Seventeen differential cross sections of the pion-nucleon charge-exchange reaction have been measured at total center-of-mass energies of 1245, 1337, and 1363 MeV. Most measurements are based on the neutron-photon coincidence method, using carefully calibrated neutron counters and an efficient, large-area photon detector. The results are used to test the predictions of charge independence, with which they agree. The results also confirm the Ayed-Bareyre-Sonderegger phase-degeneracy hypothesis at θ̃π0=180°.
Differential cross sections for π + p and π − p elastic scattering have been measured with an accuracy of typically ±2% at 10 and 9 energies respectively in the range 88 to 292 MeV of lab kinetic energy.
The differential cross section has been measured for the reaction γ +p→p+ π o at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron in the energy range from 0.4 to 2.2 GeV for a c.m. angle of 150 degrees. The protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer system. The excitation curve shows a distinct resonance structure. The total corrections to the counting rate are about 3%. The contribution of the process γ +p→p+2 π was separated. The uncertainty of this separation leads to an error of about 4% in the cross section.
The π − p→n γ and π − p→n π ° differential cross sections have been measured for −0.9< cos θ ∗ <−0.45 (θ ∗ c.m. scattering angle) at 475 MeV/ c and 550 MeV/ c incident momenta. The π − p→n γ measurement is a good check of the detailed balance principle in the electromagnetic interactions of hadrons at these energies and is in good agreement with Walker's analysis. On the other hand the π − p→ π °n extrapolated values of 180° allows one to verify that the phases of the A 1 2 and A 3 2 amplitudes are equal.
A precise measurement of the differential cross section at zero degrees for the pion charge-exchange reaction π−p→π0n at pπ=522 MeV/c has been made. The result is dσdΩ (0∘)=4.32±0.11 mb/sr.
The differential cross section for the reaction γ+p→π+n was measured at 19 photon energies between 300 and 750 MeV in the laboratory frame, for pion angles between 0° and 130° in the c.m. system. The pions were analyzed in angle and momentum with a magnetic spectrometer and detected by a counter telescope. The 0° measurements could be achieved, in spite of the excessive positron rate, owing to a mass-spectrometer arrangement. No direct indication for the electromagnetic excitation of the P11 resonance (1466 MeV) was found. Comparison is made with theoretical calculations of π+ photoproduction.
This paper reports experimental findings on the Dirac (F1) and Pauli (F2) form factors of the proton. The form factors have been obtained by using the Rosenbluth formula and the method of intersecting ellipses in analyzing the elastic electron-proton scattering cross sections. A range of energies covering the interval 200-1000 Mev for the incident electrons is explored. Scattering angles vary from 35° to 145°. Values as high as q2≅31 f−2 (q=energy−momentumtransfer) are investigated, but form factors can be reliably determined only up to about q2=25 f−2. Splitting of the form factors is confirmed. The newly measured data are in good agreement with earlier Stanford data on the form factors and also with the predictions of a recent theoretical model of the proton. Consistency in determining the values of the form factors at different energies and angles gives support to the techniques of quantum electrodynamics up to q2≅25 f−2. At the extreme conditions of this experiment (975 Mev, 145°) the behavior of the form factors may be exhibiting some anomaly.
The process γ+p→π0+p has been studied by detecting recoil protons from a liquid hydrogen target which was bombarded by the bremsstrahlung beam of the California Institute of Technology electron synchrotron. The angle and momentum of the recoil protons were measured by a magnetic spectrometer-three scintillation counter coincidence system. The process has been studied between photon laboratory energies of 490 and 940 Mev and between pion center-of-mass angles of 31.5° and 147°. Protons which arose from meson pair production were significant at forward laboratory angles. A correction for this contamination is discussed. The results of these measurements show two interesting features. One is that the total cross section, which falls very rapidly above the 32−32 resonance energy near 320 Mev, reaches a minimum at about 600 Mev, and then increases to a broad maximum near 800 or 900 Mev. The other striking feature of the data is that the shape of the angular distribution seems to change rather suddenly near 900 Mev.
We report measurements of the differential cross section for photoproduction of π0 mesons from hydrogen, with the pion emerging near 0 deg, in the photon energy range 290 to 700 MeV. The results show no unusual behavior of the cross section in the forward direction. They are consistent with the angular distribution characteristic of a magnetic-dipole transition to a P32 state. The results agree reasonably well with theoretical predictions of Gourdin and Salin, but disagree with a prediction of DeTollis and Verganelakis. Least-squares fits in powers of cosθ have been made to the available angular distributions.
