Results are reported concerning the charged-particle multiplicity distribution obtained in an exposure of the high-resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC to a beam of 800 GeV protons at the Fermilab MPS. This is the first time that such data have been available at this energy. The distribution of the number n ch of charged particles produced in inelastic interactions obeys KNO-scaling. The average multiplicity is 〈 n ch 〉 = 10.26±0.15. For n ch ⩾8 the data can be well fitted to a negative binomial. The difference between the overall experimental multiplicity distribution and that resulting from the latter fit is in agreement with the contribution expected from diffractive processes.
From measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering at very small momentum transfers where the nuclear and Coulomb amplitudes interfere, we have deduced values of ρ, the ratio of the real to the imaginary forward nuclear amplitude, for energies from 50 to 400 GeV. We find that ρ increases from -0.157 ± 0.012 at 51.5 GeV to +0.039 ± 0.012 at 393 GeV, crossing zero at 280 ± 60 GeV.
The ratio of π+p to pp elastic scattering is found to be smoothly varying over the range −t=0.03 to 0.4 GeV2. It is well fitted by a single exponential, indicating the forward behavior must be quite similar for the two reactions.
The slope b(s) of the forward diffraction peak of p−p elastic scattering has been measured in the momentum-transfer-squared range 0.005≲|t|≲0.09 (GeV/c)2 and at incident proton energies from 8 to 400 GeV. We find that b(s) increases with s, and in the interval 100≲s≲750 (GeV)2 it can be fitted by the form b(s)=b0+2α′lns with b0=8.23±0.27, α′=0.278±0.024 (GeV/c)−2.
We have measured the differential cross section for small angle p−p scattering from 25 to 200 GeV incident energy and in the momentum transfer range 0.015<|t|<0.080 (GeVc)2. We find that the slope of the forward diffraction peak, b(s), increases with energy and can be fitted by the form b(s)=b0+2α′ lns, where b0=8.3±1.3 and α′=0.28±0.13 (GeVc)−2. Such dependence is compatible with the data existing both at higher and lower energies. We have also obtained the energy dependence of the p−p total cross section in the energy range from 48 to 196 GeV. Within our errors which are ± 1.1 mb the total cross section remains constant.
In an exposure of the 30-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a 303−GeVc proton beam, 2245 interactions have been observed. The measured total cross section is 39.0±1.0 mb and the average charged particle multiplicity 〈nch〉=8.86±0.16.
Differential cross sections have been measured at Fermilab with a focusing spectrometer for π±p, K±p, and p±p elastic scattering at 50-, 70-, 100-, 140-, and 175-GeV/c incident momentum over the |t| range 0.03 to 0.8 GeV2. The results are smooth in t and are parametrized by quadratic exponential fits.
The differential cross section for π±, K±, and p± on hydrogen have been measured in the range 0.07<−t<1.6 (GeV/c)2. The dependence on momentum, momentum, transfer, and particle type are discussed.
The charged-particle multiplicity distribution in 205−GeVc proton-proton interactions is presented. In addition, the total diffractive contributions to each charged multiplicity are estimated assuming a factorizable Pomeron.
The analyzing power AN of proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using the 200-GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. A theoretically predicted interference between the hadronic non-spin-flip amplitude and the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude is shown for the first time to be present at high energies in the region of 1.5 × 10−3 to 5.0 × 10−2 (GeV/c)2 four-momentum transfer squared, and our results are analyzed in connection with theoretical calculations. In addition, the role of possible contributions of the hadronic spin-flip amplitude is discussed.
Elastic scattering of hadrons on protons has been measured at momenta of 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c. The meson-proton scattering is found to be independent of momentum and meson type for −t>0.8 (GeV/c)2. The momentum dependence of the pp dip at −t=1.4 (GeV/c)2 was investigated. Slope parameters are given.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
The analyzing power A N of proton-proton, proton-hydrocarbon, and antiproton-hydrocarbon, scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using thhe 185 GeV/ c Fermilab polarized-proton and -antiproton beams. The results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions within statistical uncertainties.
In a 35 000-picture exposure of the 30-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a 300-GeV/c proton beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, 10054 interactions have been observed. The measured total cross section is $40.68 \pm 0.55$ mb, the elastic cross section is $7.89 \pm 0.52$ mb, and the average charged-particle multiplicity for inelastic events is $8.S0 \pm 0.12$.
Results are presented on π±p, K±p, and p±p elastic scattering measured with an apparatus having acceptance of 0.5<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2 and 0.9<−t<11 (GeV/c)2 at 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. A diffractionlike dip is seen for the first time in the π−p t distribution at −t=4 (GeV/c)2. All meson-proton cross sections are found to be similar in the range 1<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2, although some small systematic differences are observed. Cross sections for pp and p―p are compared with previous data.
Measurements of the polarization parameters and angular distributions are reported for π±p elastic scattering at 100 GeV/c and for pp elastic scattering at 100- and 300-GeV/c incident momentum. The π±p data cover the kinematic range 0.18≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and are in agreement with current Regge-model predictions. The pp data cover the kinematic range 0.15≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and 0.15≤−t≤2.00 GeV2 at 100 and 300 GeV/c, respectively, and are found to be consistent with absorption-model predictions.
We have measured the elastic cross section for pp, p¯p, π+p, π−p, K+p, and K−p scattering at incident momenta of 70, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 GeV/c. The range of the four-momentum transfer squared t varied with the beam momentum from 0.0016≤−t≤0.36 (GeV/c)2 at 200 GeV/c to 0.0018≤−t≤0.0625 (GeV/c)2 at 70 GeV/c. The conventional parametrization of the t dependence of the nuclear amplitude by a simple exponential in t was found to be inadequate. An excellent fit to the data was obtained by a parametrization motivated by the additive quark model. Using this parametrization we determined the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear amplitude by the Coulomb-interference method.
We have measured π+p, π−p, and pp elastic scattering at an incident-beam momentum of 200 GeV/c in the region of −t, four-momentum transfer squared, from 0.021 to 0.665 (GeV/c)2. The data allow an investigation of the t dependence of the logarithmic forward slope parameter b≡(ddt)(lndσdt). In addition to standard parametrization, we use functional forms suggested by the additive quark model to fit the measured dσdt distributions. Within the context of this model we estimate the size of the clothed quark in the pion and proton. Limits on the elastic-scattering amplitude derived from unitarity bounds are checked, and no violations are observed.
The elastic differential cross section for pp scattering has been measured up to a momentum transfer of ‖ t ‖ = 3(GeV/ c ) 2 at 100 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c incident momenta. The 200 GeV/ c measurements shows a diffractive like dip at ‖ t ‖ = 1.5 GeV/ c while no such dip is seen in the 100 GeV/ c data.
Antiproton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at 100 GeV/c for 0.5<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2 and at 200 GeV/c for 0.9<−t<4 (GeV/c)2. The data show that the −t≃1.4 (GeV/c)2 dip recently observed at 50 GeV/c persists to higher incident momenta. Proton-proton measurements made at the same beam momenta show similar structure.
Proton-proton and proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been measured for incident laboratory energy from 50 to 400 GeV; minimum |t| values were, for p−p, 0.0005 (GeV/c)2, and for p−d, 0.0008 (GeV/c)2. From the differential cross sections we have determined the ratios of the real to imaginary parts of the forward scattering amplitude, ρpp and ρpd, for p−p and p−d scattering. Using a Glauber approach and a sum-of-exponentials form factor we obtain ρpn for p−n scattering.