Multiplicity of Charged Particles in 800-{GeV} $p p$ Interactions

The LEBC-MPS collaboration Ammar, R. ; Aziz, T. ; Banerjee, S. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 178 (1986) 124-128, 1986.
Inspire Record 231133 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.6558

Results are reported concerning the charged-particle multiplicity distribution obtained in an exposure of the high-resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC to a beam of 800 GeV protons at the Fermilab MPS. This is the first time that such data have been available at this energy. The distribution of the number n ch of charged particles produced in inelastic interactions obeys KNO-scaling. The average multiplicity is 〈 n ch 〉 = 10.26±0.15. For n ch ⩾8 the data can be well fitted to a negative binomial. The difference between the overall experimental multiplicity distribution and that resulting from the latter fit is in agreement with the contribution expected from diffractive processes.

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Rho0 Production in 205-GeV/c p p Interactions

Singer, R. ; Fields, T.H. ; Hyman, L.G. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 60 (1976) 385-388, 1976.
Inspire Record 2818 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.6484

Inclusive and semi-inclusive ρ 0 production are studied in 205 GeV/ c pp interactions. The number of ρ 0 per inelastic event is 0.33 ± 0.06, so that (13 ± 2)% of the π − are products of ϱ 0 decay. The ρ 0 are found to be produced mainly near y = 0 and tend to have larger average transverse momentum than do pions.

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Multiparticle Production by 200-GeV/c Hadrons on Gold, Silver, and Magnesium Targets

Brick, D.H. ; Widgoff, M. ; Beilliere, P. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 39 (1989) 2484-2493, 1989.
Inspire Record 282254 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.23227

We have used the Fermilab 30-in. bubble-chamber hybrid spectrometer to study multiparticle production in the interactions of 200-GeV/c protons and π+ and K+ mesons with nuclei of gold, silver, and magnesium. We find that the multiplicities of produced particles and negative particles increase linearly with the number of projectile collisions, with no beam or target dependence. The number of secondary collisions in the nucleus increases significantly less rapidly with the number of projectile collisions than has been reported by a streamer chamber experiment. The properties of secondary collisions suggest that they arise from rescattering of recoil nucleons rather than intranuclear cascade of produced particles. Dispersions of multiplicity distributions at fixed impact parameter are in better agreement with a model of independent sources than with Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling.

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Multiple Pion Production in pi-Ne Collisions at 10.5-GeV and 200-GeV

Elliott, J.R. ; Fortney, L.R. ; Goshaw, A.T. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 34 (1975) 607, 1975.
Inspire Record 2065 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.31340

We have measured the multiplicities of pions produced in the collisions of π mesons with neon nuclei at bombarding momenta of 10.5 and 200 GeV/c. The diffractive production of pions is clearly separable. If one excludes the diffractive part, the pion multiplicity obeys the same Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling as found previously for π−−p collisions. This fact would seem to indicate the validity of an energy-flux or collective-variable description of the production process. A surprisingly large number of energetic protons (> 1 GeV/c lab momentum) are found to be produced in π-Ne collisions.

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Inclusive Production of $\pi^0$, $\K^0$(s), $\Lambda^0$, and Anti-lambda0 in 100-{GeV}/c, 200-{GeV}/c and 360-{GeV}/c $\pi^- p$ Interactions

Biswas, N.N. ; Higgins, P.D. ; Bishop, J.M. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 167 (1980) 41-60, 1980.
Inspire Record 8802 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.34519

Inclusive cross sections for π 0 , K s 0 , Λ 0 and Λ 0 production in 100, 200 and 360 GeV /c π − p interactions are presented and compared with data at other energies. Invariant cross sections for γ, K s 0 , Λ 0 and Λ 0 production are presented in terms of Feynman x , the rapidity y , and transverse momentum squared, p T 2 . A comparison of the observed γ spectrum is made with the spectra computed assuming that the π 0 momentum distribution is identical to that of the observed π + or π − .

