Measurement of the Electron Charge Asymmetry in Inclusive $W$ Production in $pp$ Collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 109 (2012) 111806, 2012.
Inspire Record 1118047 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66333

A measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in inclusive pp to W + X to e nu + X production at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented based on data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 840 inverse picobarns. The electron charge asymmetry reflects the unequal production of positive and negative W bosons in pp collisions. The electron charge asymmetry is measured in bins of absolute value of electron pseudorapidity in the range of abs(eta) < 2.4. The asymmetry rises from about 0.1 to 0.2 as a function of the pseudorapidity and is measured with a relative precision better than 7%. This measurement provides new stringent constraints for parton distribution functions.

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Forward-Backward Asymmetry of Drell-Yan Lepton Pairs in $pp$ Collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 718 (2013) 752-772, 2013.
Inspire Record 1122847 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65322

A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry (A[FB]) of Drell-Yan lepton pairs in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 inverse femtobarns. The asymmetry is measured as a function of dilepton mass and rapidity in the dielectron and dimuon channels. Combined results from the two channels are also presented. The A[FB] measurement in the dimuon channel and the combination of the two channels are the first such results obtained at a hadron collider. The measured asymmetries are consistent with the standard model predictions.

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Measurements of the $t\bar{t}$ charge asymmetry using the dilepton decay channel in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} =$ 7 TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
JHEP 04 (2014) 191, 2014.
Inspire Record 1281538 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64729

The t t-bar charge asymmetry in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is measured using the dilepton decay channel (ee, e mu, or mu mu). The data correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The t t-bar and lepton charge asymmetries, defined as the differences in absolute values of the rapidities between the reconstructed top quarks and antiquarks and of the pseudorapidities between the positive and negative leptons, respectively, are measured to be Ac = -0.010 +/- 0.017 (stat.) +/- 0.008 (syst.) and Ac[lep] = 0.009 +/- 0.010 (stat.) +/- 0.006 (syst). The lepton charge asymmetry is also measured as a function of the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the t t-bar system. All measurements are consistent with the expectations of the standard model.

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Measurement of the Muon Charge Asymmetry in Inclusive $pp \to W+X$ Production at $\sqrt s =$ 7 TeV and an Improved Determination of Light Parton Distribution Functions

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 90 (2014) 032004, 2014.
Inspire Record 1273570 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65456

Measurements of the muon charge asymmetry in inclusive pp to WX production at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV are presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 inverse femtobarns recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. With a sample of more than twenty million W to mu nu events, the statistical precision is greatly improved in comparison to previous measurements. These new results provide additional constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton in the range of the Bjorken scaling variable x from 10E-3 to 10E-1. These measurements and the recent CMS measurement of associated W + charm production are used together with the cross sections for inclusive deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA in a next-to-leading-order QCD analysis. The determination of the valence quark distributions is improved, and the strange-quark distribution is probed directly through the leading-order process g + s to W + c in proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

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Forward–backward asymmetry of Drell–Yan lepton pairs in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 8$ $\,\mathrm{TeV}$

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 325, 2016.
Inspire Record 1415949 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73121

A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry A[FB] of oppositely charged lepton pairs (mu mu and e e) produced via Z/gamma* boson exchange in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse femtobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement of A[FB] is performed for dilepton masses between 40 GeV and 2 TeV and for dilepton rapidity up to 5. The A[FB] measurements as a function of dilepton mass and rapidity are compared with the standard model predictions.

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Measurement of the charge asymmetry in top quark pair production in pp collisions at $\sqrt(s) =$ 8 TeV using a template method

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 034014, 2016.
Inspire Record 1388178 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.69208

The charge asymmetry in the production of top quark and antiquark pairs is measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 inverse femtobarns, were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Events with a single isolated electron or muon, and four or more jets, at least one of which is likely to have originated from hadronization of a bottom quark, are selected. A template technique is used to measure the asymmetry in the distribution of differences in the top quark and antiquark absolute rapidities. The measured asymmetry is A[c,y] = [0.33 +/- 0.26 (stat) +/- 0.33 (syst)]%, which is the most precise result to date. The results are compared to calculations based on the standard model and on several beyond-the-standard-model scenarios.

