Cross sections for the photoproduction of neutral pions have been measured at the 1.1-GeV Frascati electron synchrotron for bombarding photon energies k between 400 and 800 MeV and for π0 c.m. angles of θπ*=90∘, 120∘, and 135∘. The main feature of the experiment is good resolution in incident photon energy. The results are in good agreement with the existing theories in the energy range of 450 to 550 MeV. The cross sections exhibit a smooth behavior as a function of energy for k=400−600 MeV. No immediate evidence is found of a contribution of the P11 resonance. An anomaly at the limit of statistical significance appears for k≃700−740 MeV, indicating a possible structure of the so-called second resonance. We attempt to interpret the observed anomaly as a reflection of the sharp opening of the η production channel (η cusp effect).
With an apparatus slightly improved with respect to a previous one we have studied multihadronic production at the Adone e + e − storage ring up to a maximum center of mass energy of 3 GeV.
To complete data on resonance electroproduction we constructed an electron spectrometer with large angular and momentum acceptance. As a first result inclusive cross sections for an invariant hadronic mass 1.2<W<1.7 GeV and a four momentum transfer squared 0.5<Q2<1.5 (GeV/c)2 and for values of the polarization parameter 0.1<ɛ<0.25 are presented. Combining our results with the SLAC 4°-data we obtain σL/σT in the specified kinematical range.
We present new high statistics data on hadron production in photon-photon reactions. The data are analyzed in terms of an electron-photon scattering formalism. The dependence of the total cross section of Q 2 , the four-momentum transfer squared of the scattered electron, and on the mass W of the hadronic system is investigated. The data are compared to predictions from Vector-Meson Dominance and the quark model.
The ratio of π - to π + electroproduction cross sections from deuterium has been measured in the resonance region, at a four-momentum transfer squared close to −1.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Results in the forward direction are presented and a comparison is made with predictions based on SU(6) W and the Melosh transformation.
We present the first data on photon-photon annihilation into hadrons for CM energies > 1 GeV obtained with the detector PLUTO at the e + e − storage ring PETRA. Cross sections are extracted using an inelastic eγ scattering formalism. The results are compared to expectations from Regge-like models.
The rates for forward electroproduction of single charged pions from deutrium have been measured in the resonance region, at a virtual photon mass squared ≈−0.5( GeV/ c 2 ) 2 . Results are presented in the form of a π − to π + cross-section ratio.
We have measured the production cross section for K s 0 in e + e − annihilation from 3.6 to 5.0 GeV center of mass energy. A substantial increase of the K s 0 yield is observed around 4 GeV in qualitative agreement with the charm hypothesis.
We report a new measurement of the π−p→3π0n total cross section from threshold to pπ=0.75GeV/c. The cross section near the N(1535)12− resonance is only a few μb after subtracting the large η→3π0 background associated with π−p→ηn. A simple analysis of our data results in the estimated branching fraction B[S11→πN(1440)12+]=(8±2)%. This is the first such estimate obtained with a three-pion production reaction.
This paper gives a detailed description of an experiment which studies the interactions of muon-type neutrinos in hydrogen and deuterium. The experiment was performed at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron using the wide-band neutrino beam incident on the Argonne 12-foot bubble chamber filled with hydrogen and deuterium. The neutrino energy spectrum peaks at 0.5 GeV and has a tail extending to 6 GeV. The shape and intensity of the flux is determined using measurements of pion yields from beryllium. The produced pions are focused by one or (for the latter part of the experiment) two magnetic horns. A total of 364000 pictures were taken with a hydrogen filling of the bubble chamber and 903 000 with a deuterium filling. The scanning and other analyses of the events are described. The most abundant reaction occurs off neutrons and is quasi-elastic scattering νd→μ−pps. The separation of these events from background channels is discussed. The total and differential cross sections are analyzed to obtain the axial-vector form factor of the nucleon. Our result, expressed in terms of a dipole form factor, gives an axial-vector mass of 0.95±0.09 GeV. A comparison is made to previous measurements using neutrino beams, and also to determinations based upon threshold pion electroproduction experiments. In addition, the data are used to measure the weak vector form factor and so check the conserved-vector-current hypothesis.
Differential cross sections for single photoproduction of neutral pion on neutron have been measured at different c.m. angles for photon energies, between 450–800 MeV.
We report measurements of the asymmetry A_parallel for inclusive hadron production on longitudinally polarized proton and deuteron targets by circularly polarized photons. The photons were produced via internal and external bremsstrahlung from an electron beam of 48.35 GeV. Asymmetries for both positive and negative signed hadrons, and a subset of identified pions, were measured in the momentum range 10<P<30 GeV at 2.75 and 5.5 degrees. Small non-zero asymmetries are observed for the proton, while the deuteron results are consistent with zero. Recent calculations do not describe the data well.
The total cross sections for the three γp → Nππ reactions have been measured for photon energies from 400 to 800 MeV. The γ p → p π 0 π 0 and γ p → n π + π 0 cross sections have never been measured before while the γ p → p π + π − results are much improved compared to earlier data. These measurements were performed with the large acceptance hadronic detector DAPHNE, at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI microtron in Mainz.
