The process γ+p→π0+p has been studied by detecting recoil protons from a liquid hydrogen target which was bombarded by the bremsstrahlung beam of the California Institute of Technology electron synchrotron. The angle and momentum of the recoil protons were measured by a magnetic spectrometer-three scintillation counter coincidence system. The process has been studied between photon laboratory energies of 490 and 940 Mev and between pion center-of-mass angles of 31.5° and 147°. Protons which arose from meson pair production were significant at forward laboratory angles. A correction for this contamination is discussed. The results of these measurements show two interesting features. One is that the total cross section, which falls very rapidly above the 32−32 resonance energy near 320 Mev, reaches a minimum at about 600 Mev, and then increases to a broad maximum near 800 or 900 Mev. The other striking feature of the data is that the shape of the angular distribution seems to change rather suddenly near 900 Mev.
The polarization of the recoil proton in neutral single-pion photoproduction from hydrogen, γ+p→p+π0, has been measured for pion center-of-mass angles near 90° at 7 photon energies from 450 to 900 MeV. The polarization rises to a maximum of 0.58 near 600 MeV and is still 0.42 at 900 MeV. The sign of the polarization is negative in the sense of k×q, where k is the photon momentum and q is the pion momentum. The measured values are given as functions of laboratory photon energy and c.m. pion angle as follows: 450 MeV, 109°, -0.16±0.14; 525 MeV, 84°, -0.36±0.19; 585 MeV, 86°, -0.58±0.15; 660 MeV, 77°, -0.51±0.17; 755 MeV, 76°, -0.55±0.15; 810 MeV, 89°, -0.45±0.17; 895 MeV, 90°, -0.42±0.16. The recoil protons were momentum-analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer. Nuclear emulsion was used as scatterer and detector. The emulsion technique is discussed in detail. The number of individual scatterings in emulsion used for each measurement varied between 750 and 1000.