Inclusive hadron photoproduction from longitudinally polarized protons and deuterons

The E155 collaboration Anthony, P.L. ; Arnold, R.G. ; Averett, T. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 458 (1999) 536-544, 1999.
Inspire Record 495554 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.28074

We report measurements of the asymmetry A_parallel for inclusive hadron production on longitudinally polarized proton and deuteron targets by circularly polarized photons. The photons were produced via internal and external bremsstrahlung from an electron beam of 48.35 GeV. Asymmetries for both positive and negative signed hadrons, and a subset of identified pions, were measured in the momentum range 10<P<30 GeV at 2.75 and 5.5 degrees. Small non-zero asymmetries are observed for the proton, while the deuteron results are consistent with zero. Recent calculations do not describe the data well.

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Measurement of A(c) with charmed mesons at SLD

The SLD collaboration Abe, Kenji ; Abe, Koya ; Abe, Toshinori ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 63 (2001) 032005, 2001.
Inspire Record 533573 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.41721

We present a direct measurement of the parity-violation parameter $A_c$ in the coupling of the $Z^0$ to $c$-quarks with the SLD detector. The measurement is based on a sample of 530k hadronic $Z^0$ decays, produced with a mean electron-beam polarization of $|P_e| = 73 %$. The tagging of $c$-quark events is performed using two methods: the exclusive reconstruction of $D^{\ast+}$, $D^+$, and $D^0$ mesons, and the soft-pions ($\pi_s$) produced in the decay of $D^{\ast+}\to D^0 \pi_s^+$. The large background from $D$ mesons produced in $B$ hadron decays is separated efficiently from the signal using precision vertex information. The combination of these two methods yields $A_c = 0.688 \pm 0.041.$

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Production and Muonic Decay of Heavy Quarks in e+ e- Annihilation at 34.5-GeV

The TASSO collaboration Althoff, M. ; Braunschweig, W. ; Kirschfink, F.J. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 22 (1984) 219, 1984.
Inspire Record 194775 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.16252

The production of prompt muons ine+e− annihilation has been studied at centre of mass energies near 34.5 GeV. The measured semi-muonic branching ratios ofb andc quarks areB(b»Xμv) =0.117±0.028±0.01 andB(c→Xμv)=0.082 ±0.012a−0.01+0.02. The fragmentation functions of heavy quarks are hard, <zb>=0.85a−0.12–0.07+0.10+0.02 and <zc> =0.77a−0.07–0.11+0.05+0.03. Limits have been set on flavour changing neutral current decays:B(b→Xµ+µ−) <0.02 andB(b→Xµ+µ− (95% confidence level).

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Direct measurement of leptonic coupling asymmetries with polarized Zs

The SLD collaboration Abe, K. ; Akagi, T. ; Allen, N.J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 79 (1997) 804-808, 1997.
Inspire Record 442260 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.19552

We present direct measurements of the $Z~0$-lepton coupling asymmetry parameters, $A_e$, $A_\mu$, and $A_\tau$, based on a data sample of 12,063 leptonic $Z~0$ decays collected by the SLD detector. The $Z$ bosons are produced in collisions of beams of polarized $e~-$ with unpolarized $e~+$ at the SLAC Linear Collider. The couplings are extracted from the measurement of the left-right and forward-backward asymmetries for each lepton species. The results are: $A_e=0.152 \pm 0.012 {(stat)} \pm 0.001 {(syst)}$, $A_\mu=0.102 \pm 0.034 \pm 0.002$, and $A_\tau=0.195 \pm 0.034 \pm 0.003$.

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Measurement of azimuthal asymmetries in inclusive charged dipion production in $e^+e^-$ annihilations at $\sqrt{s}$ = 3.65 GeV

The BESIII collaboration Ablikim, M. ; Achasov, M.N. ; Ai, X.C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 042001, 2016.
Inspire Record 1384778 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73802

We present a measurement of the azimuthal asymmetries of two charged pions in the inclusive process $e^+e^-\rightarrow \pi\pi X$ based on a data set of 62 $\rm{pb}^{-1}$ at the center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}=3.65$ GeV collected with the BESIII detector. These asymmetries can be attributed to the Collins fragmentation function. We observe a nonzero asymmetry, which increases with increasing pion momentum. As our energy scale is close to that of the existing semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experimental data, the measured asymmetries are important inputs for the global analysis of extracting the quark transversity distribution inside the nucleon and are valuable to explore the energy evolution of the spin-dependent fragmentation function.

