Experimental multiplicity distributions scaled in the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) form for hadron-nucleus interactions show clear deviations from the scaling distribution observed for hadron-hadron interactions. The deviations become larger as A increases. Our data can be described by a model which invokes the hypothesis that KNO scaling is valid for hadron-nucleus interactions at a fixed impact parameter. In this model, the A dependence of the multiplicity distributions results from the convolution of scatterings at various impact parameters.
Results for the Cabibbo suppressed semileptonic decays D 0 → π − e + ν and D 0 → π − μ + ν (charge conjugates are implied) are reported by Fermilab photoproduction experiment E687. We find 45.4 ± 13.3 events in the electron mode and 45.6 ± 11.8 in the muon mode. The relative branching ratio BR (D 0 →π − l + v) BR (D 0 →K − l + v) for the combined sample is measured to be 0.101 ± 0.020 (stat.) ± 0.003 (syst.) 14 .
We report measurements of charm particle production asymmetries from the Fermilab photoproduction experiment E687. An asymmetry in the rate of production of charm versus anticharm particles is expected to arise primarily from fragmentation effects. We observe statistically significant asymmetries in the photoproduction of D + , D ∗+ and D 0 mesons and find small (but statistically weak) asymmetries in the production of the D s + meson and the Λ c + baryon. Our inclusive photoproduction asymmetries are compared to predictions from nonperturbative models of charm quark fragmentation.
We report evidence for the Cabibbo-suppressed decay of the charm baryon Λ c + into the final state pK − K + . The analysis is performed on data collected by high energy photoproduction experiment E687 during the 1990–1991 Fermilab fixed target run. The branching ratio of the decay Λ c + → pK − K + relative to the non-suppressed Λ c + → pK − π + is measured to be BR( pK − K + / pK − π + ) = 0.096 ± 0.029 ± 0.010. The upper limit of the decay into pø relative to the inclusive pK − K + decay is measured to be BR( pø / pK − K + < 58% at the 90% confidence level.
Measurements of elastic photoproduction cross sections for the J / ψ meson from 100 GeV to 375 GeV are presented. The results indicate that the cross section increases slowly in this range. The shape of the energy dependence agrees well with the photon-gluon fusion model prediction.
We report a search for the production of light quark vector bosons in hadron-nucleus collisions at 100 GeV bombarding energy. We find surprisingly few of these resonances produced. The lack of these particles is though to be due to the absorption by the many modestly energetic nucleons and the few anti-nucleons in the final state.
Inclusive cross sections for π 0 , K s 0 , Λ 0 and Λ 0 production in 100, 200 and 360 GeV /c π − p interactions are presented and compared with data at other energies. Invariant cross sections for γ, K s 0 , Λ 0 and Λ 0 production are presented in terms of Feynman x , the rapidity y , and transverse momentum squared, p T 2 . A comparison of the observed γ spectrum is made with the spectra computed assuming that the π 0 momentum distribution is identical to that of the observed π + or π − .
We report on the study of charm baryons decaying to Λ c + : Λ c ★+ (2625) → Λ c + π + π − , Λ c ★+ (2593) → Λ c + π + π − , Σ c 0 → Λ c + π − and Σ c ++ → Λ c + π + . We present a confirmation of the state Λ c ∗+ (2593) and determine its mass difference to be M ( Λ c ★+ (2593)) − M ( Λ c + ) = 309.2 ± 0.7 ± 0.3 MeV/ c 2 . We determine the lower limit on the resonant branching ratio to be BR (Λ c ★+ (2593) → Σ c π ± Λ c ★+ (2593) → Λ c + π + π − ) > 0.51 (90% c.l.). We also measure the mass differences M ( Σ c 0 ) − M ( Λ c + ) = 166.6±0.5±0.6 MeV/ c 2 and M ( Σ c ++ ) − M ( Λ c + ) = 167.6±0.6±0.6 MeV/ c 2 . Finally, we measure the relative photoproduction cross sections for Λ c ★+ and Σ c with respect to the (inclusive) photoproduction cross section for Λ c + .
