We have studied muon pairs with an invariant mass between 4 and 9 GeV/c2 produced in p¯N and π−N interactions at an incident momentum of 125 GeV/c. The experiment was performed at Fermilab using a tungsten target and a special beam enriched to contain 18% antiprotons. We compare differential distributions as functions of the dimuon invariant mass, Feynman x, transverse momentum, and decay angles of the dimuon to the predictions of the Drell-Yan model including QCD corrections. Quark structure functions for the p¯ and π− are extracted. Comparisons of the antiproton data to the Drell-Yan model are significant because the cross sections depend principally on the valence-quark structure functions which are accurately determined by deep-inelastic scattering measurements. The measured absolute cross section (integrated over positive Feynman x and all transverse momenta) is 0.106±0.005±0.008 nb/nucleon for the p¯N interaction and 0.107±0.003±0.009 nb/nucleon for the π−N interaction, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. Normalization (K) factors that are required to bring the naive Drell-Yan and first-order QCD predictions into agreement with the measurements are extracted, and the uncertainties involved in such comparisons are examined.
The cross section for the reaction p¯N→μ+μ−X with muon pairs in the mass range 4<M<9 GeV/c2 and xF>0 was measured to be σ=0.104±0.005±0.008 nb/nucleon. The distributions dσdxF and M3dσdM were compared to the QCD-improved Drell-Yan model and to calculations including first-order QCD corrections, with use of deep-inelastic structure functions. Excellent agreement with the data was obtained if the calculations were multiplied by factors of 2.45 and 1.41, respectively.
The production of the Jψ resonance in 125-GeV/c p¯ and φ− interactions with Be, Cu, and W targets has been measured. The cross section per nucleon for Jψ production is suppressed in W interactions relative to the lighter targets, especially at large values of Feynman x, which is opposite to the expectation from the various explanations of the European Muon Collaboration effect. Models incorporating modifications of the gluon structure functions in heavy targets show qualitative agreement with the data.
We have measured the cross section for production of ψ and ψ′ in p¯ and π− interactions with Be, Cu, and W targets in experiment E537 at Fermilab. The measurements were performed at 125 GeV/c using a forward dimuon spectrometer in a closed geometry configuration. The gluon structure functions of the p¯ and π− have been extracted from the measured dσdxF spectra of the produced ψ's. From the p¯W data we obtain, for p¯, xG(x)=(2.15±0.7)[1−x](6.83±0.5)[1+(5.85±0.95)x]. In the π− case, we obtain, from the W and the Be data separately, xG(x)=(1.49±0.03)[1−x](1.98±0.06) (for π−W), xG(x)=(1.10±0.10)[1−x](1.20±0.20) (for π−Be).
Backward emitted protons with momentump>0.3 GeV/c in interactions of neutrino in the energy range 10–200 GeV with photoemulsion nuclei were investigated. Energy spectrum slope parameter of backward protons was measured to beT0=48.9±7.9 MeV. TheA-dependence power index of relative mean yield of backward protons was found to bea=0.68±0.12. A drop in the mean yield of backward protons at the four momentum squared over ∼15 (GeV/c)2 (the neutrino energy over ∼50 GeV) was observed.
We have measured π+p, π−p, and pp elastic scattering at an incident-beam momentum of 200 GeV/c in the region of −t, four-momentum transfer squared, from 0.021 to 0.665 (GeV/c)2. The data allow an investigation of the t dependence of the logarithmic forward slope parameter b≡(ddt)(lndσdt). In addition to standard parametrization, we use functional forms suggested by the additive quark model to fit the measured dσdt distributions. Within the context of this model we estimate the size of the clothed quark in the pion and proton. Limits on the elastic-scattering amplitude derived from unitarity bounds are checked, and no violations are observed.