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Measurement of parity-violating spin asymmetries in W$^{\pm}$ production at midrapidity in longitudinally polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 051103, 2016.
Inspire Record 1365091 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73691

We present measurements from the PHENIX experiment of large parity-violating single spin asymmetries of high transverse momentum electrons and positrons from $W^\pm/Z$ decays, produced in longitudinally polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions at center of mass energies of $\sqrt{s}$=500 and 510~GeV. These asymmetries allow direct access to the anti-quark polarized parton distribution functions due to the parity-violating nature of the $W$-boson coupling to quarks and anti-quarks. The results presented are based on data collected in 2011, 2012, and 2013 with an integrated luminosity of 240 pb$^{-1}$, which exceeds previous PHENIX published results by a factor of more than 27. These high $Q^2$ data provide an important addition to our understanding of anti-quark parton helicity distribution functions.

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An Improved direct measurement of leptonic coupling asymmetries with polarized Z bosons

The SLD collaboration Abe, Koya ; Abe, Kenji ; Abe, T. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 86 (2001) 1162-1166, 2001.
Inspire Record 534735 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.41720

We present final measurements of the Z boson-lepton coupling asymmetry parameters Ae, Amu, and Atau with the complete sample of polarized Z bosons collected by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider. From the left-right production and decay polar angle asymmetries in leptonic Z decays we measure Ae = 0.1544 +- 0.0060, Amu = 0.142 +- 0.015, and Atau = 0.136 +- 0.015. Combined with our left-right asymmetry measured from hadronic decays, we find Ae = 0.1516 +- 0.0021. Assuming lepton universality, we obtain a combined effective weak mixing angle of sin**2 theta^{eff}_W = 0.23098 +- 0.00026.

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Inclusive double-helicity asymmetries in neutral-pion and eta-meson production in $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 90 (2014) 012007, 2014.
Inspire Record 1282448 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64716

Results are presented from data recorded in 2009 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider for the double-longitudinal spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, for $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ production in $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions. Comparison of the $\pi^0$ results with different theory expectations based on fits of other published data showed a preference for small positive values of gluon polarization, $\Delta G$, in the proton in the probed Bjorken $x$ range. The effect of adding the new 2009 \pz data to a recent global analysis of polarized scattering data is also shown, resulting in a best fit value $\Delta G^{[0.05,0.2]}_{\mbox{DSSV}} = 0.06^{+0.11}_{-0.15}$ in the range $0.05<x<0.2$, with the uncertainty at $\Delta \chi^2 = 9$ when considering only statistical experimental uncertainties. Shifting the PHENIX data points by their systematic uncertainty leads to a variation of the best-fit value of $\Delta G^{[0.05,0.2]}_{\mbox{DSSV}}$ between $0.02$ and $0.12$, demonstrating the need for full treatment of the experimental systematic uncertainties in future global analyses.

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A High precision measurement of the left-right Z boson cross-section asymmetry

The SLD collaboration Abe, Kenji ; Abe, Koya ; Abe, T. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 84 (2000) 5945-5949, 2000.
Inspire Record 526448 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.35323

We present a measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry (ALR) for Z boson production by e+e- collisions. The measurement includes the final data taken with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) during the period 1996-1998. Using a sample of 383,487 Z decays collected during the 1996-1998 runs we measure the pole-value of the asymmetry, ALR0, to be 0.15056+-0.00239 which is equivalent to an effective weak mixing angle of sin2th(eff) = 0.23107+-0.00030. Our result for the complete 1992-1998 dataset comprising 537 thousand Z decays is sin2th(eff) = 0.23097+-0.00027.

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An improved measurement of the left-right $Z^0$ cross-section asymmetry

The SLD collaboration Abe, K. ; Abt, I. ; Akagi, T. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 78 (1997) 2075-2079, 1997.
Inspire Record 426122 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.19583

We present a new measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (ALR) for Z boson production by e+e- collisions. The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy of 91.28 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam was (77.23+-0.52)%. Using a sample of 93,644 Z decays, we measure the pole-value of the asymmetry, ALR0, to be 0.1512+-0.0042(stat.)+-0.0011(syst.) which is equivalent to an effective weak mixing angle of sin**2(theta_eff)=0.23100+-0.00054(stat.)+-0.00014(syst.).

