K0 and Λ are measured, and a power law is found to give a good description of their A dependence. The exponent characterizing the A dependence is consistent with being the same for K0 and Λ production, and also the same for proton and π+ beams. Average K0 and Λ multiplicities, as well as their ratio, have been measured as functions of the numbers of projectile collisions νp and secondary collisions νs in the nucleus, and indicate that rescattering contributes significantly to enhancement of Λ production but not to K0 production. The properties of events with multiple K0's or Λ's also corroborate this conclusion. K0 rapidities are in the central region and decrease gently with increasing νp, while Λ rapidities are in the target-fragmentation region and are independent of νp. K0 and Λ multiplicities increase with the rapidity loss of the projectile, but their rapidities do not.
Results are reported concerning the charged-particle multiplicity distribution obtained in an exposure of the high-resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC to a beam of 800 GeV protons at the Fermilab MPS. This is the first time that such data have been available at this energy. The distribution of the number n ch of charged particles produced in inelastic interactions obeys KNO-scaling. The average multiplicity is 〈 n ch 〉 = 10.26±0.15. For n ch ⩾8 the data can be well fitted to a negative binomial. The difference between the overall experimental multiplicity distribution and that resulting from the latter fit is in agreement with the contribution expected from diffractive processes.
Measurements of inclusive transverse-momentum spectra for KS0 mesons produced in proton-antiproton collisions at s of 630 and 1800 GeV are presented and compared with data taken at lower energies. The ratio, as a function of pT, of the cross section for KS0 to that for charged hadrons is very similar to what is observed at lower energies. At 1800 GeV, we calculate the strangeness-suppression factor λ=0.40±0.05.
The hadronic production of charmed states was studied in a two-arm spectrometer using a 205-GeV/c negative-pion beam incident upon a beryllium target. One arm, filled with dense absorber, triggered the detectors upon the passage of a muon with a moderate transverse momentum and a total momentum of at least 4 GeV/c. The other arm was an open-geometry magnetic spectrometer which had both neutral- and charged-particle identification capabilities. The apparatus, the data, and an invariant-mass-plot search for evidence of charmed-meson production through several charged-particle decay modes are described. The Kπ, Kππ, and Kπππ mass plots fail to reveal significant D-meson signals. Based upon the Kπ mass plots, the 95%-confidence upper limit on the DD¯ production cross section is found to be less than 51 μb per nucleon for the production models tested. A search for evidence of charged-D* production yields 30±16 combinations above background in association with the expected trigger muon charge. Interpreted as a D* signal, this excess corresponds to a model-dependent inclusive DD¯ production cross section of 34±18−9+14 μb per nucleon. Model-dependent upper limits on the ratio of the F to D cross sections are also presented.
The inclusive cross section for charged-D* production by 205-GeV/c π− mesons incident on a beryllium target was measured with a two-arm spectrometer triggered by prompt muons. Using the mass-difference technique often employed in D* studies, a signal of 31±11 charged D*’s was isolated; it includes contributions from both the D*+ and D*− charged modes in correlation with triggering muons of the proper charge. This corresponds to an inclusive charged-D* production cross section of 220±77−57+77 μb per Be nucleus or 24±9−6+9 μb per nucleon when the cross section is scaled linearly with atomic mass number. The first error is statistical and the second is systematic.
We have studied muon pairs with an invariant mass between 4 and 9 GeV/c2 produced in p¯N and π−N interactions at an incident momentum of 125 GeV/c. The experiment was performed at Fermilab using a tungsten target and a special beam enriched to contain 18% antiprotons. We compare differential distributions as functions of the dimuon invariant mass, Feynman x, transverse momentum, and decay angles of the dimuon to the predictions of the Drell-Yan model including QCD corrections. Quark structure functions for the p¯ and π− are extracted. Comparisons of the antiproton data to the Drell-Yan model are significant because the cross sections depend principally on the valence-quark structure functions which are accurately determined by deep-inelastic scattering measurements. The measured absolute cross section (integrated over positive Feynman x and all transverse momenta) is 0.106±0.005±0.008 nb/nucleon for the p¯N interaction and 0.107±0.003±0.009 nb/nucleon for the π−N interaction, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. Normalization (K) factors that are required to bring the naive Drell-Yan and first-order QCD predictions into agreement with the measurements are extracted, and the uncertainties involved in such comparisons are examined.
