The differential cross section of the reactionγ+p→π+ was measured at pion CM-angles of 20° and 30° for photon energies between 500 MeV and 1,400 MeV. The pions were detected in a magnetic spectrometer. By measuring each pion trajectory and by offline calculation of the initial pion parameters an energy resolution of about 2.5% FWHM was achieved. The results complete a set of data which were measured in recent years at the Bonn 2.5 GeV synchrotron. In comparison to photoproduction analyses two effects were revealed: The η cusp appears in the energy dependence of the cross section as a sharp drop atKγ=710 MeV. In the region of the third resonance the data show a greater enhancement than predicted by most of the analyses.
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The differential cross sections at 180° for the reactions γ+p→π++n and γ+n→π−+p were measured using a magnetic spectrometer to detect π± mesons. In order to reduce the spread of energy resolution due to the nucleon motion inside the deuteron, a photon difference method was employed with a 50-MeV step for the reaction γ+n→π−+p. The data show structures at the second- and the third-resonance regions for both reactions. A simple phenomenological analysis was made for fitting the data, and the results are compared with those of previous analyses.
The π+ photoproduction cross section in hydrogen has been measured at 180° for photon energies from 0.22 to 3.1 GeV by detecting the pion in the backward direction. The statistical accuracy of the measurements varies typically from 3 to 10% depending on the energy. The data are compared with other recent experimental results and predictions of phenomenological theories.
The ratio of the yields of negative and positive pions photoproduced in deuterium has been measured at six photon energies between 500 and 1000 Mev and at seven angles between 20° and 160° in the center-of-momentum system of the photon and target nucleon. Pions were selected with a magnetic spectrometer and identified using momentum and specific ionization in a scintillation counter telescope. The spectator model of the deuteron was used to identify the photon energy. Statistical errors assigned to the π−π+ ratio range between five and fifteen percent. The results of the present experiment join smoothly with the low-energy π−π+ ratios obtained by Sands et al. At high energies the π−π+ ratio varies from 0.5 at forward angles and energies near 900 Mev to 2.5 at 160° c.m. and energies 600 to 800 Mev. The cross sections for π− photo-production from neutrons have been derived from the π−π+ ratio and the CalTech π+ photoproduction data. The angular distributions for π− production are considerably different from those for π+; there is, for example, a systematic increase at the most backward angles. The energy dependence of the total cross section for π− is similar to that for π+, although the second resonance peak occurs at a slightly lower energy, and at 900 and 1000 Mev the π− cross section is smaller by a factor 1.6. A comparison is made of the cross sections for π+ photoproduction from hydrogen and deuterium, although the accuracy of this comparison is not high.
Measurements have been made on the ratio of pion-production cross sections at right angles to and along the photon electric-field vector. The positive and negative pions were first momentum-analyzed and counted by means of a counter telescope. Data have been taken at 45, 90, and 135° in the c.m. system, and at proton energies of 225, 330, and 450 MeV. A comparison of the data is made with the dispersion-relation calculation of McKinley.
Positive pions produced in a cold, high-pressure hydrogen gas target by the 500-Mev bremsstrahlung of the CalTech synchrotron, have been analyzed by a large magnetic spectrometer. The photoproduction cross section has been measured as a function of photon energy at laboratory angles of 12.5°, 30°, 51°, 73°, 104°, 140°, and 180°. The energy region covered depends somewhat on the angle, but is typically from 200 to 470 Mev. From these excitation curves the angular distribution of the photopions in the center of momentum system is obtained for various photon energies, and these angular distributions are analyzed in the form A+Bcosθ+Ccos2θ. The angular distribution has a backward maximum at low energies and a forward maximum at high energies, the coefficient B changing sign at about 340 Mev. The total cross section shows a striking maximum near 290 Mev, of magnitude 205×10−30 cm2, and falls off above the maximum faster than λ2.
The excitation functions for positive pion production from hydrogen have been obtained in the energy region from 230 Mev to 450 Mev and at laboratory pion angles of 24°, 38°, 53°, 73°, 93°, 115°, 140°, and 160°. The pions are detected and identified by measuring their range and ionization in a scintillation counter telescope. The above data are analyzed to give the angular distributions in the center-of-momentum system, and a least-squares analysis made to determine coefficients in σ(θ)=A+Bcosθ+Ccos2θ. The total cross section shows a peak at 300 Mev of magnitude 2.20×10−28 cm2. The coefficient B passes through a maximum negative value at 250 Mev and then passes through zero at 325 Mev and remains positive up to the highest energy measured.
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