Electromagnetic Form Factors of the Proton

Bumiller, F. ; Croissiaux, M. ; Dally, E. ; et al.
Phys.Rev. 124 (1961) 1623-1631, 1961.
Inspire Record 47220 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.26853

This paper reports experimental findings on the Dirac (F1) and Pauli (F2) form factors of the proton. The form factors have been obtained by using the Rosenbluth formula and the method of intersecting ellipses in analyzing the elastic electron-proton scattering cross sections. A range of energies covering the interval 200-1000 Mev for the incident electrons is explored. Scattering angles vary from 35° to 145°. Values as high as q2≅31 f−2 (q=energy−momentumtransfer) are investigated, but form factors can be reliably determined only up to about q2=25 f−2. Splitting of the form factors is confirmed. The newly measured data are in good agreement with earlier Stanford data on the form factors and also with the predictions of a recent theoretical model of the proton. Consistency in determining the values of the form factors at different energies and angles gives support to the techniques of quantum electrodynamics up to q2≅25 f−2. At the extreme conditions of this experiment (975 Mev, 145°) the behavior of the form factors may be exhibiting some anomaly.

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Measurements of Sigma (e+ e- --> mu+- mu-+) in the Energy Range 1.2-GeV-3.0-GeV

Alles-Borelli, V. ; Bernardini, M. ; Bollini, D. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 59 (1975) 201, 1975.
Inspire Record 99248 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.27778

The analysis of 1466 events of the type e + e − → μ ± μ ± , in the time-lifke range from 1.44 to 9.00 GeV 2 , sh that the absolute value of the cross-section and its energy dependence follow QED expectations within (± 3.2%) and (± 1.2%), respectively.

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The timelike electromagnetic form-factors of the charged pseudoscalar mesons from 1.44-GeV**2 to 9.0-GeV**2

Bernardini, M. ; Bollini, D. ; Brunini, P.L. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 46 (1973) 261-264, 1973.
Inspire Record 85277 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.28063

The study of 620 hadron pairs produced in the s -range (1.44−9.0) GeV 2 , has yielded 110 collinear hadronic events. Their identification in terms of π and K mesons allows the determination of the time-like electromagnetic from factors of these pseudoscalar mesons in the above time-like range. The total number of (e + e − ) events observed in the same experimental conditions is 18 048.

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Inclusive hadron photoproduction from longitudinally polarized protons and deuterons

The E155 collaboration Anthony, P.L. ; Arnold, R.G. ; Averett, T. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 458 (1999) 536-544, 1999.
Inspire Record 495554 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.28074

We report measurements of the asymmetry A_parallel for inclusive hadron production on longitudinally polarized proton and deuteron targets by circularly polarized photons. The photons were produced via internal and external bremsstrahlung from an electron beam of 48.35 GeV. Asymmetries for both positive and negative signed hadrons, and a subset of identified pions, were measured in the momentum range 10<P<30 GeV at 2.75 and 5.5 degrees. Small non-zero asymmetries are observed for the proton, while the deuteron results are consistent with zero. Recent calculations do not describe the data well.

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Measurement of $\pi^- p \to \pi^- p \pi^0$ Reaction Near Threshold and Breaking of Chiral Symmetry

The OMICRON collaboration Kernel, G. ; Korbar, D. ; Krizan, P. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 225 (1989) 198-202, 1989.
Inspire Record 278272 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29804

A full-kinematics measurement of the π − p→ π − p π 0 reaction in the incident π − momentum region from 295 to 450 MeV/ c is presented. The measurement was performed with the OMICRON spectrometer at the CERN synchrocyclotron.

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The Pion Electromagnetic Form-factor in the Timelike Energy Range 1.35-{GeV} $\le \sqrt{s} \le$ 2.4-{GeV}

The DM2 collaboration Bisello, D. ; Busetto, G. ; Castro, A. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 220 (1989) 321-327, 1989.
Inspire Record 267118 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29829

The e + e − → π + π − cross section has been measured from about 280 events (an order of magnitude more than the previous world statistics) in the energy interval 1.35 ⩽ s ⩽ 2.4 GeV with the DM2 detector at DCI. The pion squared form factor | F π | 2 shows a deep minimum around 1.6 GeV/ c 2 and is better fit under the hypothesis of two ϱ-like resonance ⋍0.25 GeV/ c 2 wide with 1.42 and 1.77 GeV/ c 2 masses.