Total cross sections for Sigma- and pi- on beryllium, carbon, polyethylene and copper as well as total cross sections for protons on beryllium and carbon have been measured in a broad momentum range around 600GeV/c. These measurements were performed with a transmission technique adapted to the SELEX hyperon-beam experiment at Fermilab. We report on results obtained for hadron-nucleus cross sections and on results for sigma_tot(Sigma- N) and sigma_tot(pi- N), which were deduced from nuclear cross sections.
Longitudinal and transverse momentum spectra of final state hadrons produced in deep-inelastic muon-deuterium scattering at incident muon energy of 490 GeV have been measured up to a hadronic center of mass energy of 30 GeV. The longitudinal distributions agree well with data from earlier muon-nucleon scattering experiments; these distributions tend to increase in steepness as the center of mass energy increases. Comparisons with e + e − data at comparable center of mass energies indicate slight differences. The transverse momentum distributions show an increase in mean p T 2 with an increase in the center of mass energy.
The two-spin parameter A LL in inclusive π 0 productionby longitudinally-polarized protons and antiprotons on a longitudinally-polarized proton target has been measured at the 200 GeV Fermilab spin physics facility, for π 0 's at x F =0 with 1⩽ p t ⩽3 GeV/ c . The results exclude, at the 95% confidence level, values of A LL (pp) > 0.1 and < − 0.1 for π 0 's produced by protons, and values of A LL ( p p) > 0.1 and < −0.2 for incident antiprotons. The relevance of A LL (pp) for the gluon spin density is discussed. The data are in good agreement with “conventional”, small or zero, gluon polarization.
A measurement of the single-spin asymmetry A N in p↑ + p→ π 0 + X at 200 GeV with x F = 0 shows a transition in the production process from a “ low -x T ” regime with A N = 0, through an intermediate region of negative asymmetry, to a “ high -x T ” regime with A N > 0.3. This transition occurs at x T ≈ 0.4 and is consistent with x T -scaling of A N in pion production using polarized beams or targets from √− s =5.2 to 19.4 GeV. Results for A N in η production by polarized protons and in π 0 production by polarized antiprotons are also presented.
The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in x F is observed in which A N increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing x F for the π + data and decreases from 0 to −0.38 with increasing x F for π − data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2⩽ x F ⩽0.9 and 0.2⩽ p T ⩽2.0 GeV / c . In a simple model our data indicate that at large x F the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents.
The invariant double-differential cross section, E 1 E 2 d 6 σ / d p 3 1 d p 3 2 , and the double-spin asymmetry, A LL , for inclusive multi-γ pair production in which γ-rays came from neutral mesons were measured with a 200 GeV / c longitudinally-polarized proton beam and a longitudinally-polarized proton target. Most of the multi-γ pairs comes from two-jet type events which are sensitive to partonic interaction. The A LL values were found to be consistent with zero. The invariant double-differential cross section for inclusive π 0 π 0 production was also measured. These measured cross sections are consistent with LUND Monte Carlo simulations. Using the LUND Monte Carlo simulation package with the Carlitz-Kaur model of spin dependent distribution functions of valence quarks, the A LL values have been compared with theoretical predictions of gluon polarization, ΔG / G . The results put restrictions on the size of ΔG / G in the region of 0.05 ⪅ x ⪅ 0.35.
Differential cross sections for p p elastic scattering have been measured for very small momentum transfers at six different incident antiproton momenta in the range 3.7 to 6.2 GeV/c by the detection of recoil protons at scattering angles close to 90°. Forward scattering parameters σ T , b , and ϱ have been determined. For the ϱ-parameter, up to an order of magnitude higher level of precision has been achieved compared to that in earlier experiments. It is found that existing dispersion theory predictions are in disagreement with our results for the ϱ-parameter.