Measurements of multiple particle production at ADONE, the Frascati e + e − storage ring, have been carried out at C.M. energies 1.4 GeV to 2.4 GeV. The hadronic nature of the observed particles is discussed and a lower limit of 30 nbarn set for the total multiparticle cross section.
Reaction π−p→π0π0n has been measured with high statistics in the beam momentum range 270–750MeV∕c. The data were obtained using the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer, which has 93% of 4π solid angle coverage. The dynamics of the π−p→π0π0n reaction and the dependence on the beam energy are displayed in total cross sections, Dalitz plots, invariant-mass spectra, and production angular distributions. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the acceptance that is needed for the precision determination of the total cross section σt(π−p→π0π0n). The energy dependence of σt(π−p→π0π0n) shows a shoulder at the Roper resonance [i.e., the N(1440)12+], and there is also a maximum near the N(1520)32−. It illustrates the importance of these two resonances to the π0π0 production process. The Dalitz plots are highly nonuniform; they indicate that the π0π0n final state is dominantly produced via the π0Δ0(1232) intermediate state. The invariant-mass spectra differ much from the phase-space distributions. The production angular distributions are also different from the isotropic distribution, and their structure depends on the beam energy. For beam momenta above 550MeV∕c, the density distribution in the Dalitz plots strongly depends on the angle of the outgoing dipion system (or equivalently on the neutron angle). The role of the f0(600) meson (also known as the σ) in π0π0n production remains controversial.
Exclusive electroproduction of pi0 mesons on protons in the backward hemisphere has been studied at Q**2 = 1.0 GeV**2 by detecting protons in the forward direction in coincidence with scattered electrons from the 4 GeV electron beam in Jefferson Lab's Hall A. The data span the range of the total (gamma* p) center-of-mass energy W from the pion production threshold to W = 2.0 GeV. The differential cross sections sigma_T+epsilon*sigma_L, sigma_TL, and sigma_TT were separated from the azimuthal distribution and are presented together with the MAID and SAID parametrizations.
We present a measurement of the cross section for hadron production by e+e− annihilation in the vicinity of the previously observed resonance near 3.77 GeV. The data are used to determine the parameters of the ψ(3770) resonance. The values found are: mass, 3764±5 MeV/c2, total width, 23.5±5 MeV, and partial width to electron pairs, 276±50 eV.
The analysis of 1466 events of the type e + e − → μ ± μ ± , in the time-lifke range from 1.44 to 9.00 GeV 2 , sh that the absolute value of the cross-section and its energy dependence follow QED expectations within (± 3.2%) and (± 1.2%), respectively.
The asymmetry parameter A in π−p elastic scattering at incident pion laboratory kinetic energies Tπ of 98, 238, and 2922 MeV and in π−p charge-exchange scattering π−p→π0n at Tπ=238, 292, and 310 MeV have been measured over a wide range of scattering angles (typically from about 60° to 130° c.m.) with a polarized proton target. The data have been used in an energy-independent phase-shift analysis to improve the precision of the pion-nucleon phase shifts, to set new limits on violation of isospin conservation in the pion-nucleon S wave, and to confirm significant charge dependence in the P32 wave.
Result of cross section measurements for the reaction π − p → π − π + n are presented. They cover a range of incident pion momenta between 295 and 450 MeV/ c . It is the first time that the cross section has been measured so close to threshold. The experiment was performed with Omicron, a large-solid-angle spectrometer, which enables a measurement of the full set of kinematic variables. In the region of overlap there is a good agreement with other experiments. The extracted value for the chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter ξ is seen to be largely extrapolition dependent but the measured value of -0.5±0.8 leaves Weinberg's prediction of ξ =0 the only remaining choice.
We have investigated the elastic scattering of high energy $\Sigma^-$ off electrons from carbon and copper targets using the CERN hyperon beam. Scattering events a
The total cross section for the γn→pπ−π0 reaction has been measured over the photon energy range 450–800 MeV at the 855 MeV MAMI Microtron in Mainz with the large acceptance detector DAPHNE and using a deuterium target. As expected, this reaction has a very similar cross section to the γp→nπ+π0 channel and its amplitude is strongly underestimated by the existing double pion photoproduction models.
The reactionγγ→π+π−π+π− has been studied with the ARGUS detector. The rate in the invariant mass region below 1.8 GeV/c2 is found to be largely due toρ0ρ0 production. A spin-parity analysis shows a dominance of the partial wave (JP,Jz)=(2+, 2) with a small admixture fromJP=0+. The contribution of negative parity states is consistent with zero. The large ratio of cross sectionsσ(γγ→ρ0ρ0)/σ(γγ→ρ+ρ−)≃4, and the dominance of theJP=2+ wave in the reactionγγ→ρ0ρ0 is a signature consistent with the production of an exotic (I=2) resonance.
A full-kinematics measurement of the π − p→ π − p π 0 reaction in the incident π − momentum region from 295 to 450 MeV/ c is presented. The measurement was performed with the OMICRON spectrometer at the CERN synchrocyclotron.
Data are presented for the reaction ep → ep π 0 at a nominal four-momentum transfer squared of 0.5 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The data were obtained using an extracted electron beam from NINA and two magnetic spectrometers for coincidence detection of the electron and proton. Details are given of the experimental method and the results are given for isobar masses in the range 1.19 – 1.73 GeV/ c 2 .