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Cross-section Measurement of $\pi^- p \to \pi^- \pi^+ n$ Reaction Near Threshold

The OMICRON collaboration Kernel, G. ; Korbar, D. ; Krizan, P. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 216 (1989) 244-248, 1989.
Inspire Record 264989 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29858

Result of cross section measurements for the reaction π − p → π − π + n are presented. They cover a range of incident pion momenta between 295 and 450 MeV/ c . It is the first time that the cross section has been measured so close to threshold. The experiment was performed with Omicron, a large-solid-angle spectrometer, which enables a measurement of the full set of kinematic variables. In the region of overlap there is a good agreement with other experiments. The extracted value for the chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter ξ is seen to be largely extrapolition dependent but the measured value of -0.5±0.8 leaves Weinberg's prediction of ξ =0 the only remaining choice.

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Measurement of the Reaction $e^+ e^- \to \eta \pi^+ \pi^-$ in the Center-of-mass Energy Interval 1350-{MeV} to 2400-{MeV}

The DM2 collaboration Antonelli, A. ; Baldini, R. ; Calcaterra, A. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 212 (1988) 133-138, 1988.
Inspire Record 264144 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29912

The e + e − → ηπ + π − reaction has been measured in the center of mass energy interval 1350–2400 MeV by the magnetic detector DM2 at the Orsay storage ring DCI. Under the hypothesis of only one large resonance the cross section is not fit in a satisfactory way. The branching ratio τ − → η − π 0 ν τ =(0.13 ± 0.02)% is deduced via CVC from the above measurement.

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Asymmetry ratios in the photoproduction of π + by linearly polarized γ-rays in the energy range 200–400 MeV

Gorenstein, P. ; Grilli, M. ; Soso, F. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. 23 (1966) 394-396, 1966.
Inspire Record 1392866 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.30179

The asymmetry ratio for the process γ + p → n + π + by linearly polarized γ rays are reported for E γ = 200 − 400 MeV and for θ (production angle of π in the c.m. system) = 90°. The experimental results are compared with some recent theoretical predictions.

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Production of $\pi^0 \pi^0$ and $\pi^0 \eta$ in Photon - Photon Collisions

Edwards, C. ; Partridge, Richard ; Peck, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 110 (1982) 82-86, 1982.
Inspire Record 168793 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.30959

We investigate the four-photon final state produced in γγ colissions. In the π 0 π 0 channel we observe f(1270) production with predominantly helicity 2 and measure a partial width Γ γγ 2.9 +0.6 −0.4 ± keV (independent of assumptions on the helicity). We observe A 2 (1310) production in the π 0 η channel and find a partial width Γ γγ = 0.77 ± 0.18 ± 0.27 KeV (assuming helicity 2). We give an upper limit for f ≈ ηη .

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Measurement of the x- and Q**2-dependence of the asymmetry A(1) on the nucleon

The CLAS collaboration Dharmawardane, K.V. ; Kuhn, S.E. ; Bosted, Peter E. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 641 (2006) 11-17, 2006.
Inspire Record 717523 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.6726

We report results for the virtual photon asymmetry $A_1$ on the nucleon from new Jefferson Lab measurements. The experiment, which used the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer and longitudinally polarized proton ($^{15}$NH$_3$) and deuteron ($^{15}$ND$_3$) targets, collected data with a longitudinally polarized electron beam at energies between 1.6 GeV and 5.7 GeV. In the present paper, we concentrate on our results for $A_1(x,Q^2)$ and the related ratio $g_1/F_1(x,Q^2)$ in the resonance and the deep inelastic regions for our lowest and highest beam energies, covering a range in momentum transfer $Q^2$ from 0.05 to 5.0 GeV$^2$ and in final-state invariant mass $W$ up to about 3 GeV. Our data show detailed structure in the resonance region, which leads to a strong $Q^2$--dependence of $A_1(x,Q^2)$ for $W$ below 2 GeV. At higher $W$, a smooth approach to the scaling limit, established by earlier experiments, can be seen, but $A_1(x,Q^2)$ is not strictly $Q^2$--independent. We add significantly to the world data set at high $x$, up to $x = 0.6$. Our data exceed the SU(6)-symmetric quark model expectation for both the proton and the deuteron while being consistent with a negative $d$-quark polarization up to our highest $x$. This data setshould improve next-to-leading order (NLO) pQCD fits of the parton polarization distributions.

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Measurement of the reaction pi+ p ---> pi+ pi+ n near threshold

The OMICRON collaboration Kernel, G. ; Korbar, D. ; Krizan, P. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 48 (1990) 201-208, 1990.
Inspire Record 297700 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15134

The reaction π+p→π+π+n was studied in the vicinity of the reaction threshold at ten incident pion beam momenta from 297 MeV/c to 480 MeV/c. From data angular distributions, invariant mass spectra and integrated cross-sections were deduced. The chiral symmetry breaking parameter as determined by this reaction equals to ξ=1.56±0.26±0.39, where the first error is experimental, while the latter reflects the uncertainty in the ansatz used in the extrapolation to the reaction threshold. A comparison with the other reaction channels of the reaction πp→ππN indicates that a single parameter (ξ) is not sufficient to describe low energy ππ interactions.