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Measurement of the $\Lambda_b$ polarization and angular parameters in $\Lambda_b\to J/\psi\, \Lambda$ decays from pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 7 and 8 TeV

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 97 (2018) 072010, 2018.
Inspire Record 1654926 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.83664

An analysis of the decay $\Lambda_b \to J/\psi(\to\mu^+\mu^-)\Lambda(\to p \pi^-)$ decay is performed to measure the $\Lambda_b$ polarization and three angular parameters in data from pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} =$ 7 and 8 TeV, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The $\Lambda_b$ polarization is measured to be 0.00 $\pm$ 0.06 (stat) $\pm$ 0.06 (syst) and the parity-violating asymmetry parameter is determined to be 0.14 $\pm$ 0.14 (stat) $\pm$ 0.10 (syst). The measurements are compared to various theoretical predictions, including those from perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

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Measurement of Top Quark Polarisation in T-Channel Single Top Quark Production

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
JHEP 04 (2016) 073, 2016.
Inspire Record 1403169 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38092

A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse-femtobarns. A high-purity sample of t-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 +/- 0.03 (stat) +/- 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a p-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.

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Measurement of the differential cross section and charge asymmetry for inclusive $\mathrm {p}\mathrm {p}\rightarrow \mathrm {W}^{\pm }+X$ production at ${\sqrt{s}} = 8$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 469, 2016.
Inspire Record 1426517 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73900

The differential cross section and charge asymmetry for inclusive pp to W + X to mu + neutrino + X production at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV are measured as a function of muon pseudorapidity. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18.8 inverse femtobarns recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. These results provide important constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton in the range of the Bjorken scaling variable x from 10E-3 to 10E-1.

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Angular analysis of the decay $B^0 \to K^{*0} \mu^+ \mu^-$ from pp collisions at $\sqrt s = 8$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 753 (2016) 424-448, 2016.
Inspire Record 1385600 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.17057

The angular distributions and the differential branching fraction of the decay B0 to K*0(892) mu mu are studied using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.5 inverse femtobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV. From 1430 signal decays, the forward-backward asymmetry of the muons, the K*0(892) longitudinal polarization fraction, and the differential branching fraction are determined as a function of the dimuon invariant mass squared. The measurements are among the most precise to date and are in good agreement with standard model predictions.

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Study of Z boson production in pPb collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 759 (2016) 36-57, 2016.
Inspire Record 1410832 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71358

The production of Z bosons in pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV is studied by the CMS experiment via the electron and muon decay channels. The inclusive cross section is compared to pp collision predictions, and found to scale with the number of elementary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The differential cross sections as a function of the Z boson rapidity and transverse momentum are measured. Though they are found to be consistent within uncertainty with theoretical predictions both with and without nuclear effects, the forward-backward asymmetry suggests the presence of nuclear effects at large rapidities. These results provide new data for constraining nuclear parton distribution functions.

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Study of W boson production in pPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} =$ 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 750 (2015) 565-586, 2015.
Inspire Record 1353541 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.69232

The first study of W boson production in pPb collisions is presented, for bosons decaying to a muon or electron, and a neutrino. The measurements are based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 34.6 inverse nanobarns at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV, collected by the CMS experiment. The W boson differential cross sections, lepton charge asymmetry, and forward-backward asymmetries are measured for leptons of transverse momentum exceeding 25 GeV, and as a function of the lepton pseudorapidity in the abs(eta[lab]) < 2.4 range. Deviations from the expectations based on currently available parton distribution functions are observed, showing the need for including W boson data in nuclear parton distribution global fits.

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Observation of nuclear modifications in W$^\pm$ boson production in pPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} =$ 8.16 TeV

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 800 (2020) 135048, 2020.
Inspire Record 1733223 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.88284

The production of W$^\pm$ bosons is studied in proton-lead (pPb) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} =$ 8.16 TeV. Measurements are performed in the W$^\pm$ $\to$ $\mu^\pm\nu_\mu$ channel using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 173.4 $\pm$ 8.7 nb$^{-1}$, collected by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC. The number of positively and negatively charged W bosons is determined separately in the muon pseudorapidity region in the laboratory frame $|\eta^\mu_\mathrm{lab}|$ $<$ 2.4 and transverse momentum $p_\mathrm{T}^\mu$ $>$ 25 GeV/$c$. The W$^\pm$ boson differential cross sections, muon charge asymmetry, and the ratios of W$^\pm$ boson yields for the proton-going over the Pb-going beam directions are reported as a function of the muon pseudorapidity in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass frame. The measurements are compared to the predictions from theoretical calculations based on parton distribution functions (PDFs) at next-to-leading-order. The results favour PDF calculations that include nuclear modifications and provide constraints on the nuclear PDF global fits.

