Elastic ω-meson photoproduction on protons has been measured from 46 to 180 GeV. The cross section is approximately constant with photon energy and averages 1.10 ± 0.08 μb. The t dependence of the differential cross section is consistent with A exp(bt), where b=8.4±0.7 GeV−2. The photon-omega coupling constant, obtained from a normalization of hadron elastic-scattering cross sections to the photoproduction data of this experiment (with use of vector-meson dominance and an additive quark model), is γω24π=5.4±0.4.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
Elastic scattering of hadrons on protons has been measured at momenta of 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c. The meson-proton scattering is found to be independent of momentum and meson type for −t>0.8 (GeV/c)2. The momentum dependence of the pp dip at −t=1.4 (GeV/c)2 was investigated. Slope parameters are given.
Differential cross sections for p p elastic scattering have been measured for very small momentum transfers at six different incident antiproton momenta in the range 3.7 to 6.2 GeV/c by the detection of recoil protons at scattering angles close to 90°. Forward scattering parameters σ T , b , and ϱ have been determined. For the ϱ-parameter, up to an order of magnitude higher level of precision has been achieved compared to that in earlier experiments. It is found that existing dispersion theory predictions are in disagreement with our results for the ϱ-parameter.
Results are presented on π±p, K±p, and p±p elastic scattering measured with an apparatus having acceptance of 0.5<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2 and 0.9<−t<11 (GeV/c)2 at 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. A diffractionlike dip is seen for the first time in the π−p t distribution at −t=4 (GeV/c)2. All meson-proton cross sections are found to be similar in the range 1<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2, although some small systematic differences are observed. Cross sections for pp and p―p are compared with previous data.
We have carried out a partial-wave analysis (PWA) of three-pion systems produced in the coherent dissociation of π+ mesons on nuclear targets. The data have been analyzed for copper and lead targets at an incident π+ energy of 202.5 GeV. This PWA provides further evidence for resonant contributions to JP=1+ and 0− waves at 3π masses below 1.5 GeV, which can be plausibly identified with A1 and π′ mesons. The contribution from electromagnetic production of the A2 has also been extracted, and an estimate for Coulomb production and radiative width of the A1 has been obtained.
We have measured the coherent nuclear production of low-mass K+ω systems in K+A collisions at 202.5 GeV. Results for carbon, copper, and lead targets are similar to those found for π+π+π− production in π+A reactions at the same energy.
We have measured π+p, π−p, and pp elastic scattering at an incident-beam momentum of 200 GeV/c in the region of −t, four-momentum transfer squared, from 0.021 to 0.665 (GeV/c)2. The data allow an investigation of the t dependence of the logarithmic forward slope parameter b≡(ddt)(lndσdt). In addition to standard parametrization, we use functional forms suggested by the additive quark model to fit the measured dσdt distributions. Within the context of this model we estimate the size of the clothed quark in the pion and proton. Limits on the elastic-scattering amplitude derived from unitarity bounds are checked, and no violations are observed.
The reaction π−p→K0K−p has been measured from 50 to 175 GeV/c. The production characteristics of the A2 have been analyzed. We find spin and t dependence similar to lower energies, but the cross section falls rapidly with energy. In a Regge description of π−p→A2−p our data imply a rather small Pomeron-exchange component.
The reaction K−p→K¯0π−p has been studied at 100 and 175 GeV/c and the reaction π−p→K0K−p at 50, 100, and 175 GeV/c. Both reactions are dominated by production of resonances, K*(890), K*(1430) and A2(1320), A2(2040), respectively. Production cross sections, t distributions, and decay-angular distributions are studied. Isoscalar natural-parity exchange is dominant. The energy dependence of the K* and A2 resonance production between 10 and 175 GeV/c is well described by a Regge-pole model. Our data on A2 corrects that in an earlier paper.
Angular distributions for π+p→π+p were measured for 13 incident-pion momenta from 4.4 to 6.0 GeV/c and for −t less than ∼0.1 (GeV/c)2. This experiment was performed at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron of Argonne National Laboratory, where a focusing magnetic spectrometer and a scintillation-counter hodoscope were used. In fitting the angular distributions the strong-interaction contribution was parameterized by an exponential form exp(bt); the Coulomb interference was also included. The resulting values of the slope parameter for |t|<∼0.1 (GeV/c)2 are presented for each incident beam momentum.
The elastic differential cross section for pp scattering has been measured up to a momentum transfer of ‖ t ‖ = 3(GeV/ c ) 2 at 100 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c incident momenta. The 200 GeV/ c measurements shows a diffractive like dip at ‖ t ‖ = 1.5 GeV/ c while no such dip is seen in the 100 GeV/ c data.
Data are presented on elastic πp and Kp scattering for values of −t up to 2.5 and 3.5 (GeV/c)2 at incident momenta of 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. All of the cross sections are found to be nearly identical, although there is some momentum dependence of the π+p data; a small systematic difference observed between pion and kaon data cannot be explained by geometrical scaling.
Antiproton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at 100 GeV/c for 0.5<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2 and at 200 GeV/c for 0.9<−t<4 (GeV/c)2. The data show that the −t≃1.4 (GeV/c)2 dip recently observed at 50 GeV/c persists to higher incident momenta. Proton-proton measurements made at the same beam momenta show similar structure.
