Observation of light-by-light scattering in ultraperipheral Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 123 (2019) 052001, 2019.
Inspire Record 1728664 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.89399

This letter describes the observation of the light-by-light scattering process, $\gamma\gamma\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$, in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The analysis is conducted using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.73 nb$^{-1}$, collected in November 2018 by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Light-by-light scattering candidates are selected in events with two photons produced exclusively, each with transverse energy $E_{\textrm{T}}^{\gamma} > 3$ GeV and pseudorapidity $|\eta_{\gamma}| < 2.37$, diphoton invariant mass above 6 GeV, and small diphoton transverse momentum and acoplanarity. After applying all selection criteria, 59 candidate events are observed for a background expectation of 12 $\pm$ 3 events. The observed excess of events over the expected background has a significance of 8.2 standard deviations. The measured fiducial cross section is 78 $\pm$ 13 (stat.) $\pm$ 7 (syst.) $\pm$ 3 (lumi.) nb.

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The diphoton acoplanarity A$_{\phi}$ distribution for events satisfying the signal selection, but before the A$_{\phi} < 0.01$ requirement. Data points are compared with the signal and background expectations. Systematic uncertainties of the signal expectation process, excluding that of the luminosity, is shown as shaded band.

Diphoton transverse momentum for events satisfying the signal selection. Data (points) are compared with the sum of signal and background expectations (histograms). Systematic uncertainties of the signal expectation process, excluding that of the luminosity, is shown as shaded band.

Fiducial cross section for light-by-light scattering


Measurement of internal structure of jets in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

The ATLAS collaboration Aaboud, Morad ; Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 379, 2017.
Inspire Record 1511869 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77789

The distributions of transverse momentum and longitudinal momentum fraction of charged particles in jets are measured in Pb+Pb and pp collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The distributions are measured as a function of jet transverse momentum and rapidity. The analysis utilises an integrated luminosity of 0.14 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb data and 4.0 pb$^{-1}$ of pp data collected in 2011 and 2013, respectively, at the same centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair. The distributions measured in pp collisions are used as a reference for those measured in Pb+Pb collisions in order to evaluate the impact on the internal structure of jets from the jet energy loss of fast partons propagating through the hot, dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions. Modest but significant centrality-dependent modifications of fragmentation functions in Pb+Pb collisions with respect to those in pp collisions are seen. No significant dependence of modifications on jet $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ and rapidity selections is observed except for the fragments with the highest transverse momenta for which some reduction of yields is observed for more forward jets.

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D(pt) distributions for pp and Pb+Pb collisions, jet rapidity |y| < 2.1.

D(pt) distributions for pp and Pb+Pb collisions, jet rapidity |y| < 0.3.

D(pt) distributions for pp and Pb+Pb collisions, jet rapidity 0.3 < |y| < 0.8.

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Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

The ATLAS collaboration Aaboud, Morad ; Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
Nature Phys. 13 (2017) 852-858, 2017.
Inspire Record 1512305 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77761

Light-by-light scattering ($\gamma\gamma\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead (Pb) ions. Using 480 $\mu$b$^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV by the ATLAS detector, the ATLAS Collaboration reports evidence for the $\gamma\gamma\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$ reaction. A total of 13 candidate events are observed with an expected background of 2.6$\pm$0.7 events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross section of the process $\textrm{Pb+Pb}\,(\gamma\gamma)\rightarrow \textrm{Pb}^{(\ast)}\textrm{+}\textrm{Pb}^{(\ast)}\,\gamma\gamma$, for photon transverse energy $E_{\mathrm{T}}>$3 GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity $|\eta|<$2.4, diphoton invariant mass greater than 6 GeV, diphoton transverse momentum lower than 2 GeV and diphoton acoplanarity below 0.01, is measured to be 70 $\pm$ 24 (stat.) $\pm$ 17 (syst.) nb, which is in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

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Detector-level diphoton invariant mass distribution

Detector-level diphoton acoplanarity distribution

The measured total fiducial cross section


Measurement of angular and momentum distributions of charged particles within and around jets in Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 100 (2019) 064901, 2019.
Inspire Record 1749578 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.91160