We present results from an experiment studying the production of single particles and jets (groups of particles) with high p ⊥ (transverse momentum) in 200 GeV/ c interactions on a beryllium target. We give a detailed discussion of the ambiguities in the jet definition. The jet and single-particle cross sections have a similar shape but the jet cross section is over two orders of magnitude larger. The events show evidence for the coplanar structure suggested by constituent models, and the momentum distributions of charged particles give strong support to a simple quark-quark scattering model.
We present results on the production of hadrons in collisions of 400-GeV/c protons with beryllium, copper, and tungsten nuclei. The data cover the region from 5.6 to 8.0 GeV/c in the transverse momentum of the final-state hadron and from 73° to 102° in the proton-nucleon center-of-momentum frame production angle theta*. The restriction of the data to values of xT (xT=2pT/ √s ) greater than 0.4 enriches the sample with hard collisions of valence quarks. Asymmetries about theta*=90° reflect the presence of neutrons in the target nuclei. The variation of the atomic-weight dependence parameter α with production angle is discussed in the context of the phenomenology of nucleonic structure within nuclei. We also extrapolate our measurements to a ‘‘deuteron’’ target to minimize nuclear effects and compare the result to QCD calculations.
This Letter presents measurements of the nucleon structure function F2(x,Q2) based on the deep-inelastic scattering of 215- and 93-GeV muons in the iron multimuon spectrometer at Fermilab. With use of a lowest-order QCD calculation, a value of ΛLO=230±40(stat.)±80(syst.) MeV/c is found.
We report results on a precision measurement of the ratio R=σLσT in deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering in the kinematic range 0.2≤x≤0.5 and 1≤Q2≤10 (GeV/c)2. Our results show, for the first time, a clear falloff of R with increasing Q2. Our R results are in agreement with QCD predictions only when corrections for target mass effects and some additional higher twist effects are included. At small x, the data on R favor structure functions with a large gluon contribution. We also report results on the differences RA−RD and the cross section ratio σAσD between Fe and Au nuclei and the deuteron. Our results for RA−RD are consistent with zero for all x, Q2 indicating that possible contributions to R from nuclear higher twist effects and spin-0 constituents in nuclei are not different from those in nucleons. The ratios σAσD from all recent experiments, at all x, Q2 values, are now in agreement.
We report measurements of the proton form factors GEp and GMp extracted from elastic scattering in the range 1≤Q2≤3 (GeV/c)2 with total uncertainties < 15% in GEp and < 3% in GMp. Comparisons are made to theoretical models, including those based on perturbative QCD, vector-meson dominance, QCD sum rules, and diquark constituents in the proton. The results for GEp are somewhat larger than indicated by most theoretical parametrizations, and the ratios of the Pauli and Dirac form factors Q2(F2pF1p) are lower in value and demonstrate a weaker Q2 dependence than those predictions. A global extraction of the elastic form factors from several experiments in the range 0.1 0.1<Q2<10 (GeV/c)2 is also presented.
Data are presented on the inclusive production of π±, K±, p, and p¯ for π+, K+, and protons incident on nuclear targets at 100 GeV. The results cover the kinematic range 30≤P≤88 GeV/c for Pt=0.3 and 0.5 GeV/c. The observed A dependence of the invariant cross sections exhibits remarkable simplicity, which does not naturally follow from current models of particle production. The results show that the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation can be extended to include collisions with nuclei.
The results presented in this paper were obtained from a 105 000 frame exposure of the FNAL Hybrid Proportional Wire Chamber-30 inch Bubble Chamber System, in a tagged beam of 147 GeV/ c negative particles. Elastic, total and topological cross sections were obtained for both π − p and K − p interactions. Comparisons with other data, taken with various beam particles over large momentum intervals, show good agreement with KNO scaling, and similarity in the scaling behavior of σ n for the different beam particles.