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MEASUREMENTS OF THE MULTIPLICITIES IN THE COLLISION OF HADRONS WITH HEAVY NUCLEI AT 200-GEV/C

Brick, D.H. ; Rudnicka, H. ; Shapiro, A.M. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 201 (1982) 189-196, 1982.
Inspire Record 181081 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.34199

We report on the interactions of an incident 200 GeV / c beam composed of 33% protons, 16% kaons, and 48% pions on targets of silver and gold mounted in the Fermilab 30″ bubble chamber. Within our limited statistics, we find the total cross sections and average multiplicities to agree with previously published data. We find the KNO scaling distribution curve to be broader for heavy nuclei than for hydrogen. We present the first data for V 0 production on gold and silver. We also present, for the first time, evidence for a positive charge excess among the sample of relativistic tracks from interactions on gold and silver. We observe a trend where the positive charge excess increases with target atomic number and with increasing charged particle multiplicity. We find the charge excess to exist among the sample of particles having greater than 2 GeV / c momentum and to persist in the sample with momentum greater than 4 GeV / c .

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Charged Jet Evolution and the Underlying Event in $p\bar{p}$ Collisions at 1.8 TeV

The CDF collaboration Affolder, T. ; Akimoto, H. ; Akopian, A. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 65 (2002) 092002, 2002.
Inspire Record 564673 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42044

The growth and development of “charged particle jets” produced in proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV  are studied over a transverse momentum range from 0.5 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. A variety of leading (highest transverse momentum) charged jet observables are compared with the QCD Monte Carlo models HERWIG, ISAJET, and PYTHIA. The models describe fairly well the multiplicity distribution of charged particles within the leading charged jet, the size of the leading charged jet, the radial distribution of charged particles and transverse momentum around the leading charged jet direction, and the momentum distribution of charged particles within the leading charged jet. The direction of the leading “charged particle jet” in each event is used to define three regions of η−φ space. The “toward” region contains the leading “charged particle jet,” while the “away” region, on the average, contains the away-side jet. The “transverse” region is perpendicular to the plane of the hard 2-to-2 scattering and is very sensitive to the “underlying event” component of the QCD Monte Carlo models. HERWIG, ISAJET, and PYTHIA with their default parameters do not describe correctly all the properties of the “transverse” region.

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Quark Jets from Antineutrino Interactions II: Inclusive Particle Spectra and Multiplicities in the Quark Jets

Ammosov, V.V. ; Denisov, A.G. ; Gapienko, G.S. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 203 (1982) 1-15, 1982.
Inspire Record 156746 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.41254

We present results on inclusive particle production in the antineutrino charged current induced hadron jets observed in the Fermilab 15 ft bubble chamber. Fractional energy distributions, particle ratios and average multiplicities of the hadrons in the jets are measured. Ratios between the inclusive production rates of different mesons in the jets are studied to seek evidence for the d-quark origin of the observed hadrons. Good over-all agreement with the hypothesis of d-quark fragmentation with universal fragmentation functions obeying isospin systematics is established.

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Approximate Scaling of Multiplicity Distributions as a Function of Missing Mass

Barshay, S. ; Engelmann, R. ; Kafka, T. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 32 (1974) 1390, 1974.
Inspire Record 1032 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.21933

Data from p+p→p+X at 102, 205, and 405 GeV and from π−+p→p+X at 205 GeV exhibit an approximate scaling property in the charged-prong multiplicity distributions as a function of the missing mass for the range 5<~MX<~13 GeV.

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Neutral strange particle production in 200-GeV/c p / pi+ / K+ interactions on Au, Ag, and Mg.

Brick, D.H. ; Widgoff, M. ; Beilliere, P. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 45 (1992) 734-742, 1992.
Inspire Record 339321 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.22671

We have used the Fermilab 30-in. bubble-chamber-hybrid spectrometer to study neutral-strange-particle production in the interactions of 200-GeV/c protons and π+ and K+ mesons with nuclei of gold, silver, and magnesium. Average multiplicities and inclusive cross sections for K0 and Λ are measured, and a power law is found to give a good description of their A dependence. The exponent characterizing the A dependence is consistent with being the same for K0 and Λ production, and also the same for proton and π+ beams. Average K0 and Λ multiplicities, as well as their ratio, have been measured as functions of the numbers of projectile collisions νp and secondary collisions νs in the nucleus, and indicate that rescattering contributes significantly to enhancement of Λ production but not to K0 production. The properties of events with multiple K0's or Λ's also corroborate this conclusion. K0 rapidities are in the central region and decrease gently with increasing νp, while Λ rapidities are in the target-fragmentation region and are independent of νp. K0 and Λ multiplicities increase with the rapidity loss of the projectile, but their rapidities do not.