The bremsstrahlung beam of the Cornell Bev electron synchrotron has been used to study the reaction γ+p→π0+p over the photon energy range 250 Mev to 1 Bev, and for center-of-mass pion angles between 20° and 70°. The recoil protons, of energies between 10 and 60 Mev, were identified and their energies determined using a range telescope of eight thin plastic scintillators enclosed in a vacuum chamber with the thin liquid hydrogen target. Correlated pulse-height information was obtained by photographing an oscilloscope display and was used to sort out the protons from mesons and electrons. Corrections were made for the background of photoprotons from the Mylar target cup, the energy loss of the protons in the liquid hydrogen, absorption and scattering in the counter telescope, and the variation of beam intensity profile with energy. Compared with previous experiments and extrapolations the results show a somewhat smaller forward differential cross section above 400 Mev. The angular distributions obtained from a least-squares fit to all existing data indicate a d32 assignment for the 760-Mev resonance level. Other implications of the data are also discussed.
The ratio of the yields of negative and positive pions photoproduced in deuterium has been measured at six photon energies between 500 and 1000 Mev and at seven angles between 20° and 160° in the center-of-momentum system of the photon and target nucleon. Pions were selected with a magnetic spectrometer and identified using momentum and specific ionization in a scintillation counter telescope. The spectator model of the deuteron was used to identify the photon energy. Statistical errors assigned to the π−π+ ratio range between five and fifteen percent. The results of the present experiment join smoothly with the low-energy π−π+ ratios obtained by Sands et al. At high energies the π−π+ ratio varies from 0.5 at forward angles and energies near 900 Mev to 2.5 at 160° c.m. and energies 600 to 800 Mev. The cross sections for π− photo-production from neutrons have been derived from the π−π+ ratio and the CalTech π+ photoproduction data. The angular distributions for π− production are considerably different from those for π+; there is, for example, a systematic increase at the most backward angles. The energy dependence of the total cross section for π− is similar to that for π+, although the second resonance peak occurs at a slightly lower energy, and at 900 and 1000 Mev the π− cross section is smaller by a factor 1.6. A comparison is made of the cross sections for π+ photoproduction from hydrogen and deuterium, although the accuracy of this comparison is not high.
The elastic differential cross section for the scattering of negative pions by hydrogen was measured at laboratory-system pion kinetic energies of 230, 290, 370, and 427 Mev. The elastically scattered pions were detected by a counter telescope which discriminated against recoil protons and inelastic pions on the basis of range. Differential cross sections were obtained at nine angles for each energy and were fitted by a least-squares program to a series of Legendre polynomials. At the three higher energies, D waves are required to give satisfactory fits to the data. The real parts of the forward-scattering amplitudes calculated from this experiment are in agreement with the predictions of dispersion theory. The results of this experiment, in conjunction with data from other pion-nucleon scattering experiments, support the hypothesis of charge independence at these higher energies.
Recoil protons from the process γ+p→p+π0 have been detected by nuclear emulsions placed within a hydrogen-gas target and used to measure the differential cross section for production of neutral pions. In this manner protons of energies as low as 5 Mev can be detected at laboratory angles corresponding to emission of a pion at center-of-momentum (c.m.) angles as low as 26°. This experiment thus supplements that of Oakley and Walker which is in the same range of photon energies (240-480 Mev), but is restricted to pion c.m. angles greater than about 70° owing to higher minimum detectable proton energy. Common experimental points provide intercomparison of absolute values. Angular distributions are analyzed in the form dσdΩ=A+Bcosθ+Ccos2θ in the c.m. system. The combined Oakley-Walker and present data give the average value of the ratio AC as -1.60±0.10 in the energy range from 260 to 450 Mev. The coefficient B, which gives the front-back asymmetry, passes through zero below the resonance energy of 320 Mev and is positive at higher energies. These results are consistent with magnetic dipole absorption leading to a state of the pion-nucleon system of angular momentum 32, together with a finite amount of S-wave interference.
An analysis has been performed of neutrino and antineutrino interactions with protons and neutrons in a deuterium bubble chamber. The interactions under study are quasielastic neutrino-neutron scattering and one-, two- and three-pion production reactions. Results are presented on cross sections, effective mass distributions, resonance production, momentum transfer distributions and coefficients of the decay angular distributions. Where possible, comparisons are made with existing theoretical models and predictions.
