We present proton-nucleus dimuon-production cross sections for masses between 4 and 15 GeV, center-of-mass rapidities between -0.23 and 0.6 and incident energies of 200, 300, and 400 GeV. The data confirm scaling to the 20% level. The dependence of continuum 〈pT〉 on beam energy is also presented.
Results are reported concerning the charged-particle multiplicity distribution obtained in an exposure of the high-resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC to a beam of 800 GeV protons at the Fermilab MPS. This is the first time that such data have been available at this energy. The distribution of the number n ch of charged particles produced in inelastic interactions obeys KNO-scaling. The average multiplicity is 〈 n ch 〉 = 10.26±0.15. For n ch ⩾8 the data can be well fitted to a negative binomial. The difference between the overall experimental multiplicity distribution and that resulting from the latter fit is in agreement with the contribution expected from diffractive processes.
Inclusive and semi-inclusive ρ 0 production are studied in 205 GeV/ c pp interactions. The number of ρ 0 per inelastic event is 0.33 ± 0.06, so that (13 ± 2)% of the π − are products of ϱ 0 decay. The ρ 0 are found to be produced mainly near y = 0 and tend to have larger average transverse momentum than do pions.
Measurements of inclusive transverse-momentum spectra for KS0 mesons produced in proton-antiproton collisions at s of 630 and 1800 GeV are presented and compared with data taken at lower energies. The ratio, as a function of pT, of the cross section for KS0 to that for charged hadrons is very similar to what is observed at lower energies. At 1800 GeV, we calculate the strangeness-suppression factor λ=0.40±0.05.
The hadronic production of charmed states was studied in a two-arm spectrometer using a 205-GeV/c negative-pion beam incident upon a beryllium target. One arm, filled with dense absorber, triggered the detectors upon the passage of a muon with a moderate transverse momentum and a total momentum of at least 4 GeV/c. The other arm was an open-geometry magnetic spectrometer which had both neutral- and charged-particle identification capabilities. The apparatus, the data, and an invariant-mass-plot search for evidence of charmed-meson production through several charged-particle decay modes are described. The Kπ, Kππ, and Kπππ mass plots fail to reveal significant D-meson signals. Based upon the Kπ mass plots, the 95%-confidence upper limit on the DD¯ production cross section is found to be less than 51 μb per nucleon for the production models tested. A search for evidence of charged-D* production yields 30±16 combinations above background in association with the expected trigger muon charge. Interpreted as a D* signal, this excess corresponds to a model-dependent inclusive DD¯ production cross section of 34±18−9+14 μb per nucleon. Model-dependent upper limits on the ratio of the F to D cross sections are also presented.
Measurements of correlations of nearly back-to-back hadrons produced at a large transverse momentum in s=38.8 GeV proton-proton collisions are presented and compared to previous results with a beryllium target. The correlations of identified unlike-sign hadron pairs in ratio to the correlation for all unlike-sign pairs are compared with predictions of the Lund model. These predictions differ from the data.
The inclusive cross section for charged-D* production by 205-GeV/c π− mesons incident on a beryllium target was measured with a two-arm spectrometer triggered by prompt muons. Using the mass-difference technique often employed in D* studies, a signal of 31±11 charged D*’s was isolated; it includes contributions from both the D*+ and D*− charged modes in correlation with triggering muons of the proper charge. This corresponds to an inclusive charged-D* production cross section of 220±77−57+77 μb per Be nucleus or 24±9−6+9 μb per nucleon when the cross section is scaled linearly with atomic mass number. The first error is statistical and the second is systematic.
Measurements of the cross section for production of massive dihadrons by 800-GeV protons incident on a tungsten target are presented. These are compared with measurements taken at lower and higher s and with perturbative-QCD predictions. Scaling and A-dependence behaviors observed at lower energies are confirmed, and good agreement with QCD is obtained. Model dependences of earlier measurements are discussed.