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Double pomeron exchange studies in p anti-p interactions at 0.63-TeV

Joyce, D. ; Kernan, A. ; Lindgren, M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 48 (1993) 1943-1948, 1993.
Inspire Record 35714 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.22678

The properties of events having the topology and kinematic features of double Pomeron exchange are described. The data were taken at the CERN pp¯ collider at s=0.63 TeV in the UA1 detector. A calorimeter trigger was used to isolate events in which a central cluster of particles was separated from forward particles by large rapidity gaps. The invariant mass M of the central cluster (possibly a colliding Pomeron-Pomeron system) covers the range 10-70 GeV/c2. The M dependence of charged particle multiplicity distributions in these double Pomeron events is strikingly different from their s dependence in pp and pp¯ interactions.

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Backward emitted protons in interactions of neutrinos with nuclei in photoemulsion. FNAL-564 experiment

Dayon, M. ; Rappoport, V. ; Smirnitsky, V. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 56 (1992) 391-393, 1992.
Inspire Record 345621 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14532

Backward emitted protons with momentump>0.3 GeV/c in interactions of neutrino in the energy range 10–200 GeV with photoemulsion nuclei were investigated. Energy spectrum slope parameter of backward protons was measured to beT0=48.9±7.9 MeV. TheA-dependence power index of relative mean yield of backward protons was found to bea=0.68±0.12. A drop in the mean yield of backward protons at the four momentum squared over ∼15 (GeV/c)2 (the neutrino energy over ∼50 GeV) was observed.

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Observation of a Dependence in Koba-nielsen-olesen Scaling Distributions for High-energy Hadron Nucleus Interactions

Biswas, N.N. ; Ting, S.J.Y. ; Mattingly, M.C.K. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 33 (1986) 3167-3171, 1986.
Inspire Record 233004 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.23515

Experimental multiplicity distributions scaled in the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) form for hadron-nucleus interactions show clear deviations from the scaling distribution observed for hadron-hadron interactions. The deviations become larger as A increases. Our data can be described by a model which invokes the hypothesis that KNO scaling is valid for hadron-nucleus interactions at a fixed impact parameter. In this model, the A dependence of the multiplicity distributions results from the convolution of scatterings at various impact parameters.

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The role of double parton collisions in soft hadron interactions

Alexopoulos, T. ; Anderson, E.W. ; Biswas, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 435 (1998) 453-457, 1998.
Inspire Record 480349 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.27080

We have examined charged multiplicities arising from p − p and p− p ̄ collisions over the range of center of mass energies, s , from 30 GeV to 1800 GeV. Results from Tevatron experiment E735 support the presence of double parton interactions. These processes can be seen to account for a large fraction of the increase in the non single diffraction inelastic cross section from energies of about 200 GeV to 1800 GeV.

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INCLUSIVE PRODUCTION OF K*+- (890) AND SIGMA+- (1385) RESONANCES IN ANTI-P P INTERACTIONS AT 14.75-GEV/C

Canter, J. ; Chang, C.C ; Dao, F.T. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 20 (1979) 1029-1036, 1979.
Inspire Record 144992 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.24210

The inclusive and semi-inclusive cross sections for K*±(890) and Σ±(1385) resonances are determined in p¯p interactions at 14.75 GeV/c. They account for a large fraction of the KS0 and Λ0 produced. The K*-resonance production also affects the low-pT2 distribution of inclusive KS0. The x distributions of the resonance production are studied in terms of a simple quark-recombination model.

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Charged Particle Multiplicity Distributions in pd and pn Interactions at 400 GeV/c

Dado, S. ; Barish, S.J. ; Engler, A. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 20 (1979) 1589, 1979.
Inspire Record 140314 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.24228

Charged-particle multiplicity distributions in 400-GeV/c pd interactions have been studied in an experiment in the Fermilab 30-inch bubble chamber. From the fractions of odd-prong and backward-proton events, a rescatter fraction of 0.22±0.01 is found (for N≥3). The pn multiplicity distribution is obtained from the odd-prong distribution plus a no-cascade assumption. After making one-prong and two-prong estimates, mean charged-particle multiplicities of 9.49±0.12 for pd (including slow particles) and 8.57±0.12 for pn are obtained. In the incident momentum range 100 to 400 GeV/c, pd and pp distributions are very similar to each other and are different from pn distributions.

