The differential cross section has been measured for the reaction γ +p→p+ π o at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron in the energy range from 0.4 to 2.2 GeV for a c.m. angle of 150 degrees. The protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer system. The excitation curve shows a distinct resonance structure. The total corrections to the counting rate are about 3%. The contribution of the process γ +p→p+2 π was separated. The uncertainty of this separation leads to an error of about 4% in the cross section.
Measurements of the differential cross section for the process γ+p→π0+p have been made at eight pion center-of-mass angles in the range 51-135° and for incident photon energies from approximately 600-1200 MeV. The bremsstrahlung photon beam used was obtained from the California Institute of Technology electron synchrotron. Both the recoil proton and one γ ray from the decay of the π0 were detected. The incident photon energy was determined by measuring the laboratory angle and time of flight of the recoil proton. The angular distributions obtained indicate that the third pion-nucleon resonance is predominantly a D(52) resonance excited by a magnetic quadrupole transition. It can also be concluded that any contribution to the π0 photoproduction cross section from a virtual vector-meson exchange process is probably negligible in the region of the second and third pion-nucleon resonances.
The differential cross section has been measured for the reaction γ +p→ π o + p at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron in the energy range from 0.55 to 2.2 GeV at a c.m.angle of 120 degrees.
The preliminary results of measurements of differential cross-sections for the photo-production of neutral pions from protons are given. The data fall in the range 60–125 degrees in pion c.m. angle and 350 to 850 MeV in photon energy.
The photoproduction of neutral pions from hydrogen has been studied by counting the recoil protons with a magnetic spectrometer and scintillation counters. The process has been studied between photon energies of 260 and 450 Mev and between center-of-momentum pion angles of 70° and 153°. The excitation functions show a resonance type shape with maxima at about 320 Mev. Angular distributions are analyzed in the form A+Bcosθ+Ccos2θ in the center-of-momentum system. The coefficient B, which gives the front-back asymmetry, is small at all energies; and the ratio −AC is 1.22±0.10 at all energies between 295 and 450 Mev. The maximum cross section at 90° in the c.m. system is 26×10−30 cm2/steradian for 320-Mev photons. The total cross section divided by the square of the c.m. photon wavelength has a maximum near 340 Mev, and drops by nearly a factor of two at 450 Mev. These results are consistent with magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole absorption leading to a resonant state of the pion-nucleon system of angular momentum 32 and isotopic spin 32.
This paper reports measurements of the differential cross section for photoproduction of neutral pions in hydrogen at energies 300, 400, and 450 Mev, at center-of-momentum angles of 70° to 150°. One decay photon from the neutral pion is observed in coincidence with the recoil proton, whose energy and angle are measured to define the photon energy. The results obtained by this method are in good agreement with more accurate measurements obtained recently by the method of observing only the recoil proton.
The polarization of the recoil proton in neutral single-pion photoproduction from hydrogen, γ+p→p+π0, has been measured for pion center-of-mass angles near 90° at 7 photon energies from 450 to 900 MeV. The polarization rises to a maximum of 0.58 near 600 MeV and is still 0.42 at 900 MeV. The sign of the polarization is negative in the sense of k×q, where k is the photon momentum and q is the pion momentum. The measured values are given as functions of laboratory photon energy and c.m. pion angle as follows: 450 MeV, 109°, -0.16±0.14; 525 MeV, 84°, -0.36±0.19; 585 MeV, 86°, -0.58±0.15; 660 MeV, 77°, -0.51±0.17; 755 MeV, 76°, -0.55±0.15; 810 MeV, 89°, -0.45±0.17; 895 MeV, 90°, -0.42±0.16. The recoil protons were momentum-analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer. Nuclear emulsion was used as scatterer and detector. The emulsion technique is discussed in detail. The number of individual scatterings in emulsion used for each measurement varied between 750 and 1000.
Recoil protons from the process γ+p→p+π0 have been detected by nuclear emulsions placed within a hydrogen-gas target and used to measure the differential cross section for production of neutral pions. In this manner protons of energies as low as 5 Mev can be detected at laboratory angles corresponding to emission of a pion at center-of-momentum (c.m.) angles as low as 26°. This experiment thus supplements that of Oakley and Walker which is in the same range of photon energies (240-480 Mev), but is restricted to pion c.m. angles greater than about 70° owing to higher minimum detectable proton energy. Common experimental points provide intercomparison of absolute values. Angular distributions are analyzed in the form dσdΩ=A+Bcosθ+Ccos2θ in the c.m. system. The combined Oakley-Walker and present data give the average value of the ratio AC as -1.60±0.10 in the energy range from 260 to 450 Mev. The coefficient B, which gives the front-back asymmetry, passes through zero below the resonance energy of 320 Mev and is positive at higher energies. These results are consistent with magnetic dipole absorption leading to a state of the pion-nucleon system of angular momentum 32, together with a finite amount of S-wave interference.
The process γ+p→π0+p has been studied by detecting recoil protons from a liquid hydrogen target which was bombarded by the bremsstrahlung beam of the California Institute of Technology electron synchrotron. The angle and momentum of the recoil protons were measured by a magnetic spectrometer-three scintillation counter coincidence system. The process has been studied between photon laboratory energies of 490 and 940 Mev and between pion center-of-mass angles of 31.5° and 147°. Protons which arose from meson pair production were significant at forward laboratory angles. A correction for this contamination is discussed. The results of these measurements show two interesting features. One is that the total cross section, which falls very rapidly above the 32−32 resonance energy near 320 Mev, reaches a minimum at about 600 Mev, and then increases to a broad maximum near 800 or 900 Mev. The other striking feature of the data is that the shape of the angular distribution seems to change rather suddenly near 900 Mev.