The fermilab high-energy photoproduction experiment E687 provides a sample of approximately 90 events of the decay mode D + s → φμ + ν . The ratios of the form factors governing the decay are measured to be R v =1.8±0.9±0.2 and R 2 = 1.1±0.8±0.1, implying a polarization of Г 1 /Г t = 1.0±0.5±0.1 for the electron decay, consistent with our measurement of the form factor for the decay D + → K ∗0 μ + ν .
Charged hadronic four-body decays of D 0 mesons have been studied in the E687 photoproduction experiment at Fermilab. Branching ratios relative to the D 0 → K − π + π + π − decay mode for the Cabibbo-suppressed decays D 0 → π − π + π − π + , D 0 → K − K + π − π + have been measured and the first evidence of the D 0 → K − K + K − π + decay mode is reported. An analysis of the D 0 → K − K + π − π + resonance structure is also presented.
An experiment has been performed with the Fermilab 30-inch bubble chamber and Downstream Particle Identifier to study inclusive charged pion production in the high energy interactions of π±,K+,p and\(\bar p\) with thin foils of magnesium, silver and gold. The laboratory rapidity and transverse momentum distributions are presented separately for π+ and π− production. Comparisons are made with data from hadron-proton interactions and theA dependence of the cross sections in the different kinematic regions is discussed. We investigate the dependence of the cross sections on the number of observed protons ejected from the nucleus. By using our π−A data from two different beam energies, we study the energy dependence of these spectra. Comparisons are made with the VENUS string model Monte Carlo.
Inclusive and semi-inclusive cross sections for gp0 production in 100, 200, and 360 GeV/c π−p interactions are presented. Differential cross sections for ρ0 production as functions of c.m. rapidity and transverse momentum are compared with the corresponding differential cross sections for pion production. Effects of various methods of estimating background on the values obtained for ρ0 production cross sections are discussed. About 10% of the final-state charged pions appear to come from ρ0 decay. Thus, while ρ0 production and decay is a significant source of final-state pions, other sources must contribute the majority of the produced pions.
Fermilab experiment E735 located at the CO intersection region of the\(\sqrt s= 1.8\) TeV\(p\bar p\) collider analysed over 900 Φ→K+K− events. Measured were the transverse momentum spectrum, the correlation between the average transverse momentum <pt> and the charged particle multiphcityNc, as well as the probability of Φ production per charged track,NΦ/Nc, versusNc. We have also made an estinate of the total inclusive cross section for Φ mesons,\(\sigma (p\bar p \to \phi X) = 7.3 \pm 2.2 mb\).
Hadronic charm production was investigated with a two-arm magnetic spectrometer. The experiment was triggered on muons from the semileptonic decay of charm particles in one arm while reconstructing the mass of the associatively produced partners in the other arm. An excess of 153±46 combinations above background for the neutral D→Kπ mode was observed. This corresponds to a model-dependent DD¯ production cross section of 41±12+15−11 μb per nucleon, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.
The yields and average transverse momenta of pions, kaons, and antiprotons produced at the Fermilab p¯p collider at s=300, 540, 1000, and 1800 GeV are presented and compared with data from the energies reached at the CERN collider. We also present data on the dependence of average transverse momentum 〈pt〉 and particle ratios as a function of charged particle density dNcdη; data for particle densities as high as six times the average value, corresponding to a Bjorken energy density 6 GeV/fm3, are reported. These data are relevant to the search for quark-gluon phase of QCD.
The hadronic production of charmed states was studied in a two-arm spectrometer using a 205-GeV/c negative-pion beam incident upon a beryllium target. One arm, filled with dense absorber, triggered the detectors upon the passage of a muon with a moderate transverse momentum and a total momentum of at least 4 GeV/c. The other arm was an open-geometry magnetic spectrometer which had both neutral- and charged-particle identification capabilities. The apparatus, the data, and an invariant-mass-plot search for evidence of charmed-meson production through several charged-particle decay modes are described. The Kπ, Kππ, and Kπππ mass plots fail to reveal significant D-meson signals. Based upon the Kπ mass plots, the 95%-confidence upper limit on the DD¯ production cross section is found to be less than 51 μb per nucleon for the production models tested. A search for evidence of charged-D* production yields 30±16 combinations above background in association with the expected trigger muon charge. Interpreted as a D* signal, this excess corresponds to a model-dependent inclusive DD¯ production cross section of 34±18−9+14 μb per nucleon. Model-dependent upper limits on the ratio of the F to D cross sections are also presented.
