We report the result of a brief experiment to measure the cross section for photoproduction of Jψ(3100). At a mean energy of 55 GeV we find this cross section per nucleon to be 37.5 ± 8.2 (statistical) ± 4 (systematic) nb. The result establishes the previously indicated rise in Jψ photoproduction on protons above 20 GeV and suggests that the rise has occurred by 55 GeV.
Proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been measured in the four-momentum transfer squared region 0.013<|t|<0.14 (GeV/c)2 and for incident proton beam momenta from 50 to 400 GeV/c. The data can be fitted with the Bethe interference formula. We observe shrinkage of the diffraction cone with increasing energy equal to (0.94±0.04)ln(s1 GeV2) (GeV/c)−2. This shrinkage is greater than that observed in pp elastic scattering. The ratio of the elastic to the total cross section is approximately 0.1 and independent of energy above ∼ 150 GeV. In order to extract information on pn scattering we fit our data using the Glauber approach and a form factor which is the sum of exponentials. The values we obtain for the slope parameter in pn scattering are sensitive to the details of the inelastic double-scattering term.
The elastic differential cross section for pp scattering has been measured up to a momentum transfer of ‖ t ‖ = 3(GeV/ c ) 2 at 100 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c incident momenta. The 200 GeV/ c measurements shows a diffractive like dip at ‖ t ‖ = 1.5 GeV/ c while no such dip is seen in the 100 GeV/ c data.
New measurements are reported of total cross sections for π ± , K ± , p and p on protons and deuterons at 11 momenta between 23 and 280 GeV/ c .
In 205 GeV / c π − p inelastic interactions, negative particles with transverse momentum greater than 1.0 GeV / c moving forward in the center of mass outnumber similar positive particles by a factor of 3.7 to 1, greatly in excess of the corresponding ratio for small transverse momentum. The asymmetry is reversed in the backward direction. The forward asymmetry is most prominent in 2-, 4-, and 6-prong interactions, but both forward and backward asymmetries are also substantial for higher multiplicity interactions.
We have measured the multiplicities of pions produced in the collisions of π mesons with neon nuclei at bombarding momenta of 10.5 and 200 GeV/c. The diffractive production of pions is clearly separable. If one excludes the diffractive part, the pion multiplicity obeys the same Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling as found previously for π−−p collisions. This fact would seem to indicate the validity of an energy-flux or collective-variable description of the production process. A surprisingly large number of energetic protons (> 1 GeV/c lab momentum) are found to be produced in π-Ne collisions.
The reaction π−p→X−p, X−→ηπ−, η→γγ has been studied in an optical spark-chamber experiment at the Argonne ZGS (Zero Gradient Synchrotron) at a beam momentum of 6.0 GeV/c and with 0.27≤|t|≤0.42 (GeV/c)2. The ηπ mass spectrum contains about 1400 events in the mass range 0.80<M(ηπ)<1.55 GeV/c2, and is dominated by approximately 1000 events of the type A2−→ηπ−. No structure is discernible within the A2 mass spectrum for an experimental resolution of 7.1 MeV/c2 [16.7 MeV/c2 FWHM (full width at half maximum)]. A single D-wave Breit-Wigner distribution fits the data with a high confidence level, yielding for the A2 the parameters M0=1.323±0.003 GeV/c2 and Γ0=0.108±0.009 GeV/c2. The angular distribution of the decay A2−→ηπ− is analyzed and the resultant density matrix elements have the values ρ11=0.45±0.02, ρ1−1=0.45±0.04, and ρ00=0.09±0.04. All other elements are consistent with zero. Finally, the missing-mass spectrum in the region of the A2 is presented. A signal of 230 events above background per 5-MeV/c2 interval is observed at the A2 peak, with a signal to background ratio of greater than 1:1. A single D-wave Breit-Wigner distribution together with a quadratic background fits the data well, with the parameters for the A2 being M0=1.324±0.003 GeV/c2 and Γ0=0.104±0.009 GeV/c2. Both A2 mass spectra are incompatible with the dipole shape.
In an exposure of the Argonne National Laboratory 12-foot hydrogen bubble chamber to a beam of 12.4-GeV/c protons, we have measured the total and differential cross sections for the inclusive reactions p+p→γ+X, π0+X, K0+X, and Λ+X, as well as estimates for the inclusive η and Σ0 cross sections. We present the average number of π0, K0, and Λ as a function of the associated charge multiplicity. We observe that the average charge multiplicity in pp collisions is the same whether or not a π0, K0, or Λ is also produced in the interaction. Invariant cross sections are presented as a function of PT2 and x, the Feynman scaling variable. The π0 differential cross sections are consistent with the relation dσdP(π0)=12[dσdP(π+)+dσdP(π−)] for all pion momenta P. The differential cross section for Λ production indicates a break in the distribution of |t−tmin|=1.4 (GeV/c)2. The polarization of the Λ's is found to be consistent with zero for all values of x.
Total cross sections of π± and K± on protons and deuterons have been measured at 50, 100, 150, and 200 GeV/c. All of the cross sections rise with increasing momentum.
Data from p+p→p+X at 102, 205, and 405 GeV and from π−+p→p+X at 205 GeV exhibit an approximate scaling property in the charged-prong multiplicity distributions as a function of the missing mass for the range 5<~MX<~13 GeV.
The charged-particle multiplicity distribution in 205−GeVc proton-proton interactions is presented. In addition, the total diffractive contributions to each charged multiplicity are estimated assuming a factorizable Pomeron.
