The differential cross section for the reaction γ+p→π+n was measured at 19 photon energies between 300 and 750 MeV in the laboratory frame, for pion angles between 0° and 130° in the c.m. system. The pions were analyzed in angle and momentum with a magnetic spectrometer and detected by a counter telescope. The 0° measurements could be achieved, in spite of the excessive positron rate, owing to a mass-spectrometer arrangement. No direct indication for the electromagnetic excitation of the P11 resonance (1466 MeV) was found. Comparison is made with theoretical calculations of π+ photoproduction.
Measurements have been made on the ratio of pion-production cross sections at right angles to and along the photon electric-field vector. The positive and negative pions were first momentum-analyzed and counted by means of a counter telescope. Data have been taken at 45, 90, and 135° in the c.m. system, and at proton energies of 225, 330, and 450 MeV. A comparison of the data is made with the dispersion-relation calculation of McKinley.
The ratio of the yields of negative and positive pions photoproduced in deuterium has been measured at six photon energies between 500 and 1000 Mev and at seven angles between 20° and 160° in the center-of-momentum system of the photon and target nucleon. Pions were selected with a magnetic spectrometer and identified using momentum and specific ionization in a scintillation counter telescope. The spectator model of the deuteron was used to identify the photon energy. Statistical errors assigned to the π−π+ ratio range between five and fifteen percent. The results of the present experiment join smoothly with the low-energy π−π+ ratios obtained by Sands et al. At high energies the π−π+ ratio varies from 0.5 at forward angles and energies near 900 Mev to 2.5 at 160° c.m. and energies 600 to 800 Mev. The cross sections for π− photo-production from neutrons have been derived from the π−π+ ratio and the CalTech π+ photoproduction data. The angular distributions for π− production are considerably different from those for π+; there is, for example, a systematic increase at the most backward angles. The energy dependence of the total cross section for π− is similar to that for π+, although the second resonance peak occurs at a slightly lower energy, and at 900 and 1000 Mev the π− cross section is smaller by a factor 1.6. A comparison is made of the cross sections for π+ photoproduction from hydrogen and deuterium, although the accuracy of this comparison is not high.
The azimuthal asymmetry Σ=(σ⊥−σII)(σ⊥+σII) in π+ photoproduction by linearly polarized bremsstrahlung was measured at photon energies from 475 to 750 MeV at 90° and 135° in the center-of-mass system. The experimental results show that even in this energy region, π+ are produced predominantly in the plane of the magnetic vector.
The asymmetry ratio for the process γ + p → n + π + by linearly polarized γ rays are reported for E γ = 200 − 400 MeV and for θ (production angle of π in the c.m. system) = 90°. The experimental results are compared with some recent theoretical predictions.
The polarized target asymmetry for γ + p → π + + n was measured at c.m. angles around 130° for the energy range between 0.3 and 1.0 GeV. A magnetic spectrometer system was used to detect π + mesons from the polarized butanol target. The data show two prominent positive peaks at 0.4 and 0.8 GeV and a deep minimum at 0.6 GeV. These features are well reproduced by the phenomenological analysis made by us.
The asymmetry of the cross section for π + photoproduction from a polarized butanol target has been measured at a c.m. angle 90° and photon energies between 300 and 900 MeV by a single-arm spectrometer detecting positive pions. Our results indicate that the asymmetry has clear positive peaks at photon energies 400 and 700 MeV with a deep valley at about 600 MeV. The general feature of the results is well reproduced by the phenomenological analyses made by Walker and ourselves; however, the best fit to the polarized target asymmetry data seems to give a somewhat different set of parameters from that given by Walker.
The π+ photoproduction cross section in hydrogen has been measured at 180° for photon energies from 0.22 to 3.1 GeV by detecting the pion in the backward direction. The statistical accuracy of the measurements varies typically from 3 to 10% depending on the energy. The data are compared with other recent experimental results and predictions of phenomenological theories.
The differential cross sections at 180° for the reactions γ+p→π++n and γ+n→π−+p were measured using a magnetic spectrometer to detect π± mesons. In order to reduce the spread of energy resolution due to the nucleon motion inside the deuteron, a photon difference method was employed with a 50-MeV step for the reaction γ+n→π−+p. The data show structures at the second- and the third-resonance regions for both reactions. A simple phenomenological analysis was made for fitting the data, and the results are compared with those of previous analyses.
The polarized target asymmetry for the process γ p → π + n has been measured for incident photon energies below 1.02 GeV over a range of c.m. angles from 40° to 160°. π + mesons from a polarized butanol target were detected by a magnetic spectrometer. The results are compared with predictions given by existing analyses. A tentative interpretation of the data is performed, and a larger contribution of S-wave resonances is suggested. The photocouplings of dominant resonances were hardly changed by the inclusion of new data and they seem to be almost uniquely determined.