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Measurements of double-helicity asymmetries in inclusive $J/\psi$ production in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 94 (2016) 112008, 2016.
Inspire Record 1467456 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.82575

We report the double helicity asymmetry, $A_{LL}^{J/\psi}$, in inclusive $J/\psi$ production at forward rapidity as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ and rapidity $|y|$. The data analyzed were taken during $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV longitudinally polarized $p

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The Production and Decay of Tau Leptons in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation at {PETRA} Energies

The TASSO collaboration Althoff, M. ; Braunschweig, W. ; Kirschfink, F.J. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 26 (1985) 521, 1985.
Inspire Record 205120 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.16121

We have observed τ pair production at average CM energies of 13.9, 22.3, 34.5 and 43.1 GeV. The cross-sections are consistent with QED, the cut off parameters beingΛ+>161 GeV andΛ−169 GeV (95% CL). The topological branching fraction of the τ to 1 charged particle,B1, is 0.847±0.011 (stat)−0.013+0.016(syst) and no decays to 5 charged particles were observed resulting inB5<0.007 (95% CL). Within the 3 charged track final stateB(τ−→π−π+π−v)/(B(τ−→π−π+π−v)+B(τ−→π−π+π−π0v))=0.37−0.20+0.35

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Cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry of $\eta$ mesons in $p^{\uparrow}+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV at forward rapidity

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 90 (2014) 072008, 2014.
Inspire Record 1300542 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64267

We present a measurement of the cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry ($A_N$) for $\eta$ mesons at large pseudorapidity from $\sqrt{s}=200$~GeV $p^{\uparrow}+p$ collisions. The measured cross section for $0.5<p_T<5.0$~GeV/$c$ and $3.0<|\eta|<3.8$ is well described by a next-to-leading-order perturbative-quantum-chromodynamics calculation. The asymmetries $A_N$ have been measured as a function of Feynman-$x$ ($x_F$) from $0.2<|x_{F}|<0.7$, as well as transverse momentum ($p_T$) from $1.0<p_T<4.5$~GeV/$c$. The asymmetry averaged over positive $x_F$ is $\langle{A_{N}}\rangle=0.061{\pm}0.014$. The results are consistent with prior transverse single-spin measurements of forward $\eta$ and $\pi^{0}$ mesons at various energies in overlapping $x_F$ ranges. Comparison of different particle species can help to determine the origin of the large observed asymmetries in $p^{\uparrow}+p$ collisions.

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Charge Asymmetry and Weak Interaction Effects in $e^+ e^- \to \mu^+ \mu^-$ and $e^+ e^- \to \tau^+ \tau^-$

The TASSO collaboration Brandelik, R. ; Braunschweig, W. ; Gather, K. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 110 (1982) 173-180, 1982.
Inspire Record 176719 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.6699

We have measured, at an average centre-of-mass energy of 34.22 GeV a forward-backward charge asymmetry in the reaction e + e − → μ + μ − of value −0.161 ± 0.032. This demonstrates the existence of an axial vector neutral current with coupling strength of g e a g μ a =0.53 ± 0.10. We have also obtained a limit on the vector coupling strength of g e v g μ v <0.12. The Weinberg angle is found to be sin 2 θ W =0.29 +0.09 −0.11 . From the reaction e + e − → τ + τ − we have found g e a g τ a <0.34, g e v g τ v <0.55.

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Measurement of the Forward-Backward Asymmetry in Top Quark-Antiquark Production in $p\bar{p}$ Collisions using the Lepton+Jets Channel

The D0 collaboration Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 90 (2014) 072011, 2014.
Inspire Record 1293918 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64123

We present a measurement of the forward--backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production using the full Tevatron Run II dataset collected by the D0 experiment at Fermilab. The measurement is performed in lepton+jets final states using a new kinematic fitting algorithm for events with four or more jets and a new partial reconstruction algorithm for events with only three jets. Corrected for detector acceptance and resolution effects, the asymmetry is evaluated to be 10.6+-3.0 %. Results are consistent with the standard model predictions which range from 5.0% to 8.8%. We also present the dependence of the asymmetry on the invariant mass of the top quark--antiquark system and the difference in rapidities of top quark and antiquark.