We have used the Fermilab 30-in. bubble-chamber hybrid spectrometer to study multiparticle production in the interactions of 200-GeV/c protons and π+ and K+ mesons with nuclei of gold, silver, and magnesium. We find that the multiplicities of produced particles and negative particles increase linearly with the number of projectile collisions, with no beam or target dependence. The number of secondary collisions in the nucleus increases significantly less rapidly with the number of projectile collisions than has been reported by a streamer chamber experiment. The properties of secondary collisions suggest that they arise from rescattering of recoil nucleons rather than intranuclear cascade of produced particles. Dispersions of multiplicity distributions at fixed impact parameter are in better agreement with a model of independent sources than with Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling.
We have studied muon pairs with an invariant mass between 4 and 9 GeV/c2 produced in p¯N and π−N interactions at an incident momentum of 125 GeV/c. The experiment was performed at Fermilab using a tungsten target and a special beam enriched to contain 18% antiprotons. We compare differential distributions as functions of the dimuon invariant mass, Feynman x, transverse momentum, and decay angles of the dimuon to the predictions of the Drell-Yan model including QCD corrections. Quark structure functions for the p¯ and π− are extracted. Comparisons of the antiproton data to the Drell-Yan model are significant because the cross sections depend principally on the valence-quark structure functions which are accurately determined by deep-inelastic scattering measurements. The measured absolute cross section (integrated over positive Feynman x and all transverse momenta) is 0.106±0.005±0.008 nb/nucleon for the p¯N interaction and 0.107±0.003±0.009 nb/nucleon for the π−N interaction, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. Normalization (K) factors that are required to bring the naive Drell-Yan and first-order QCD predictions into agreement with the measurements are extracted, and the uncertainties involved in such comparisons are examined.
We have measured the multiplicities of pions produced in the collisions of π mesons with neon nuclei at bombarding momenta of 10.5 and 200 GeV/c. The diffractive production of pions is clearly separable. If one excludes the diffractive part, the pion multiplicity obeys the same Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling as found previously for π−−p collisions. This fact would seem to indicate the validity of an energy-flux or collective-variable description of the production process. A surprisingly large number of energetic protons (> 1 GeV/c lab momentum) are found to be produced in π-Ne collisions.
Longitudinal and transverse momentum spectra of final state hadrons produced in deep-inelastic muon-deuterium scattering at incident muon energy of 490 GeV have been measured up to a hadronic center of mass energy of 30 GeV. The longitudinal distributions agree well with data from earlier muon-nucleon scattering experiments; these distributions tend to increase in steepness as the center of mass energy increases. Comparisons with e + e − data at comparable center of mass energies indicate slight differences. The transverse momentum distributions show an increase in mean p T 2 with an increase in the center of mass energy.
The two-spin parameter A LL in inclusive π 0 productionby longitudinally-polarized protons and antiprotons on a longitudinally-polarized proton target has been measured at the 200 GeV Fermilab spin physics facility, for π 0 's at x F =0 with 1⩽ p t ⩽3 GeV/ c . The results exclude, at the 95% confidence level, values of A LL (pp) > 0.1 and < − 0.1 for π 0 's produced by protons, and values of A LL ( p p) > 0.1 and < −0.2 for incident antiprotons. The relevance of A LL (pp) for the gluon spin density is discussed. The data are in good agreement with “conventional”, small or zero, gluon polarization.
A measurement of the single-spin asymmetry A N in p↑ + p→ π 0 + X at 200 GeV with x F = 0 shows a transition in the production process from a “ low -x T ” regime with A N = 0, through an intermediate region of negative asymmetry, to a “ high -x T ” regime with A N > 0.3. This transition occurs at x T ≈ 0.4 and is consistent with x T -scaling of A N in pion production using polarized beams or targets from √− s =5.2 to 19.4 GeV. Results for A N in η production by polarized protons and in π 0 production by polarized antiprotons are also presented.
The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in x F is observed in which A N increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing x F for the π + data and decreases from 0 to −0.38 with increasing x F for π − data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2⩽ x F ⩽0.9 and 0.2⩽ p T ⩽2.0 GeV / c . In a simple model our data indicate that at large x F the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents.