The inclusive cross section for charged-D* production by 205-GeV/c π− mesons incident on a beryllium target was measured with a two-arm spectrometer triggered by prompt muons. Using the mass-difference technique often employed in D* studies, a signal of 31±11 charged D*’s was isolated; it includes contributions from both the D*+ and D*− charged modes in correlation with triggering muons of the proper charge. This corresponds to an inclusive charged-D* production cross section of 220±77−57+77 μb per Be nucleus or 24±9−6+9 μb per nucleon when the cross section is scaled linearly with atomic mass number. The first error is statistical and the second is systematic.
Results are reported concerning the charged-particle multiplicity distribution obtained in an exposure of the high-resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC to a beam of 800 GeV protons at the Fermilab MPS. This is the first time that such data have been available at this energy. The distribution of the number n ch of charged particles produced in inelastic interactions obeys KNO-scaling. The average multiplicity is 〈 n ch 〉 = 10.26±0.15. For n ch ⩾8 the data can be well fitted to a negative binomial. The difference between the overall experimental multiplicity distribution and that resulting from the latter fit is in agreement with the contribution expected from diffractive processes.
We have examined charged multiplicities arising from p − p and p− p ̄ collisions over the range of center of mass energies, s , from 30 GeV to 1800 GeV. Results from Tevatron experiment E735 support the presence of double parton interactions. These processes can be seen to account for a large fraction of the increase in the non single diffraction inelastic cross section from energies of about 200 GeV to 1800 GeV.
Measurements of the cross section for production of massive dihadrons by 800-GeV protons incident on a tungsten target are presented. These are compared with measurements taken at lower and higher s and with perturbative-QCD predictions. Scaling and A-dependence behaviors observed at lower energies are confirmed, and good agreement with QCD is obtained. Model dependences of earlier measurements are discussed.
For the reaction π−N→V0X, where V0 is a Ks0, Λ, and Λ¯ and X are charged particles, we measured the transverse- and longitudinal-momentum distributions, and inclusive cross sections for the V0 and for K*±(892), Σ±(1385), and Ξ±(1321). We compare our results with predictions of quark-counting rules, and conclude that valence quarks play an important role in strange-particle production.
We present the results of a search for the production of light elements in p¯p collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Momentum, time of flight, and dE/dx measurements are used to distinguish nuclei from elementary particles. A production ratio for deuterium to hydrogen is calculated and compared to the primordial value of the big bang model. Some evidence for tritium is found and none for helium isotopes.
The production of φ-meson pairs has been observed in 400-GeV/c proton-nucleon interactions at the Fermilab multiparticle spectrometer in the inclusive reaction pN→φφ+X, where each φ decays to a K+K− pair. A fast (200 nsec) high-level processor was used to selectively trigger on events containing two pairs of oppositely charged kaons having low invariant masses. The experimental apparatus and trigger processor are described. The cross section for φφ production and an upper limit for ηc production are presented.
The diffractive dissociation of a 200-GeV/c π− beam into KS0KS0π+π−π− has been observed. The diffractive KS0KS0π+π−π− cross section is 1.59±0.78 μb. The ratio of the diffractive KS0KS0π+π−π− cross section to the diffractive KS0KS0π− cross section is 0.40±0.13, which is in good agreement with a diffractive-fragmentation-model prediction of 0.36. There is evidence for simultaneous production of K*− and K*+ in the diffractive KS0KS0π+π−π− sample. The K*+−KS0π−+ mass distribution shows an enhancement near 1.95 GeV.