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Measurement of the Muon Charge Asymmetry in $p\bar{p}$ $\to$ W+X $\to$ $\mu$$\nu$ + X Events at $\sqrt{s}$=1.96 TeV

The D0 collaboration Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 88 (2013) 091102, 2013.
Inspire Record 1253555 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66280

We present a measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from the decay of the $W$ boson via W to mu nu using 7.3 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV. The muon charge asymmetry is presented in two kinematic regions in muon transverse momentum and event missing transverse energy: (p^{\mu}_{T} > 25 GeV, \met > 25 GeV) and (p^{\mu}_{T} > 35 GeV, \met > 35 GeV). The measured asymmetries are compared with theory predictions made using three parton distribution function sets. The predictions do not describe the data well for p^{\mu}_{T} > 35 GeV, \met > 35 GeV, and larger values of muon pseudorapidity.

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Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in the distribution of leptons in $t\bar{t}$ events in the lepton$+$jets channel

The D0 collaboration Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 90 (2014) 072001, 2014.
Inspire Record 1283842 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64673

We present measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry in the angular distribution of leptons from decays of top quarks and antiquarks produced in proton-antiproton collisions. We consider the final state containing a lepton and at least three jets. The entire sample of data collected by the D0 experiment during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, corresponding to 9.7 inverse fb of integrated luminosity, is used. The asymmetry measured for reconstructed leptons is $A_{FB}^l = \big(2.9 \pm 2.1(stat.) ^{+1.5}_{-1.7}(syst.) \big)$%. When corrected for efficiency and resolution effects within the lepton rapidity coverage of $|y_l|<1.5$, the asymmetry is found to be $A_{FB}^l = \big(4.2 \pm 2.3(stat.) ^{+1.7}_{-2.0}(syst.) \big)$%. Combination with the asymmetry measured in the dilepton final state yields $A_{FB}^l = \big(4.2 \pm 2.0(stat.) \pm 1.4(syst.) \big)$%. We examine the dependence of $A_{FB}^l$ on the transverse momentum and rapidity of the lepton. The results are in agreement with predictions from the next-to-leading-order QCD generator \mcatnlo, which predicts an asymmetry of $A_{FB}^l = 2.0$% for $|y_l|<1.5$.

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Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production in $p \bar{p}$ collisions

The D0 collaboration Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 032002, 2016.
Inspire Record 1404885 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76972

We study $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production asymmetries in $p \bar{p} \rightarrow \Lambda (\bar{\Lambda}) X$, $p \bar{p} \rightarrow J/\psi \Lambda (\bar{\Lambda}) X$, and $p \bar{p} \rightarrow \mu^\pm \Lambda (\bar{\Lambda}) X$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV. We find an excess of $\Lambda$'s ($\bar{\Lambda}$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $\bar{\Lambda}/\Lambda$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.

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Measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in $\boldsymbol{p\bar{p}\rightarrow W+X \rightarrow e\nu +X}$ decays in $\boldsymbol{p\bar{p}}$ collisions at $\boldsymbol{\sqrt{s}=1.96}$ TeV

The D0 collaboration Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 91 (2015) 032007, 2015.
Inspire Record 1333394 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73177

We present a measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in $p\bar{p}\rightarrow W+X \rightarrow e\nu +X$ events at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using data corresponding to 9.7~fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The asymmetry is measured as a function of the electron pseudorapidity and is presented in five kinematic bins based on the electron transverse energy and the missing transverse energy in the event. The measured asymmetry is compared with next-to-leading-order predictions in perturbative quantum chromodynamics and provides accurate information for the determination of parton distribution functions of the proton. This is the most precise lepton charge asymmetry measurement to date.

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Measurement of the Forward-Backward Asymmetries in the Production of Ξ and Ω Baryons in $p\overline{p}$ Collisions

The D0 collaboration Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 112001, 2016.
Inspire Record 1457606 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.78545

We measure the forward-backward asymmetries $A_{\rm FB}$ of charged $\Xi$ and $\Omega$ baryons produced in $p \bar{p}$ collisions recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV as a function of the baryon rapidity $y$. We find that the asymmetries $A_{\rm FB}$ for charged $\Xi$ and $\Omega$ baryons are consistent with zero within statistical uncertainties.