Studies of the fragmentation of jets into charged particles in heavy-ion collisions can provide information about the mechanism of jet-quenching by the hot and dense QCD matter created in such collisions, the quark-gluon plasma. This paper presents a measurement of the angular distribution of charged particles around the jet axis in $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=$ 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions, using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The Pb+Pb and $pp$ data sets have integrated luminosities of 0.49 nb$^{-1}$ and 25 pb$^{-1}$, respectively. The measurement is performed for jets reconstructed with the anti-$k_{t}$ algorithm with radius parameter $R = 0.4$ and is extended to an angular distance of $r= 0.8$ from the jet axis. Results are presented as a function of Pb+Pb collision centrality and distance from the jet axis for charged particles with transverse momenta in the 1$-$63 GeV range, matched to jets with transverse momenta in the 126$-$316 GeV range and an absolute value of jet rapidity of less than 1.7. Modifications to the measured distributions are quantified by taking a ratio to the measurements in $pp$ collisions. Yields of charged particles with transverse momenta below 4 GeV are observed to be increasingly enhanced as a function of angular distance from the jet axis, reaching a maximum at $r=0.6$. Charged particles with transverse momenta above 4 GeV have an enhanced yield in Pb+Pb collisions in the jet core for angular distances up to $r = 0.05$ from the jet axis, with a suppression at larger distances.

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D(pT,r)_PbPb The charged particle distributions around jets as a function of distance from the jet axis in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV for different centrality, track pT and jet pT ranges.

D(pT,r)_PbPb The charged particle distributions around jets as a function of distance from the jet axis in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV for different centrality, track pT and jet pT ranges.

D(pT,r)_PbPb The charged particle distributions around jets as a function of distance from the jet axis in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV for different centrality, track pT and jet pT ranges.

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Measurement of inclusive jet charged-particle fragmentation functions in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 739 (2014) 320-342, 2014.
Inspire Record 1300152 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64272

Measurements of charged-particle fragmentation functions of jets produced in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions can provide insight into the modification of parton showers in the hot, dense medium created in the collisions. ATLAS has measured jets in $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC using a data set recorded in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 nb$^{-1}$. Jets were reconstructed using the anti-$k_{t}$ algorithm with distance parameter values $R$ = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Distributions of charged-particle transverse momentum and longitudinal momentum fraction are reported for seven bins in collision centrality for $R=0.4$ jets with $p_{{T}}^{\mathrm{jet}}> 100$ GeV. Commensurate minimum $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ values are used for the other radii. Ratios of fragment distributions in each centrality bin to those measured in the most peripheral bin are presented. These ratios show a reduction of fragment yield in central collisions relative to peripheral collisions at intermediate $z$ values, $0.04 \lesssim z \lesssim 0.2$ and an enhancement in fragment yield for $z \lesssim 0.04$. A smaller, less significant enhancement is observed at large $z$ and large $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ in central collisions.

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Differences of D(Z) distributions in different centralities with respect to peripheral events for R = 0.3 jets. The errors represent combined statistical and systematic uncertainties.

Differences of D(Z) distributions in different centralities with respect to peripheral events for R = 0.2 jets. The errors represent combined statistical and systematic uncertainties.

D(z) distribution for R=0.4 jets.

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Jet size dependence of single jet suppression in lead-lead collisions at sqrt(s(NN)) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 719 (2013) 220-241, 2013.
Inspire Record 1126965 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.59270

Measurements of inclusive jet suppression in heavy ion collisions at the LHC provide direct sensitivity to the physics of jet quenching. In a sample of lead-lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 7 inverse microbarns, ATLAS has measured jets with a calorimeter over the pseudorapidity interval |$\eta$| < 2.1 and over the transverse momentum range 38 < pT < 210 GeV. Jets were reconstructed using the anti-$k_t$ algorithm with values for the distance parameter that determines the nominal jet radius of R = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. The centrality dependence of the jet yield is characterized by the jet "central-to-peripheral ratio," $R_{cp}$. Jet production is found to be suppressed by approximately a factor of two in the 10% most central collisions relative to peripheral collisions. $R_{cp}$ varies smoothly with centrality as characterized by the number of participating nucleons. The observed suppression is only weakly dependent on jet radius and transverse momentum. These results provide the first direct measurement of inclusive jet suppression in heavy ion collisions and complement previous measurements of dijet transverse energy imbalance at the LHC.