Cross-sections for the photoproduction of positive pions in hydrogen have been measured at the 1.1 GeV Frascati electron synchrotron for photon energiesE γ between 500 and 800 MeV and for π+ c.m. angles of θ=30o, 90o. The cross-sections exhibit a smooth behavior as a function of energy forE γ=(500÷600) MeV. No immediate evidence is found of a contribution of theP 11 resonance.
The asymmetry ratioA = (σ⊥ -σ∥)/(σ⊥ +σ∥) has been measured by means of linearly polarized γ-rays for π0 and π+ photoproduction. For the reaction γ + p → n + π+, measurements were taken for θc.m. = 135° at γ-ray energies ranging from 390 to 909 MeV. For the reaction γ + p → p + π0, measurements were taken for θc.m. = 60° and 90° at γ-ray energies ranging from 426 to 918 Mev.
The target asymmetry T = ( σ ↑ − σ ↓)/( σ ↑ + σ ↓) for the reaction γ p → π + n has been measured at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron for a pion c.m. angle of 40° and γ energies between 0.5 and 2.2 GeV. Butanol was used as the target material. About 35% of the protons could be polarized using the dynamic-polarization method in a continuous-flow cryostat operating at 1°K and 25 kG. The π + mesons were detected in a magnetic-spectrometer system. Considerable structure in the asymmetry was observed.
The differential cross section of the reactionγ+p→π+ was measured at pion CM-angles of 20° and 30° for photon energies between 500 MeV and 1,400 MeV. The pions were detected in a magnetic spectrometer. By measuring each pion trajectory and by offline calculation of the initial pion parameters an energy resolution of about 2.5% FWHM was achieved. The results complete a set of data which were measured in recent years at the Bonn 2.5 GeV synchrotron. In comparison to photoproduction analyses two effects were revealed: The η cusp appears in the energy dependence of the cross section as a sharp drop atKγ=710 MeV. In the region of the third resonance the data show a greater enhancement than predicted by most of the analyses.
The differential cross section for the reaction γ+p→π++n was measured using the Caltech 1.5-GeV electron synchrotron. The positive pions were detected and momentum analyzed in a multichannel magnetic spectrometer and the data were recorded in the memory of a pulse-height analyzer. The energy resolution was improved over previous experiments and an attempt was made to minimize systematic errors. The data are presented in the form of energy distributions at 12 lab angles from 34° to 155°, and the range of lab proton energies extended from 500 to 1350 MeV. Data were not taken at all energies for each angle, since the maximum useful momentum of the spectrometer, 600 MeVc, restricted the maximum energy for lab angles less than or equal to 74°.
The excitation functions for positive pion production from hydrogen have been obtained in the energy region from 230 Mev to 450 Mev and at laboratory pion angles of 24°, 38°, 53°, 73°, 93°, 115°, 140°, and 160°. The pions are detected and identified by measuring their range and ionization in a scintillation counter telescope. The above data are analyzed to give the angular distributions in the center-of-momentum system, and a least-squares analysis made to determine coefficients in σ(θ)=A+Bcosθ+Ccos2θ. The total cross section shows a peak at 300 Mev of magnitude 2.20×10−28 cm2. The coefficient B passes through a maximum negative value at 250 Mev and then passes through zero at 325 Mev and remains positive up to the highest energy measured.
Positive pions produced in a cold, high-pressure hydrogen gas target by the 500-Mev bremsstrahlung of the CalTech synchrotron, have been analyzed by a large magnetic spectrometer. The photoproduction cross section has been measured as a function of photon energy at laboratory angles of 12.5°, 30°, 51°, 73°, 104°, 140°, and 180°. The energy region covered depends somewhat on the angle, but is typically from 200 to 470 Mev. From these excitation curves the angular distribution of the photopions in the center of momentum system is obtained for various photon energies, and these angular distributions are analyzed in the form A+Bcosθ+Ccos2θ. The angular distribution has a backward maximum at low energies and a forward maximum at high energies, the coefficient B changing sign at about 340 Mev. The total cross section shows a striking maximum near 290 Mev, of magnitude 205×10−30 cm2, and falls off above the maximum faster than λ2.
Pions from the reaction γ + p → π + + n were analysed in the backward direction by a magnetic spectrometer. The photon energy region of 0.394 GeV to 1.397 GeV was covered by 19 different momentum settings. Data reduction resulted in 74 measured differential cross sections with statistical uncertainties typically from 4% to 8%. The systematic uncertainty was estimated to be ±5%. The data are compared to other recent experiments and predictions of phenomenological analyses.
Measurements have been made of the polarisation parameters Σ , T and P for the process γ p → π + n in the photon energy range 520–2250 MeV at c.m. angles between 30° and 120°. These data were obtained in a double polarisation experiment, using the polarised photon beam from the Daresbury electron synchrotron incident on a polarised proton target. The data are compared with predictions from current theoretical analyses.