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Inclusive Production of Nonstrange Resonances in High-energy Neutrino $p$ Charged Current Interactions

Berge, J.P. ; Bogert, D.V. ; Endorf, R.J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 22 (1980) 1043, 1980.
Inspire Record 144267 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.24174

We have examined the inclusive production of nonstrange particle resonances in νp interactions using the Fermilab 15-ft bubble chamber. A sample of 2437 charged-current events with visible longitudinal momentum greater than 10 GeV/c was obtained. The ρ0 and Δ++(1232) are seen. An overall rate of 0.21±0.04 ρ0 per event is found. For five-prong events, the rate is 0.44±0.08 ρ0 per event. The ρ0Z distribution falls rapidly for Z greater than 0.4. The production of Δ++ is seen clearly in events with an identified proton. No evidence is seen for Δ0 production. An upper limit of 0.34 is placed on the ratio of ηπ0 (90% confidence level).

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Experimental Determination of Elastic and Topological Cross-sections in 48.9-GeV/c anti-p p Interactions

Zissa, D.E. ; Barnes, V.E. ; Carmony, D.D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 21 (1980) 3059, 1980.
Inspire Record 8434 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.24179

The elastic and topological p¯p cross sections have been measured at 48.9 GeV/c in the Fermilab proportional-wire-chamber-30-in.-bubble-chamber hybrid spectrometer. The elastic cross section is 7.81±0.24 mb and the slope of the elastic differential cross section at t=0 is 13.4±0.8 GeV−2. Further, the moments of the inelastic topological-cross-section distribution are 〈nc〉=5.69±0.03, 〈nc〉D=2.10±0.02, and f2cc=1.67±0.12.

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250-{GeV}/$c \pi^- p$ Multiplicity Distributions and the Two Component Model

Hays, P.J. ; Diamond, R.N. ; Clark, R.K. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 23 (1981) 20, 1981.
Inspire Record 144125 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.24140

The charged-particle multiplicity distribution from 250-GeV/c π−p interactions in the Fermilab 15-ft bubble chamber is presented. The corrections to the raw data are described. Fits to these data along with other high-energy bubble-chamber data show that cluster models with two components—a low-multiplicity, diffractive component and a high-multiplicity, nondiffractive component—describe the data fairly well. The charged multiplicity of each cluster is found to be ∼2, while the number of clusters for each component grows linearly with ln(s). The multiplicity moments are consistent with other experiments. We find 〈nc〉=8.427±0.059, f2cc=8.66±0.11, 〈nc〉D=2.038±0.023. The total inelastic cross section is σI=21.42±0.50 mb.

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Production of charged hadrons by positive muons on deuterium and xenon at 490-GeV

The E665 collaboration Adams, M.R. ; Aderholz, M. ; Aïd, S. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 61 (1994) 179-198, 1994.
Inspire Record 359394 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42505

Results on the production of charged hadrons in muon-deuteron and muon-xenon interactions are presented. The data were taken with the E665 spectrometer, which was exposed to the 490 GeV muon beam of the Tevatron at Fermilab. The use of a streamer chamber as vertex detector provides nearly 4π acceptance for charged particles. The μD data are compared with the μXe data in terms of multiplicity distributions, average multiplicities, forward-backward multiplicity correlations, rapidity and transverse momentum distributions and of two-particle rapidity correlations of charged hadrons. The data cover a range of invariant hadronic massesW from 8 to 30 GeV.

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Charged Current Events with Neutral Strange Particles in High Energy Antineutrino Interactions

Ammosov, V.V. ; Denisov, A.G. ; Ermolov, P.F. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 177 (1981) 365-381, 1981.
Inspire Record 153884 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42576

The results of a study of strange particle production in charged current $\bar{\nu}_{\mu} N$ interactions in the Fermilab 15 ft bubble chamber filled with a heavy $Ne-H_2$ mixture are presented. Production rates and average multiplicities of $K^0$'s and Λ's as functions of W 2 and Q 2 are given. The experimental data agree well with the quark-parton model predictions if a yield of 0.06 ± 0.02 of $K^0$'s and Λ's from charm production is included. Upper limits for D-meson production are given and the shape of the charmed quark fragmentation function is discussed. Inclusive production of the K ∗ (890) and Σ(1385) resonances is measured and it is shown that only about 5% of the K 0 mesons and Λ hyperons results from resonance decays. Relative production rates of neutral strange particles on proton and neutron targets are studied.