The energy dependence of backward π+p elastic scattering has been measured for incident π momenta 2.0-6.0 GeV/c in steps of typically 100 MeV/c. Values are presented for both the differential cross section extrapolated to 180° and the slope of the backward peak as a function of momentum. In the s channel we see the effects of the established Δ++ resonances and evidence for the Δ(3230). Also, the data show the existence of a negative-parity Δ resonance with mass ∼2200 MeV/c2.
We have measured muon-proton deep inelastic scattering in the range 0.4<q2<3.6 (GeV/c)2. The data are consistent with muon-electron universality, and if the ratio ρ=νW2(μ−p)νW2(e−p) is fitted with the form ρ=N(1+q2Λ2)−2, we obtain N=0.997±0.043 and Λ−2=+0.006±0.016 (GeV/c)2. This result establishes that |Λ|>~5.1 GeV/c with 95% confidence.
Full angular distributions of the polarization parameter in elastic K+p scattering at 1.37, 1.45, 1.60, 1.71, 1.80, 1.89, 2.11, and 2.31 GeV/c are presented. These data were obtained in an experiment at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron using a polarized proton target with arrays of scintillation and Čerenkov counters to detect the scattered particles.
From 2728 events of 205-GeV pp interactions found in 15 000 pictures taken with the 30-in. hydrogen bubble chamber at the National Accelerator Laboratory, a total cross section of 39.5±1.1 mb was measured. The mean charged-particle multiplicity for inelastic pp collisions was measured to be 7.65±0.17. The prong distribution from 2 to 22 prongs is broader than a Poisson distribution and has a width parameter f2−=〈n−(n−−1)〉−〈n−〉2=0.95±0.21.
We have made measurements of polarization in π−p elastic scattering, with emphasis over the backward region, at 1.60 to 2.28 GeVc. The results indicate the absence of u-channel dominance in the backward region, as was observed in the case of π+p scattering. Comparisons have been made with predictions of various phase-shift analyses which show that the agreement is generally very poor in the backward region.
Measurements have been made on Compton scattering for photon energies between 5 and 17 GeV and t values from -0.06 to -1.1 (GeVc)2. The data were obtained by performing a coincidence between the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center 1.6-GeVc spectrometer and a Lucite shower counter. The scattering appears diffractive out to high t values, but the cross sections seem not to be in good agreement with the prediction of a strict vector-meson-dominance model.
The results presented in this paper were obtained from a 105 000 frame exposure of the FNAL Hybrid Proportional Wire Chamber-30 inch Bubble Chamber System, in a tagged beam of 147 GeV/ c negative particles. Elastic, total and topological cross sections were obtained for both π − p and K − p interactions. Comparisons with other data, taken with various beam particles over large momentum intervals, show good agreement with KNO scaling, and similarity in the scaling behavior of σ n for the different beam particles.
We derive cross-sections for the inclusive productiion in p̄p interactions at 100 GeV /c of π 0 , K S 0 and Λ 0 Λ 0 of 91.5±5.7 mb, 5.2±0.4 mb and 4.8±0.4 mb respectively, which are all higher than pp cross-sections at energy. We find indications that these differences can be attributed to “annihilation” processes.
Measurements of the cross section for the reaction p+p→π0+anything have been completed. The data cover a range of incident proton energies 50-400 GeV, π0 transverse momenta 0.3-4 GeV/c, and laboratory angles 30-275 mrad. The experiment was performed using the internal proton beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. A lead-glass counter was used to detect photons from the decay of π0's produced by collisions in thin targets of hydrogen or carbon. Tables of the measured cross sections are presented.
We report results from a measurement of the inclusive process p+d→X+d in the region 0.03<|t|<0.12 (GeV/c)2 and 5 GeV2<MX2≲0.11plab for incident proton momenta from 150 to 400 GeV/c. We find that in this region, the differential cross section d2σdtdMX2 varies only slowly with energy, falls exponentially with |t|, and behaves to a good approximation as 1MX2. The measurement was performed at Fermilab by detecting slow-recoil deuterons from a deuterium-gas-jet target placed at the internal beam of the accelerator.
We have studied inclusive Δ++(1236) production for |tpΔ|<1.0 (GeV/c)2 in a 50 000 picture exposure of the 30-inch hydrogen bubble chamber to a 205 GeV/c proton beam. The inclusive Δ++ cross section for one hemisphere in the center-of-mass system is (1.30±0.14) mb. The mean charged multiplicity of the system recoiling off the Δ++ is in agreement with that for laboratory π−p interactions at the same energy in the center-of-mass frame. The inclusive Δ++ production is compared to inclusive Λ0 and proton production in the same experiment. The connection between Δ++ production and diffraction is discussed. We find that not all Δ++ come from the decay of a diffractively-produced state. The PT2 distribution for the Δ++ has a slope of (10.5±0.9) (GeV/c)−2 for PT2≲0.2 (GeV/c)2. This slope, together with the decay angular distribution of the Δ++ at small momentum transfer, suggests a strong pion-exchange contribution to the inclusive process. We compare the data to the expectation of a triple-Regge model with ρ- and π-exchange contributions.
A very narrow resonance with a mass of 3.105 GeV/c2 is observed in the reaction γ+Be→μ++μ−+X. The total cross section for this process, as well as its t distribution, is given.
A very narrow resonance with a mass of 3.1 GeV/c2 is observed in the reaction n+Be→μ++μ−+X. The total cross section for this process, as well as its P⊥2 and x distribution, are given.