The bremsstrahlung beam of the Cornell Bev electron synchrotron has been used to study the reaction γ+p→π0+p over the photon energy range 250 Mev to 1 Bev, and for center-of-mass pion angles between 20° and 70°. The recoil protons, of energies between 10 and 60 Mev, were identified and their energies determined using a range telescope of eight thin plastic scintillators enclosed in a vacuum chamber with the thin liquid hydrogen target. Correlated pulse-height information was obtained by photographing an oscilloscope display and was used to sort out the protons from mesons and electrons. Corrections were made for the background of photoprotons from the Mylar target cup, the energy loss of the protons in the liquid hydrogen, absorption and scattering in the counter telescope, and the variation of beam intensity profile with energy. Compared with previous experiments and extrapolations the results show a somewhat smaller forward differential cross section above 400 Mev. The angular distributions obtained from a least-squares fit to all existing data indicate a d32 assignment for the 760-Mev resonance level. Other implications of the data are also discussed.
The differential cross section for the reaction γp → π 0 p at forward angles has been measured in the energy region between 350 MeV and 1175 MeV. A phenomenological multiple analysis was carried out on the present data together with other data.
Measurements of π0 photoproduction have been made at 235, 285, 335, and 435 MeV, using a beam of polarized x rays. Using a calculated value of polarization, an analysis is made which indicates a possible need for γ, ρ, π, or γ, ω, π coupling. The polarization calculations are checked by measurements made as a function of photon production angle at 335 MeV.
We report measurements of the differential cross section for photoproduction of π0 mesons from hydrogen, with the pion emerging near 0 deg, in the photon energy range 290 to 700 MeV. The results show no unusual behavior of the cross section in the forward direction. They are consistent with the angular distribution characteristic of a magnetic-dipole transition to a P32 state. The results agree reasonably well with theoretical predictions of Gourdin and Salin, but disagree with a prediction of DeTollis and Verganelakis. Least-squares fits in powers of cosθ have been made to the available angular distributions.
The polarization of recoiling protons from the photoproduction of π0 mesons on liquid hydrogen has been measured for primary photon energies between 500 and 1000 MeV over a range of π0 c.m. angles from 55° to 130°. The results show structure not observed previously in experiments of less precision. In particular, the polarization at 90° c.m. is close to zero at a primary photon energy of 900 MeV. Also, a strong dependence of polarization on π0 c.m. angle between 600 and 900 MeV was observed. A subsidiary measurement of the polarization of the recoil protons from elastic e−p scattering at 900 MeV and q2=10 F−2 gave a value (1.3±2.0)%.
Angular distributions of the target symmetry for the reaction γ + p → π 0 + p have been measured at the Bonn 2.5 GeV Electron Synchrotron at pion c.m. angles between 13° and 63° and photon energies of 1.0 and 1.1 GeV. The π 0 mesons were detected by their two decay photons with total absorption lead-glass Čerenkov counters. Butanol was used as target material in a continuous flow 3 He cryostat operating at 0.5 K and 25 kG. The π 0 counting rate from free protons in the butanol target was derived from the measurements of the differential cross section on hydrogen. The data are compared with data of other laboratories and the results of two recent partial-wave analyses.
The recoil proton polarization of the reaction γ p → π 0 p was measured at a c.m. angle of 100° for incident photon energies between 451 and 1106 MeV, and at an angle of 130° for energies from 400 to 1142 MeV. One photon, decayed from a π 0 meson, and a recoil proton were detected in coincidence. Two kinds of polarization analyzer were employed. In the range of proton kinetic energy less than 420 MeV and higher than 346 MeV, carbon plates and liquid hydrogen were used for determining the polarization, respectively. The data given by the two polarimeter systems are in good agreement. Results are compared with recent phenomenological analyses. From the comparison between the present data and the polarized target data, the invariant amplitude A 3 can be estimated to be small.
Single pi0 photoproduction has been studied with the CB-ELSA experiment at Bonn using tagged photon energies between 0.3 and 3.0 GeV. The experimental setup covers a very large solid angle of about 98% of 4 pi. Differential cross sections (d sigma)/(d Omega) have been measured. Complicated structures in the angular distributions indicate a variety of different resonances being produced in the s channel intermediate state gamma p --> N* (Delta*) --> p pi0. A combined analysis including the data presented in this letter along with other data sets reveals contributions from known resonances and evidence for a new resonance N(2070)D15.
The differential cross sections for the γ + n → π O + n reaction have been measured at the photon energies of 500–900 MeV. The ratios, R oo = [ d δ d Ω(γ n → π o n ) ] [ d δ d Ω(γ p → π o p ) ] , have been obtained at the c.m. pion angles of 60 O , 90 O , 105 O , 120 O , and 140 O .
The polarized target asymmetry in the reaction γ p → π 0 p has been measured at c.m. angles of 30°, 80°, 105° and 120° for incident photon energies below 1 GeV. Two decay photons from π 0 were detected in coincidence at 30°, and at the other angles recoil protons and single photons from π 0 were detected. The results are compared with recent phenomenological analyses.