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Production of neutral strange particles in muon - nucleon scattering at 490-GeV

The E665 collaboration Adams, M.R. ; Aderholz, M. ; Aïd, S. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 61 (1994) 539-550, 1994.
Inspire Record 362429 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42473

The production ofK0, Λ and\(\bar \Lambda \) particles is studied in the E665 muon-nucleon experiment at Fermilab. The average multiplicities and squared transverse momenta are measured as a function ofxF andW2. Most features of the data can be well described by the Lund model. Within this model, the data on the K0/π± ratios and on the averageK0 multiplicity in the forward region favor a strangeness suppression factors/u in the fragmentation process near 0.20. Clear evidence for QCD effects is seen in the average squared transverse momentum ofK0 and Λ particles.

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First Measurement of the Underlying Event Activity at the LHC with $\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M. ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 70 (2010) 555-572, 2010.
Inspire Record 857644 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.55126

A measurement of the underlying activity in scattering processes with transverse momentum scale in the GeV region is performed in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV, using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Charged hadron production is studied with reference to the direction of a leading object, either a charged particle or a set of charged particles forming a jet. Predictions of several QCD-inspired models as implemented in PYTHIA are compared, after full detector simulation, to the data. The models generally predict too little production of charged hadrons with pseudorapidity eta < 2, p_T > 0.5 GeV/c, and azimuthal direction transverse to that of the leading object.

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Studies of W boson plus jets production in $p\bar{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

The D0 collaboration Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 88 (2013) 092001, 2013.
Inspire Record 1221252 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61813

We present a comprehensive analysis of inclusive W(\to e\nu)+n-jet (n\geq 1,2,3,4) production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron collider using a 3.7 fb^{-1} dataset collected by the D0 detector. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of the jet rapidities (y), lepton transverse momentum (p_T) and pseudorapidity (\eta), the scalar sum of the transverse energies of the W boson and all jets (H_T), leading dijet p_T and invariant mass, dijet rapidity separations for a variety of jet pairings for p_T-ordered and angular-ordered jets, dijet opening angle, dijet azimuthal angular separations for p_T-ordered and angular-ordered jets, and W boson transverse momentum. The mean number of jets in an event containing a W boson is measured as a function of H_T, and as a function of the rapidity separations between the two highest-p_T jets and between the most widely separated jets in rapidity. Finally, the probability for third-jet emission in events containing a W boson and at least two jets is studied by measuring the fraction of events in the inclusive W+2-jet sample that contain a third jet over a p_T threshold. The analysis employs a regularized singular value decomposition technique to accurately correct for detector effects and for the presence of backgrounds. The corrected data are compared to particle level next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions, predictions from all-order resummation approaches, and a variety of leading-order and matrix-element plus parton-shower event generators. Regions of the phase space where there is agreement or disagreement with the data are discussed for the different models tested.

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Measurement of the Underlying Event Activity at the LHC with $\sqrt{s}= 7$ TeV and Comparison with $\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
JHEP 09 (2011) 109, 2011.
Inspire Record 916908 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.57696

A measurement of the underlying activity in scattering processes with a hard scale in the several GeV region is performed in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 7 TeV, using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The production of charged particles with pseudorapidity |eta| < 2 and transverse momentum pT > 0.5 GeV/c is studied in the azimuthal region transverse to that of the leading set of charged particles forming a track-jet. A significant growth of the average multiplicity and scalar-pT sum of the particles in the transverse region is observed with increasing pT of the leading track-jet, followed by a much slower rise above a few GeV/c. For track-jet pT larger than a few GeV/c, the activity in the transverse region is approximately doubled with a centre-of-mass energy increase from 0.9 to 7 TeV. Predictions of several QCD-inspired models as implemented in PYTHIA are compared to the data.

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