We have measured the elastic cross section for pp, p¯p, π+p, π−p, K+p, and K−p scattering at incident momenta of 70, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 GeV/c. The range of the four-momentum transfer squared t varied with the beam momentum from 0.0016≤−t≤0.36 (GeV/c)2 at 200 GeV/c to 0.0018≤−t≤0.0625 (GeV/c)2 at 70 GeV/c. The conventional parametrization of the t dependence of the nuclear amplitude by a simple exponential in t was found to be inadequate. An excellent fit to the data was obtained by a parametrization motivated by the additive quark model. Using this parametrization we determined the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear amplitude by the Coulomb-interference method.
Proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been measured in the four-momentum transfer squared region 0.013<|t|<0.14 (GeV/c)2 and for incident proton beam momenta from 50 to 400 GeV/c. The data can be fitted with the Bethe interference formula. We observe shrinkage of the diffraction cone with increasing energy equal to (0.94±0.04)ln(s1 GeV2) (GeV/c)−2. This shrinkage is greater than that observed in pp elastic scattering. The ratio of the elastic to the total cross section is approximately 0.1 and independent of energy above ∼ 150 GeV. In order to extract information on pn scattering we fit our data using the Glauber approach and a form factor which is the sum of exponentials. The values we obtain for the slope parameter in pn scattering are sensitive to the details of the inelastic double-scattering term.
Total cross sections for Sigma- and pi- on beryllium, carbon, polyethylene and copper as well as total cross sections for protons on beryllium and carbon have been measured in a broad momentum range around 600GeV/c. These measurements were performed with a transmission technique adapted to the SELEX hyperon-beam experiment at Fermilab. We report on results obtained for hadron-nucleus cross sections and on results for sigma_tot(Sigma- N) and sigma_tot(pi- N), which were deduced from nuclear cross sections.
Fermilab experiment E835 has measured the cross section for the reaction p ̄ p→e + e − at s =11.63, 12.43, 14.40 and 18.22 GeV 2 . From the analysis of the 66 observed events new high-precision measurements of the proton magnetic form factor are obtained.
We present data from Fermilab experiment E781 (SELEX) on the hadroproduction asymmetry for anti-Lambda_c compared to Lambda_c+ as a function of xF and pt2 distributions for Lambda_c+. These data were measured in the same apparatus using incident pi-, sigma- beams at 600 GeV/c and proton beam at 540 GeV/c. The asymmetry is studied as a function of xF. In the forward hemisphere with xF >= 0.2 both baryon beams exhibit very strong preference for producing charm baryons rather than charm antibaryons, while the pion beam asymmetry is much smaller. In this energy regime the results show that beam fragments play a major role in the kinematics of Lambda_c formation, as suggested by the leading quark picture.
We report a measurement of the p p ̄ total cross section at s =1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, using the luminosity independent method. Our result is σ T =71.71±2.02 mb. We also obtained values of the total elastic and total inelastic cross sections.
We have studied single diffraction dissociation ( p p→ p X ) in proton-antiproton collisions at √ s =1.8TeV, covering the ranges 3⪅ M X ⪅200 GeV and 0.05⪅| t |⪅0.11 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Parameterizing the production to be of the form dσ ( d t d M 2 X ) = (M 2 X ) −α exp (bt) , we obtain α = 1.13±0.07 and b = 10.5±1.8(GeV/ c ) −2 . The total single diffraction dissociation cross section is 2 σ SD =8.1±1.7 mb. Comparisons are made to previous lower energy data, and to an earlier measurement by us at the same energy.
The analyzing power A N of proton-proton, proton-hydrocarbon, and antiproton-hydrocarbon, scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using thhe 185 GeV/ c Fermilab polarized-proton and -antiproton beams. The results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions within statistical uncertainties.
We report measurements of the proton elastic form factors, G E p and G M p , extracted from electron scattering in the range 1⩽ Q 2 ⩽3(GeV/ c ) 2 . The uncertainties are <15% in G E p and <3% in G M p . The values of G E p are larger than indicated by most theoretical parameterizations, The ratio of Pauli and Dirac form factors, Q 2 F 2 p / F 1 p , is lower and demonstrates less Q 2 dependence than most of these parameterizations. Comparisons are made to theoretical models, including those based on perturbative QCD and vector-meson dominance.