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Search for Two Photon Production of Resonances Decaying Into $K \bar{K}$ and $K \bar{K} \pi$

The TASSO collaboration Althoff, M. ; Braunschweig, W. ; Kirschfink, F.J. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 29 (1985) 189, 1985.
Inspire Record 220941 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.16018

An analysis of the production ofKS0KS0 andK±Ks0π∓ by two quasi-real photons is presented. The cross section forγγ→K0\(\overline {K^0 } \), which is given for the γγ invariant mass range fromK\(\bar K\) threshold to 2.5 GeV, is dominated by thef′(1525) resonance and an enhancement near theK\(\bar K\) threshold. Upper limits on the product of the two-photon width times the branching ratio intoK\(\bar K\) pairs are given forΘ(1700),h(2030), and ξ(2220). For exclusive two-photon production ofK±Ks0π∓ no significant signal was observed. Upper limits are given on the cross section ofγγ→K+\(\overline {K^0 } \)π− orK−K0π+ between 1.4 and 3.2 GeV and on the product of the γγ width times the branching ratio into theK\(\bar K\)π final states for theηc(2980) and the ι(1440), yieldingΓ(γγ)→i(1440))·BR(i(1440)→K\(\bar K\)π<2.2 keV at 95% C.L.

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Measurement of the Two Photon Reaction $\gamma \gamma \to \pi^+ \pi^- \pi^+ \pi^-$ at Large Values of $Q^2$

The TASSO collaboration Braunschweig, W. ; Gerhards, R. ; Kirschfink, F.J. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 41 (1988) 353-357, 1988.
Inspire Record 250570 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15557

The process γγ→π+π−π+π− has been investigated in reactions of the typee+e−→e+e−π+π−π+π− in the single tag mode. The range of the four momentum squared of one of the virtual photons was 0.28 GeV2/c2≦Q2≦3.6 GeV2/c2, the average being 〈Q2〉=0.92 GeV2/c2; the other photon was quasi real. The reaction is mainly described by the channels γγ→ρ0ρ0 and γγ→4π (phase space), occuring with about equal probability. TheQ2-dependence of the cross section is in agreement with the ρ form factor.

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Observation of an isoscalar vector meson at approximately = 1650-MeV/c**2 in the e+ e- ---> K anti-K pi reaction

Bisello, D. ; Busetto, G. ; Castro, A. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 52 (1991) 227-230, 1991.
Inspire Record 318558 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14928

The\(e^ +e^ -\to K_s^0 K^ \pm\pi ^ \mp\) andK+K−π0 cross sections have been measured in the energy interval\(1350 \leqq \sqrt s\leqq 2400\) with the DM2 detector at DCI. The\(K_s^0 K^ \pm\pi ^ \mp\) cross section shows the contribution of an isoscalar vector meson at ≈1650 MeV/c2 in agreement with a previous experiment. The low statisticsK+K−π0 measurement is consistent with the above result.

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A STUDY OF e+ e- ANNIHILATION IN THE 1400-MeV TO 2250-MeV ENERGY RANGE WITH THE MAGNETIC DETECTOR DM2 AT DCI

Augustin, J.E. ; Ayach, L. ; Calcaterra, A. ; et al.
1983.
Inspire Record 192321 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.13242
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Measurement of $K^+ K^-$ Production in $\gamma \gamma$ Collisions

The ARGUS collaboration Albrecht, H. ; Glaser, R. ; Harder, G. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 48 (1990) 183-190, 1990.
Inspire Record 284561 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15151

The production of charged kaon pairs in two-photon interactions has been studied with the ARGUS detector and the topological cross section has been measured. The γγ-widths and interference parameters have been determined for the tensor mesonsf2 (1270),a2 (1318) andf′2 (1525). The helicity structure assumed for the continuum contribution has a significant effect on the result. Upper limits have been obtained for the γγ-widths of the glueball candidate statesf2 (1720) andX (2230).

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Exclusive measurements of pi+- p --> pi+ pi+- n near threshold

The CHAOS collaboration Kermani, M. ; Amaudruz, P.A. ; Bonutti, F. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 58 (1998) 3419-3430, 1998.
Inspire Record 483005 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.25726

The pion induced pion production reactions π±p→π+π±n were studied at projectile incident energies of 223, 243, 264, 284, and 305 MeV, using a cryogenic liquid hydrogen target. The Canadian High Acceptance Orbit Spectrometer was used to detect the two outgoing pions in coincidence. The experimental results are presented in the form of single differential cross sections. Total cross sections obtained by integrating the differential quantities are also reported. In addition, the invariant mass distributions from the (π+π−) channel were fitted to determine the parameters for an extended model based on that of Oset and Vicente-Vacas. We find the model parameters obtained from fitting the (π+π−) data do not describe the invariant mass distributions in the (π+π+) channel.