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Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in $Z/\gamma^{\ast} \rightarrow \mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decays and determination of the effective weak mixing angle

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Adeva, Bernardo ; Adinolfi, Marco ; et al.
JHEP 11 (2015) 190, 2015.
Inspire Record 1394859 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76490

The forward-backward charge asymmetry for the process $q\bar{q} \rightarrow Z/\gamma^{\ast} \rightarrow \mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dimuon system. Measurements are performed using proton proton collision data collected with the LHCb detector at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ and 8\tev, corresponding to integrated luminosities of $1$fb$^{-1}$ and $2$fb$^{-1}$ respectively. Within the Standard Model the results constrain the effective electroweak mixing angle to be $$sin^{2}\theta_{W}^{eff} = 0.23142 \pm 0.00073 \pm 0.00052 \pm 0.00056 $$ where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third theoretical. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and is one of the most precise determinations at hadron colliders to date.

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Forward–backward asymmetry of Drell–Yan lepton pairs in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 8$ $\,\mathrm{TeV}$

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 325, 2016.
Inspire Record 1415949 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73121

A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry A[FB] of oppositely charged lepton pairs (mu mu and e e) produced via Z/gamma* boson exchange in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse femtobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement of A[FB] is performed for dilepton masses between 40 GeV and 2 TeV and for dilepton rapidity up to 5. The A[FB] measurements as a function of dilepton mass and rapidity are compared with the standard model predictions.

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Measurement of the charge asymmetry in top quark pair production in pp collisions at $\sqrt(s) =$ 8 TeV using a template method

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 034014, 2016.
Inspire Record 1388178 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.69208

The charge asymmetry in the production of top quark and antiquark pairs is measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 inverse femtobarns, were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Events with a single isolated electron or muon, and four or more jets, at least one of which is likely to have originated from hadronization of a bottom quark, are selected. A template technique is used to measure the asymmetry in the distribution of differences in the top quark and antiquark absolute rapidities. The measured asymmetry is A[c,y] = [0.33 +/- 0.26 (stat) +/- 0.33 (syst)]%, which is the most precise result to date. The results are compared to calculations based on the standard model and on several beyond-the-standard-model scenarios.

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Charged-pion cross sections and double-helicity asymmetries in polarized p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 91 (2015) 032001, 2015.
Inspire Record 1315330 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71403

We present the midrapidity charged pion invariant cross sections and the ratio of $\pi^-$-to-$\pi^+$ production ($5<p_T<13$ GeV/$c$), together with the double-helicity asymmetries ($5<p_T<12$ GeV/$c$) in polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. The cross section measurements are consistent with perturbative calculations in quantum chromodynamics within large uncertainties in the calculation due to the choice of factorization, renormalization, and fragmentation scales. However, the theoretical calculation of the ratio of $\pi^-$-to-$\pi^+$ production when considering these scale uncertainties overestimates the measured value, suggesting further investigation of the uncertainties on the charge-separated pion fragmentation functions is needed. Due to cancellations of uncertainties in the charge ratio, direct inclusion of these ratio data in future parameterizations should improve constraints on the flavor dependence of quark fragmentation functions to pions. By measuring charge-separated pion asymmetries, one can gain sensitivity to the sign of $\Delta G$ through the opposite sign of the up and down quark helicity distributions in conjunction with preferential fragmentation of positive pions from up quarks and negative pions from down quarks. The double-helicity asymmetries presented are sensitive to the gluon helicity distribution over an $x$ range of $\sim$0.03--0.16.

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Measurement of the Electron Charge Asymmetry in Inclusive $W$ Production in $pp$ Collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 109 (2012) 111806, 2012.
Inspire Record 1118047 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66333

A measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in inclusive pp to W + X to e nu + X production at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented based on data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 840 inverse picobarns. The electron charge asymmetry reflects the unequal production of positive and negative W bosons in pp collisions. The electron charge asymmetry is measured in bins of absolute value of electron pseudorapidity in the range of abs(eta) < 2.4. The asymmetry rises from about 0.1 to 0.2 as a function of the pseudorapidity and is measured with a relative precision better than 7%. This measurement provides new stringent constraints for parton distribution functions.

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