Using the Primakoff formalism, we have extracted the radiative decay width of the A + 2 (1310) produced in coherent interactions of 200 GeV/ c π + mesons in nuclear targets. The width obtained is 295 ± 60 keV, a value consistent with quark-model predictions.
Using the Primakoff formalism, we have extracted the radiative decay width of the K ∗+ (1430) produced in coherent interactions of 200 GeV/ c K + mesons in nuclear targets. The width obtained is 240 ± 45 keV, a value reasonably consistent with quark-model predictions.
A measurement of the single-spin asymmetry A N in p↑ + p→ π 0 + X at 200 GeV with x F = 0 shows a transition in the production process from a “ low -x T ” regime with A N = 0, through an intermediate region of negative asymmetry, to a “ high -x T ” regime with A N > 0.3. This transition occurs at x T ≈ 0.4 and is consistent with x T -scaling of A N in pion production using polarized beams or targets from √− s =5.2 to 19.4 GeV. Results for A N in η production by polarized protons and in π 0 production by polarized antiprotons are also presented.
The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in x F is observed in which A N increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing x F for the π + data and decreases from 0 to −0.38 with increasing x F for π − data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2⩽ x F ⩽0.9 and 0.2⩽ p T ⩽2.0 GeV / c . In a simple model our data indicate that at large x F the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents.
The differential cross section for elastic antiproton—proton scattering at s =1.8 TeV has been measured over the t range 0.034⩽| t |⩽0.65 (GeV/ c ) 2 . A logarithmic slope parameter, B , of 16.3±0.3 (GeV/ c ) −2 is obtained. In contrast to lower energy experiments, no change in slope is observed over this t range.
We report a measurement of the p p total cross section at √ s =1.8 TeV using a luminosity-independent method. Our result is σ T =72.1±3.3 mb ; we also derive the total elastic cross section σ el =16.6±1.6 mb. A value is obtained for the total single diffraction cross section of 11.7±2.3 mb.
Momentum spectra for forward Σ− and Ξ− production by protons on beryllium are presented. Σ− production data for two primary proton momenta are compared to test scaling of the invariant cross section. In addition, the observed single-particle momentum distributions are compared with single-particle spectra from other inclusive reactions initiated by protons.
Fermilab experiment E735 located at the CO intersection region of the\(\sqrt s= 1.8\) TeV\(p\bar p\) collider analysed over 900 Φ→K+K− events. Measured were the transverse momentum spectrum, the correlation between the average transverse momentum <pt> and the charged particle multiphcityNc, as well as the probability of Φ production per charged track,NΦ/Nc, versusNc. We have also made an estinate of the total inclusive cross section for Φ mesons,\(\sigma (p\bar p \to \phi X) = 7.3 \pm 2.2 mb\).
The NuTeV experiment at Fermilab has obtained a unique high statistics sample of neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions using its high-energy sign-selected beam. We present a measurement of the differential cross section for charged-current neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering from iron. Structure functions, F_2(x,Q^2) and xF_3(x,Q^2), are determined by fitting the inelasticity, y, dependence of the cross sections. This measurement has significantly improved systematic precision as a consequence of more precise understanding of hadron and muon energy scales.
The structure of the nucleon is studied by means of deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering at high energies through the weak neutral current. The neutrino-nucleon scattering events were observed in a 340-metric-ton fine-grained calorimeter exposed to a narrow-band (dichromatic) neutrino beam at Fermilab. The data sample after analysis cuts consists of 9200 charged-current and 3000 neutral-current neutrino and antineutrino events. The neutral-current valence and sea nucleon structure functions are extracted from the x distribution reconstructed from the measured angle and energy of the recoil-hadron shower and the incident narrow-band neutrino-beam energy. They are compared to those extracted from charged-current events analyzed as neutral-current events. It is shown that the nucleon structure is independent of the type of neutrino interaction, which confirms an important aspect of the standard model. The data are also used to determine the value of sin2θW=0.238±0.013±0.015±0.010 for a single-parameter fit, where the first error is from statistical sources, the second from experimental systematic errors, and the third from estimated theoretical errors.