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Photoproduction of pi+ Mesons from Hydrogen in the Region 350-900 Mev

Heinberg, M. ; McClelland, W.M. ; Turkot, F. ; et al.
Phys.Rev. 110 (1958) 1211-1212, 1958.
Inspire Record 46812 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.26860
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Hadron Production From Photon - Photon Interactions in the Center-of-mass Energy Range From 1-{GeV} to 5-{GeV}

The PLUTO collaboration Berger, Christoph ; Genzel, H. ; Grigull, R. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 89 (1979) 120-124, 1979.
Inspire Record 142875 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.27291

We present the first data on photon-photon annihilation into hadrons for CM energies > 1 GeV obtained with the detector PLUTO at the e + e − storage ring PETRA. Cross sections are extracted using an inelastic eγ scattering formalism. The results are compared to expectations from Regge-like models.

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FORWARD ELECTROPRODUCTION OF CHARGED PIONS FROM DEUTERONS AT Q**2 = 1.0-GeV/c**2

Morris, J.V. ; Darvill, D.C. ; Davenport, M. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 86 (1979) 211-214, 1979.
Inspire Record 140702 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.27310

The ratio of π - to π + electroproduction cross sections from deuterium has been measured in the resonance region, at a four-momentum transfer squared close to −1.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Results in the forward direction are presented and a comparison is made with predictions based on SU(6) W and the Melosh transformation.

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Polarization of the Recoil Proton from pi0 Photoproduction in Hydrogen

Maloy, J.O. ; Peterson, V.Z. ; Salandin, G.A. ; et al.
Phys.Rev. 139 (1965) B733-B746, 1965.
Inspire Record 944960 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.26657

The polarization of the recoil proton in neutral single-pion photoproduction from hydrogen, γ+p→p+π0, has been measured for pion center-of-mass angles near 90° at 7 photon energies from 450 to 900 MeV. The polarization rises to a maximum of 0.58 near 600 MeV and is still 0.42 at 900 MeV. The sign of the polarization is negative in the sense of k×q, where k is the photon momentum and q is the pion momentum. The measured values are given as functions of laboratory photon energy and c.m. pion angle as follows: 450 MeV, 109°, -0.16±0.14; 525 MeV, 84°, -0.36±0.19; 585 MeV, 86°, -0.58±0.15; 660 MeV, 77°, -0.51±0.17; 755 MeV, 76°, -0.55±0.15; 810 MeV, 89°, -0.45±0.17; 895 MeV, 90°, -0.42±0.16. The recoil protons were momentum-analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer. Nuclear emulsion was used as scatterer and detector. The emulsion technique is discussed in detail. The number of individual scatterings in emulsion used for each measurement varied between 750 and 1000.

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Forward Electroproduction of Single Charged Pions in the Resonance Region Using a Deuterium Target

Morris, J.V. ; Darvill, D.C. ; Davenport, M. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 73 (1978) 495-499, 1978.
Inspire Record 122614 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.27480

The rates for forward electroproduction of single charged pions from deutrium have been measured in the resonance region, at a virtual photon mass squared ≈−0.5( GeV/ c 2 ) 2 . Results are presented in the form of a π − to π + cross-section ratio.

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Multiplicity in hadron production by e+ e- colliding beams

Ceradini, F. ; Santonico, R. ; Conversi, M. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 42 (1972) 501-503, 1972.
Inspire Record 84978 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.28188

The average multiplicities 〈 n c 〉 and 〈n〉, of charged-plus-neutral pions produced in e + e − collisions, have been determined for total center-of-mass energies ranging from 1.2 to 2.4 GeV. No appreciable multiplicity variation is observed over this energy range, where the mean values 〈; n c 〉 = 3.3 +0.3 −0.2 and 〈 n 〉 = 4.4 +0.4 −0.2 are found.

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Backward electroproduction of pi0 mesons on protons in the region of nucleon resonances at four momentum transfer squared Q**2 = 1.0-GeV**2

The JLab Hall A collaboration Laveissiere, G. ; Degrande, N. ; Jaminion, S. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 69 (2004) 045203, 2004.
Inspire Record 625669 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.25226

Exclusive electroproduction of pi0 mesons on protons in the backward hemisphere has been studied at Q**2 = 1.0 GeV**2 by detecting protons in the forward direction in coincidence with scattered electrons from the 4 GeV electron beam in Jefferson Lab's Hall A. The data span the range of the total (gamma* p) center-of-mass energy W from the pion production threshold to W = 2.0 GeV. The differential cross sections sigma_T+epsilon*sigma_L, sigma_TL, and sigma_TT were separated from the azimuthal distribution and are presented together with the MAID and SAID parametrizations.

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