We report measurements from elastic photoproduction of ω's on hydrogen for photon energies between 60 and 225 GeV, elastic φ photoproduction on hydrogen between 35 and 165 GeV and on deuterium between 45 and 85 GeV, elastic photoproduction on deuterium of an enhancement at 1.72 GeV/c2 decaying into K+K−, and elastic and inelastic photoproduction on deuterium of pp¯ pairs.
We have observed diffraction dissociation of KL0 mesons with a carbon target into the exclusive final states KS0π+π−, KS0ω, and KS0φ. The diffraction production cross section for these states is not strongly dependent on the incident energy, varying at most by 30% between 75 and 150 GeV. The mass distributions do not change appreciably as a function of laboratory energy. The ratio of the diffractive mass-threshold production of K*±π∓, KS0ρ, KS0ω, and KS0φ is compared with previously obtained lower-energy data.
Proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been measured in the four-momentum transfer squared region 0.013<|t|<0.14 (GeV/c)2 and for incident proton beam momenta from 50 to 400 GeV/c. The data can be fitted with the Bethe interference formula. We observe shrinkage of the diffraction cone with increasing energy equal to (0.94±0.04)ln(s1 GeV2) (GeV/c)−2. This shrinkage is greater than that observed in pp elastic scattering. The ratio of the elastic to the total cross section is approximately 0.1 and independent of energy above ∼ 150 GeV. In order to extract information on pn scattering we fit our data using the Glauber approach and a form factor which is the sum of exponentials. The values we obtain for the slope parameter in pn scattering are sensitive to the details of the inelastic double-scattering term.
The reaction π−p→X−p, X−→ηπ−, η→γγ has been studied in an optical spark-chamber experiment at the Argonne ZGS (Zero Gradient Synchrotron) at a beam momentum of 6.0 GeV/c and with 0.27≤|t|≤0.42 (GeV/c)2. The ηπ mass spectrum contains about 1400 events in the mass range 0.80<M(ηπ)<1.55 GeV/c2, and is dominated by approximately 1000 events of the type A2−→ηπ−. No structure is discernible within the A2 mass spectrum for an experimental resolution of 7.1 MeV/c2 [16.7 MeV/c2 FWHM (full width at half maximum)]. A single D-wave Breit-Wigner distribution fits the data with a high confidence level, yielding for the A2 the parameters M0=1.323±0.003 GeV/c2 and Γ0=0.108±0.009 GeV/c2. The angular distribution of the decay A2−→ηπ− is analyzed and the resultant density matrix elements have the values ρ11=0.45±0.02, ρ1−1=0.45±0.04, and ρ00=0.09±0.04. All other elements are consistent with zero. Finally, the missing-mass spectrum in the region of the A2 is presented. A signal of 230 events above background per 5-MeV/c2 interval is observed at the A2 peak, with a signal to background ratio of greater than 1:1. A single D-wave Breit-Wigner distribution together with a quadratic background fits the data well, with the parameters for the A2 being M0=1.324±0.003 GeV/c2 and Γ0=0.104±0.009 GeV/c2. Both A2 mass spectra are incompatible with the dipole shape.
In a 35 000-picture exposure of the 30-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a 300-GeV/c proton beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, 10054 interactions have been observed. The measured total cross section is $40.68 \pm 0.55$ mb, the elastic cross section is $7.89 \pm 0.52$ mb, and the average charged-particle multiplicity for inelastic events is $8.S0 \pm 0.12$.
We have made a study of the coherent reaction K + d → K 0 π + d at 2 GeV/ c , using data obtained in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 25 inch bubble chamber. The cross section for this reaction is 324 ± 25 μ b, after correction for invisible K 0 decays. This reaction is dominated primarily by vector exchange. We determine the parameters of the ω trajectory to be α ω = (0.33 ± 0.04) + t .
The differential cross section for elastic antiproton—proton scattering at s =1.8 TeV has been measured over the t range 0.034⩽| t |⩽0.65 (GeV/ c ) 2 . A logarithmic slope parameter, B , of 16.3±0.3 (GeV/ c ) −2 is obtained. In contrast to lower energy experiments, no change in slope is observed over this t range.
We present a summary of the physics results from an experimental study of the reaction π−p→π−π+n at 100 and 175 GeV/c incident-beam momentum. Our data show the continuing dominance of one-pion exchange in these reactions with the characteristic 1Plab2 momentum dependence. We extract the pion Regge trajectory from our data on π−p→ρ0n and study the zero structure of the ππ differential cross section up to sππ=12 GeV2.
Using the Primakoff formalism, we have extracted the radiative decay width of the A + 2 (1310) produced in coherent interactions of 200 GeV/ c π + mesons in nuclear targets. The width obtained is 295 ± 60 keV, a value consistent with quark-model predictions.
Using the Primakoff formalism, we have extracted the radiative decay width of the K ∗+ (1430) produced in coherent interactions of 200 GeV/ c K + mesons in nuclear targets. The width obtained is 240 ± 45 keV, a value reasonably consistent with quark-model predictions.
The differential cross section for π±, K±, and p± on hydrogen have been measured in the range 0.07<−t<1.6 (GeV/c)2. The dependence on momentum, momentum, transfer, and particle type are discussed.