Inclusive and semi-inclusive ρ 0 production are studied in 205 GeV/ c pp interactions. The number of ρ 0 per inelastic event is 0.33 ± 0.06, so that (13 ± 2)% of the π − are products of ϱ 0 decay. The ρ 0 are found to be produced mainly near y = 0 and tend to have larger average transverse momentum than do pions.
The charged-particle multiplicity distribution in 205−GeVc proton-proton interactions is presented. In addition, the total diffractive contributions to each charged multiplicity are estimated assuming a factorizable Pomeron.
Results of a Fermilab experiment using the 30-in. hydrogen bubble chamber are reported, with the main emphasis on pion production in the central region. Single-particle inclusive and semi-inclusive distributions in rapidity, Feynman x, and pT2 for both π− and π+ are presented and compared with results of other experiments. Two-particle distributions are investigated using the correlation-function formalism. The relation between inclusive and semi-inclusive correlation functions is discussed. The semi-inclusive correlation functions in rapidity are found to have short-range character compatible with the ideas of independent-cluster-emission models. Evidence for effects due to Bose-Einstein statistics of like particles is found by comparing the joint correlation function in rapidity and azimuthal angle, as well as the charged multiplicity associated with transverse momentum in the like- and unlike-charge combinations. Data on the average associated transverse momentum are also presented. The inclusive and semi-inclusive three-particle distributions are presented for all charge combinations. The inclusive three-particle correlations are found to be small for events with more than four particles in the final state. Two independent ways were found in which three-particle densities can be expressed in terms of one- and two-particle densities.
Backward emitted protons with momentump>0.3 GeV/c in interactions of neutrino in the energy range 10–200 GeV with photoemulsion nuclei were investigated. Energy spectrum slope parameter of backward protons was measured to beT0=48.9±7.9 MeV. TheA-dependence power index of relative mean yield of backward protons was found to bea=0.68±0.12. A drop in the mean yield of backward protons at the four momentum squared over ∼15 (GeV/c)2 (the neutrino energy over ∼50 GeV) was observed.
We have measured π+p, π−p, and pp elastic scattering at an incident-beam momentum of 200 GeV/c in the region of −t, four-momentum transfer squared, from 0.021 to 0.665 (GeV/c)2. The data allow an investigation of the t dependence of the logarithmic forward slope parameter b≡(ddt)(lndσdt). In addition to standard parametrization, we use functional forms suggested by the additive quark model to fit the measured dσdt distributions. Within the context of this model we estimate the size of the clothed quark in the pion and proton. Limits on the elastic-scattering amplitude derived from unitarity bounds are checked, and no violations are observed.
We have measured the elastic cross section for pp, p¯p, π+p, π−p, K+p, and K−p scattering at incident momenta of 70, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 GeV/c. The range of the four-momentum transfer squared t varied with the beam momentum from 0.0016≤−t≤0.36 (GeV/c)2 at 200 GeV/c to 0.0018≤−t≤0.0625 (GeV/c)2 at 70 GeV/c. The conventional parametrization of the t dependence of the nuclear amplitude by a simple exponential in t was found to be inadequate. An excellent fit to the data was obtained by a parametrization motivated by the additive quark model. Using this parametrization we determined the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear amplitude by the Coulomb-interference method.
Elastic scattering of hadrons on protons has been measured at momenta of 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c. The meson-proton scattering is found to be independent of momentum and meson type for −t>0.8 (GeV/c)2. The momentum dependence of the pp dip at −t=1.4 (GeV/c)2 was investigated. Slope parameters are given.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
We have studied inclusive Δ++(1236) production for |tpΔ|<1.0 (GeV/c)2 in a 50 000 picture exposure of the 30-inch hydrogen bubble chamber to a 205 GeV/c proton beam. The inclusive Δ++ cross section for one hemisphere in the center-of-mass system is (1.30±0.14) mb. The mean charged multiplicity of the system recoiling off the Δ++ is in agreement with that for laboratory π−p interactions at the same energy in the center-of-mass frame. The inclusive Δ++ production is compared to inclusive Λ0 and proton production in the same experiment. The connection between Δ++ production and diffraction is discussed. We find that not all Δ++ come from the decay of a diffractively-produced state. The PT2 distribution for the Δ++ has a slope of (10.5±0.9) (GeV/c)−2 for PT2≲0.2 (GeV/c)2. This slope, together with the decay angular distribution of the Δ++ at small momentum transfer, suggests a strong pion-exchange contribution to the inclusive process. We compare the data to the expectation of a triple-Regge model with ρ- and π-exchange contributions.
Proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been measured in the four-momentum transfer squared region 0.013<|t|<0.14 (GeV/c)2 and for incident proton beam momenta from 50 to 400 GeV/c. The data can be fitted with the Bethe interference formula. We observe shrinkage of the diffraction cone with increasing energy equal to (0.94±0.04)ln(s1 GeV2) (GeV/c)−2. This shrinkage is greater than that observed in pp elastic scattering. The ratio of the elastic to the total cross section is approximately 0.1 and independent of energy above ∼ 150 GeV. In order to extract information on pn scattering we fit our data using the Glauber approach and a form factor which is the sum of exponentials. The values we obtain for the slope parameter in pn scattering are sensitive to the details of the inelastic double-scattering term.
Fermilab experiment E835 has measured the cross section for the reaction p ̄ p→e + e − at s =11.63, 12.43, 14.40 and 18.22 GeV 2 . From the analysis of the 66 observed events new high-precision measurements of the proton magnetic form factor are obtained.
