Results are presented on the exclusive production of four-prong final states in photon-photon collisions from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at the SLAC e+e− storage ring PEP. Measurement of dE/dx and momentum in the time-projection chamber (TPC) provides identification of the final states 2π+2π−, K+K−π+π−, and 2K+2K−. For two quasireal incident photons, both the 2π+2π− and K+K−π+π− cross sections show a steep rise from threshold to a peak value, followed by a decrease at higher mass. Cross sections for the production of the final states ρ0ρ0, ρ0π+π−, and φπ+π− are presented, together with upper limits for φρ0, φφ, and K*0K¯ *0. The ρ0ρ0 contribution dominates the four-pion cross section at low masses, but falls to nearly zero above 2 GeV. Such behavior is inconsistent with expectations from vector dominance but can be accommodated by four-quark resonance models or by t-channel factorization. Angular distributions for the part of the data dominated by ρ0ρ0 final states are consistent with the production of JP=2+ or 0+ resonances but also with isotropic (nonresonant) production. When one of the virtual photons has mass (mγ2=-Q2≠0), the four-pion cross section is still dominated by ρ0ρ0 at low final-state masses Wγγ and by 2π+2π− at higher mass. Further, the dependence of the cross section on Q2 becomes increasingly flat as Wγγ increases.
We report measurements of the two-photon processes e+e−→e+e−π+π− and e+e−→e+e−K+K−, at an e+e− center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. In the π+π− data a high-statistics analysis of the f(1270) results in a γγ width Γ(γγ→f)=3.2±0.4 keV. The π+π− continuum below the f mass is well described by a QED Born approximation, whereas above the f mass it is consistent with a QCD-model calculation if a large contribution from the f is assumed. For the K+K− data we find agreement of the high-mass continuum with the QCD prediction; limits on f′(1520) and θ(1720) formation are presented.
We have used the momentum spectrum of leptons produced in semileptonic B-meson decays to set a 90%-confidence-level upper limit on Γ(b→ulν)Γ(b→clν) of 4%. We also measure the semileptonic branching fractions of the B meson to be (12.0±0.7±0.5)% for electrons and (10.8±0.6±1.0)% for muons.
A precise measurement of the differential cross section at zero degrees for the pion charge-exchange reaction π−p→π0n at pπ=522 MeV/c has been made. The result is dσdΩ (0∘)=4.32±0.11 mb/sr.
We present a measurement of the cross section for the reaction e + e − → e + e − π + π − π + π − at SPEAR. This channel is found to be large and dominated by the process γγ → ϱ 0 ϱ 0 → π + π − π + π − . The cross section, which is small just above the four-pion threshold, exhibits a large enhancement near the ϱ 0 ϱ 0 threshold.
The total cross sections of π± on protons in the momentum interval from 0.40 to 0.90 GeV/c have been measured with high relative precision. In this interval the statistical error varies between 10 and 20 μb. No new structure is observed.
We present a measurement of the cross section for hadron production by e+e− annihilation in the vicinity of the previously observed resonance near 3.77 GeV. The data are used to determine the parameters of the ψ(3770) resonance. The values found are: mass, 3764±5 MeV/c2, total width, 23.5±5 MeV, and partial width to electron pairs, 276±50 eV.
Measurements of the semileptonic weak-neutral-current reactions νμp→νμp and ν¯μp→ν¯μp are presented. The experiment was performed using a 170-metric-ton high-resolution target detector in the BNL wide-band neutrino beam. High-statistics samples yield the absolute differential cross sections dσ(νμp)/dQ2 and dσ(ν¯μp)/dQ2. A measurement of the axial-vector form factor GA(Q2) is also presented. The results are in good agreement with the standard model SU(2)×U(1). The weak-neutral-current parameter sin2thetaW is determined to be sin2θW=0.220±0.016(stat)−0.031+0.023(syst).
The most recent total-cross-section data are used to calculate real parts of the forward elastic π±p scattering amplitudes from threshold to 240 GeV/c. Using statistical and systematic uncertainties of the total cross sections and their momenta, along with uncertainties of the subtraction and coupling constants, unphysical cuts, and cross-section extrapolations, we calculate the uncertainties of the real amplitudes. Our results are compared to experimental and other theoretical determinations of the π±p forward real amplitudes.