Cross sections for the photoproduction of neutral pions have been measured at the 1.1-GeV Frascati electron synchrotron for bombarding photon energies k between 400 and 800 MeV and for π0 c.m. angles of θπ*=90∘, 120∘, and 135∘. The main feature of the experiment is good resolution in incident photon energy. The results are in good agreement with the existing theories in the energy range of 450 to 550 MeV. The cross sections exhibit a smooth behavior as a function of energy for k=400−600 MeV. No immediate evidence is found of a contribution of the P11 resonance. An anomaly at the limit of statistical significance appears for k≃700−740 MeV, indicating a possible structure of the so-called second resonance. We attempt to interpret the observed anomaly as a reflection of the sharp opening of the η production channel (η cusp effect).
Differential cross sections for π−p→γn have been determined from 427 to 625 MeV/c, mainly at 90° and 110° c.m. The data were obtained by combining measurements of the Panofsky ratio in flight with known charge-exchange cross sections. The results are compared with γn→π−p data derived from γd experiments; the difference is typically 30%. The radiative decay amplitudes of neutral πN resonances are therefore uncertain by at least 30%.
This paper reports the results of an experiment measuring the parameters of various electroproduction reactions for a range in the electroproduction variables 0.7<Q2<4 GeV2 and 2<W2<16 GeV2. This report is limited to nondiffractive exclusive channels, with detailed results regarding the πΔ final states, statistically limited results for KΛ final states, and upper limits on the production of a number of event topologies containing a single unseen neutral particle.
Reaction π−p→π0π0n has been measured with high statistics in the beam momentum range 270–750MeV∕c. The data were obtained using the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer, which has 93% of 4π solid angle coverage. The dynamics of the π−p→π0π0n reaction and the dependence on the beam energy are displayed in total cross sections, Dalitz plots, invariant-mass spectra, and production angular distributions. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the acceptance that is needed for the precision determination of the total cross section σt(π−p→π0π0n). The energy dependence of σt(π−p→π0π0n) shows a shoulder at the Roper resonance [i.e., the N(1440)12+], and there is also a maximum near the N(1520)32−. It illustrates the importance of these two resonances to the π0π0 production process. The Dalitz plots are highly nonuniform; they indicate that the π0π0n final state is dominantly produced via the π0Δ0(1232) intermediate state. The invariant-mass spectra differ much from the phase-space distributions. The production angular distributions are also different from the isotropic distribution, and their structure depends on the beam energy. For beam momenta above 550MeV∕c, the density distribution in the Dalitz plots strongly depends on the angle of the outgoing dipion system (or equivalently on the neutron angle). The role of the f0(600) meson (also known as the σ) in π0π0n production remains controversial.
Differential cross-section measurements for π − p → γ n, consisting of three angular distributions at 618, 676 and 718 MeV/ c , and the energy dependence at θ γ = 90° for seven incident pion momenta between 502 and 888 MeV/ c , are presented. Our data qualitatively support recent multipole analyses. Agreement with the Scheffler et al. results for the inverse reaction, γ n → π − p, using a ( π − -recoil p) coincidence technique is good excluding a large violation of time reversal invariance. The agreement with γ n → π − p data obtained using the R ( π − / π + ) ratio technique or a deuterium bubble chamber is only qualitative.
Differential cross sections for Compton scattering by the proton have been measured in the energy interval between 200 and 500 MeV at scattering angles of θ cms = 75° and θ cms = 90° using the CATS, the CATS/TRAJAN, and the COPP setups with the Glasgow Tagger at MAMI (Mainz). The data are compared with predictions from dispersion theory using photo-meson amplitudes from the recent VPI solution SM95. The experiment and the theoretical procedure are described in detail. It is found that the experiment and predictions are in agreement as far as the energy dependence of the differential cross sections in the Δ-range is concerned. However, there is evidence that a scaling down of the resonance part of the M 1+ 3 2 photo-meson amplitude by (2.8 ± 0.9)% is required in comparison with the VPI analysis. The deduced value of the M 1+ 3 2 - photoproduction amplitude at the resonance energy of 320 MeV is: |M 1+ 3 2 | = (39.6 ± 0.4) × 10 −3 m π + −1 .