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Glauber model calculation of the mean numbers of Npart and its associated errors, the mean Ncoll ratios, and Rcoll with fractional errors as a function of the centrality bins.

The Rcp values as a function of jet PT for the four R values, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 for the collision centrality in the range 0 - 10 %.

The Rcp values as a function of jet PT for the four R values, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 for the collision centrality in the range 10 - 20 %.

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Measurement of the correlation between flow harmonics of different order in lead-lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 034903, 2015.
Inspire Record 1357991 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68950

Correlations between the elliptic or triangular flow coefficients $v_m$ ($m$=2 or 3) and other flow harmonics $v_n$ ($n$=2 to 5) are measured using $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collision data collected in 2010 by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated lumonisity of 7 $\mu$b$^{-1}$. The $v_m$-$v_n$ correlations are measured in midrapidity as a function of centrality, and, for events within the same centrality interval, as a function of event ellipticity or triangularity defined in a forward rapidity region. For events within the same centrality interval, $v_3$ is found to be anticorrelated with $v_2$ and this anticorrelation is consistent with similar anticorrelations between the corresponding eccentricities $\epsilon_2$ and $\epsilon_3$. On the other hand, it is observed that $v_4$ increases strongly with $v_2$, and $v_5$ increases strongly with both $v_2$ and $v_3$. The trend and strength of the $v_m$-$v_n$ correlations for $n$=4 and 5 are found to disagree with $\epsilon_m$-$\epsilon_n$ correlations predicted by initial-geometry models. Instead, these correlations are found to be consistent with the combined effects of a linear contribution to $v_n$ and a nonlinear term that is a function of $v_2^2$ or of $v_2v_3$, as predicted by hydrodynamic models. A simple two-component fit is used to separate these two contributions. The extracted linear and nonlinear contributions to $v_4$ and $v_5$ are found to be consistent with previously measured event-plane correlations.

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$v_{2}$ data for various $q_2$ bins, Centrality 0-5%.

$v_{3}$ data for various $q_2$ bins, Centrality 0-5%.

$v_{4}$ data for various $q_2$ bins, Centrality 0-5%.

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Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton--lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 748 (2015) 392-413, 2015.
Inspire Record 1334140 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.67349

Measurements of the centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton--lead ($p$+Pb) collisions and the jet cross-section in $\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV proton--proton collisions are presented. These quantities are measured in datasets corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 27.8 nb$^{-1}$ and 4.0 pb$^{-1}$, respectively, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2013. The $p$+Pb collision centrality was characterised using the total transverse energy measured in the pseudorapidity interval $-4.9 < \eta < -3.2$ in the direction of the lead beam. Results are presented for the double-differential per-collision yields as a function of jet rapidity and transverse momentum ($p_\mathrm{T}$) for minimum-bias and centrality-selected $p$+Pb collisions, and are compared to the jet rate from the geometric expectation. The total jet yield in minimum-bias events is slightly enhanced above the expectation in a $p_\mathrm{T}$-dependent manner but is consistent with the expectation within uncertainties. The ratios of jet spectra from different centrality selections show a strong modification of jet production at all $p_\mathrm{T}$ at forward rapidities and for large $p_\mathrm{T}$ at mid-rapidity, which manifests as a suppression of the jet yield in central events and an enhancement in peripheral events. These effects imply that the factorisation between hard and soft processes is violated at an unexpected level in proton-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, the modifications at forward rapidities are found to be a function of the total jet energy only, implying that the violations may have a simple dependence on the hard parton-parton kinematics.

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The $R_{\mathrm{coll}}$ and $T_{p\mathrm{A}}$ values and their uncertainties in each centrality bin.

Per-event jet yields in 0-90% p+Pb collisions, within the centre of mass rapidity -2.1 to -1.2 (positive denotes downstream proton direction).

Per-event jet yields in 0-90% p+Pb collisions, within the centre of mass rapidity -1.2 to -0.8 (positive denotes downstream proton direction).