The invariant double-differential cross section, E 1 E 2 d 6 σ / d p 3 1 d p 3 2 , and the double-spin asymmetry, A LL , for inclusive multi-γ pair production in which γ-rays came from neutral mesons were measured with a 200 GeV / c longitudinally-polarized proton beam and a longitudinally-polarized proton target. Most of the multi-γ pairs comes from two-jet type events which are sensitive to partonic interaction. The A LL values were found to be consistent with zero. The invariant double-differential cross section for inclusive π 0 π 0 production was also measured. These measured cross sections are consistent with LUND Monte Carlo simulations. Using the LUND Monte Carlo simulation package with the Carlitz-Kaur model of spin dependent distribution functions of valence quarks, the A LL values have been compared with theoretical predictions of gluon polarization, ΔG / G . The results put restrictions on the size of ΔG / G in the region of 0.05 ⪅ x ⪅ 0.35.
We present results from an experiment studying the production of single particles and jets (groups of particles) with high p ⊥ (transverse momentum) in 200 GeV/ c interactions on a beryllium target. We give a detailed discussion of the ambiguities in the jet definition. The jet and single-particle cross sections have a similar shape but the jet cross section is over two orders of magnitude larger. The events show evidence for the coplanar structure suggested by constituent models, and the momentum distributions of charged particles give strong support to a simple quark-quark scattering model.
The invariant cross section for production of jet pairs in 400-GeV/c pp interactions has been measured as a function of pT in the pT range 4 to 9 GeV/c. The results are in good agreement with predictions of perturbative QCD models.
For the reaction π−N→V0X, where V0 is a Ks0, Λ, and Λ¯ and X are charged particles, we measured the transverse- and longitudinal-momentum distributions, and inclusive cross sections for the V0 and for K*±(892), Σ±(1385), and Ξ±(1321). We compare our results with predictions of quark-counting rules, and conclude that valence quarks play an important role in strange-particle production.
We present results on the production of hadrons in collisions of 400-GeV/c protons with beryllium, copper, and tungsten nuclei. The data cover the region from 5.6 to 8.0 GeV/c in the transverse momentum of the final-state hadron and from 73° to 102° in the proton-nucleon center-of-momentum frame production angle theta*. The restriction of the data to values of xT (xT=2pT/ √s ) greater than 0.4 enriches the sample with hard collisions of valence quarks. Asymmetries about theta*=90° reflect the presence of neutrons in the target nuclei. The variation of the atomic-weight dependence parameter α with production angle is discussed in the context of the phenomenology of nucleonic structure within nuclei. We also extrapolate our measurements to a ‘‘deuteron’’ target to minimize nuclear effects and compare the result to QCD calculations.
This Letter presents measurements of the nucleon structure function F2(x,Q2) based on the deep-inelastic scattering of 215- and 93-GeV muons in the iron multimuon spectrometer at Fermilab. With use of a lowest-order QCD calculation, a value of ΛLO=230±40(stat.)±80(syst.) MeV/c is found.
We report results on a precision measurement of the ratio R=σLσT in deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering in the kinematic range 0.2≤x≤0.5 and 1≤Q2≤10 (GeV/c)2. Our results show, for the first time, a clear falloff of R with increasing Q2. Our R results are in agreement with QCD predictions only when corrections for target mass effects and some additional higher twist effects are included. At small x, the data on R favor structure functions with a large gluon contribution. We also report results on the differences RA−RD and the cross section ratio σAσD between Fe and Au nuclei and the deuteron. Our results for RA−RD are consistent with zero for all x, Q2 indicating that possible contributions to R from nuclear higher twist effects and spin-0 constituents in nuclei are not different from those in nucleons. The ratios σAσD from all recent experiments, at all x, Q2 values, are now in agreement.
Results on kaon, pion, and proton production in muon-proton scattering are presented for 1<Q2<80 GeV2 with an average Bjorken x of 0.033. The measured particle fractions for z>0.2(z=Phadν) are fπ=0.764±0.028, fK=0.187±0.042, and fp=0.049±0.013. The K±π± ratios as a function of z and pT2 are presented: The ratios increase with z, and with pT2 for z<0.3.