We present data on inclusive and semi-inclusive ϱ 0 production in 147 GeV/ c π − p interactions. We find a total cross section of 7.3 ± 1.3 mb. Most of this cross section is found in the lower topology events (⩽ 10 prongs), and in the central and forward rapidity regions. The P T 2 dependence of ϱ 0 production, 〈: n > ϱ 0 per event, and the ϱ 0 / π + ratios are also discussed.
The elastic differential cross section for pp scattering has been measured up to a momentum transfer of ‖ t ‖ = 3(GeV/ c ) 2 at 100 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c incident momenta. The 200 GeV/ c measurements shows a diffractive like dip at ‖ t ‖ = 1.5 GeV/ c while no such dip is seen in the 100 GeV/ c data.
Results are presented on the topological cross sections obtained for antiproton-proton interactions from an exposure of the Fermilab 30-inch bubble chamber to a 100 GeV/ c negative beam enriched in p 's. The p p inelastic cross section is found to be σ inel = 34.6 ± 0.4 mb, and the average inelastic charged particle multiplicity to be 〈 n 〉 = 6.74 ± 0.05.
We report a measurement of the p p ̄ total cross section at s =1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, using the luminosity independent method. Our result is σ T =71.71±2.02 mb. We also obtained values of the total elastic and total inelastic cross sections.
We have studied single diffraction dissociation ( p p→ p X ) in proton-antiproton collisions at √ s =1.8TeV, covering the ranges 3⪅ M X ⪅200 GeV and 0.05⪅| t |⪅0.11 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Parameterizing the production to be of the form dσ ( d t d M 2 X ) = (M 2 X ) −α exp (bt) , we obtain α = 1.13±0.07 and b = 10.5±1.8(GeV/ c ) −2 . The total single diffraction dissociation cross section is 2 σ SD =8.1±1.7 mb. Comparisons are made to previous lower energy data, and to an earlier measurement by us at the same energy.
Longitudinal and transverse momentum spectra of final state hadrons produced in deep-inelastic muon-deuterium scattering at incident muon energy of 490 GeV have been measured up to a hadronic center of mass energy of 30 GeV. The longitudinal distributions agree well with data from earlier muon-nucleon scattering experiments; these distributions tend to increase in steepness as the center of mass energy increases. Comparisons with e + e − data at comparable center of mass energies indicate slight differences. The transverse momentum distributions show an increase in mean p T 2 with an increase in the center of mass energy.
The analyzing power A N of proton-proton, proton-hydrocarbon, and antiproton-hydrocarbon, scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using thhe 185 GeV/ c Fermilab polarized-proton and -antiproton beams. The results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions within statistical uncertainties.
We report measurements of the proton elastic form factors, G E p and G M p , extracted from electron scattering in the range 1⩽ Q 2 ⩽3(GeV/ c ) 2 . The uncertainties are <15% in G E p and <3% in G M p . The values of G E p are larger than indicated by most theoretical parameterizations, The ratio of Pauli and Dirac form factors, Q 2 F 2 p / F 1 p , is lower and demonstrates less Q 2 dependence than most of these parameterizations. Comparisons are made to theoretical models, including those based on perturbative QCD and vector-meson dominance.
The total v μ N charged current cross section in the energy interval 10–50 GeV is unfolded from 15' bubble chamber antineutrino data. The method is to isolate the quasielastic events and determine their relative contribution to the overall charged current sample. The scale parameter is found to be (0.29 ± 0.03) × 10 −38 cm 2 GeV −1 . Relevance of the method for neutrino oscillation studies is discussed.
A measurement of the single-spin asymmetry A N in p↑ + p→ π 0 + X at 200 GeV with x F = 0 shows a transition in the production process from a “ low -x T ” regime with A N = 0, through an intermediate region of negative asymmetry, to a “ high -x T ” regime with A N > 0.3. This transition occurs at x T ≈ 0.4 and is consistent with x T -scaling of A N in pion production using polarized beams or targets from √− s =5.2 to 19.4 GeV. Results for A N in η production by polarized protons and in π 0 production by polarized antiprotons are also presented.
The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in x F is observed in which A N increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing x F for the π + data and decreases from 0 to −0.38 with increasing x F for π − data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2⩽ x F ⩽0.9 and 0.2⩽ p T ⩽2.0 GeV / c . In a simple model our data indicate that at large x F the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents.
The differential cross section for elastic antiproton—proton scattering at s =1.8 TeV has been measured over the t range 0.034⩽| t |⩽0.65 (GeV/ c ) 2 . A logarithmic slope parameter, B , of 16.3±0.3 (GeV/ c ) −2 is obtained. In contrast to lower energy experiments, no change in slope is observed over this t range.
The forward production of charm states in 350 GeV p-Fe interactions has been studied via the production of prompt single muons with momentum p ≳ 20 GeV/ c . The data indicate equal production of single μ + and μ − events. The observed momentum distributions can be fit with the hypothesis that D mesons are produced with an invariant cross section proportional to (1 − x F ) 5.0±0.8 exp[−(2 ± 0.3) P t ] and do not favor a large diffractive cross section predicted by intrinsic charm models. Extrapolation of the distributions to x F = 0 yields a total D D production cross section of 22.6 ± 2.1(±3.6)ωb/nucleon on the assumption of a linear A dependence and 8% average semileptonic branching ratio of charm states.
We report a search for the production of light quark vector bosons in hadron-nucleus collisions at 100 GeV bombarding energy. We find surprisingly few of these resonances produced. The lack of these particles is though to be due to the absorption by the many modestly energetic nucleons and the few anti-nucleons in the final state.