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Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in $p^\uparrow+p$ at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 115 (2015) 242501, 2015.
Inspire Record 1357596 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73282

We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in $p^\uparrow+p$ collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of five standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities eta>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the rho-meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions. Comparing the results to data from lepton-nucleon scattering will test the universality of these spin-dependent quantities.

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Measurement of parity-violating spin asymmetries in W$^{\pm}$ production at midrapidity in longitudinally polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 051103, 2016.
Inspire Record 1365091 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73691

We present measurements from the PHENIX experiment of large parity-violating single spin asymmetries of high transverse momentum electrons and positrons from $W^\pm/Z$ decays, produced in longitudinally polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions at center of mass energies of $\sqrt{s}$=500 and 510~GeV. These asymmetries allow direct access to the anti-quark polarized parton distribution functions due to the parity-violating nature of the $W$-boson coupling to quarks and anti-quarks. The results presented are based on data collected in 2011, 2012, and 2013 with an integrated luminosity of 240 pb$^{-1}$, which exceeds previous PHENIX published results by a factor of more than 27. These high $Q^2$ data provide an important addition to our understanding of anti-quark parton helicity distribution functions.

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Measurement of the forward - backward asymmetry in Z ---> b anti-b and Z ---> c anti-c

The ALEPH collaboration Decamp, D. ; Deschizeaux, B. ; Goy, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 263 (1991) 325-336, 1991.
Inspire Record 316148 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29386

From a sample of 150 000 hadronic Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector at LEP, events containing prompt leptons are used to measure the forward-backward asymmetries for the channels Z → b b and Z → c c , giving the results A FB b =0.126±0.028±0.012 and A FB c =0.064±0.039±0.030. These asymmetries correspond to the value of effective electroweak mixing angle at the Z mass sin 2 θ W ( m Z 2 ) = 0.2262±0.0053.

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The Forward - backward asymmetry for charm quarks at the Z pole

The ALEPH collaboration Buskulic, D. ; Casper, D. ; De Bonis, I. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 352 (1995) 479-486, 1995.
Inspire Record 394753 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.47932

From 1.4 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP, an enriched sample of Z → cc̄ events is extracted by requiring the presence of a high momentum D ∗± . The charm quark forward-backward charge asymmetry at the Z pole is measured to be A FB 0. c = (8.0 ± 2.4) % corresponding to an effective electroweak mixing angle of sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2302 ± 0.0054.

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Measurement of hadron and lepton pair production from $e^{+} e^{-}$ annihilation at center-of-mass energies of 130-GeV and 136-GeV

The ALEPH collaboration Buskulic, D. ; De Bonis, I. ; Decamp, D. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 378 (1996) 373-384, 1996.
Inspire Record 421552 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.47801

Hadronic and leptonic cross-sections and forward-backward asymmetries are measured using 5.7 pb −1 of data taken with the ALEPH detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies of 130 and 136 GeV. The results agree with Standard Model expectations. The measurement of hadronic cross-sections far away from the Z resonance improves the determination of the interference between photon and Z exchange. Constraints on models with extra Z bosons are presented.

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Measurement of Lambda polarization from Z decays

The ALEPH collaboration Buskulic, D. ; De Bonis, I. ; Decamp, D. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 374 (1996) 319-330, 1996.
Inspire Record 415745 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.47830

The polarization of Λ baryons from Z decays is studied with the Aleph apparatus. Evidence of longitudinal polarization of s quarks from Z decay is observed for the first time. The measured longitudinal Λ polarization is P L Λ = −0.32 ± 0.07 for z = p p beam > 0.3 . This agrees with the prediction of −0.39 ± 0.08 from the standard model and the constituent quark model, where the error is due to uncertainties in the mechanism for Λ production. The observed Λ polarization is diluted with respect to the primary s quark polarization by Λ baryons without a primary s quark. Measurements of the Λ forward-backward asymmetry and of the correlation between back-to-back Λ Λ pairs are used to check this dilution. In addition the transverse Λ polarization is measured. An indication of transverse polarization, more than two standard deviations away from zero, is found along the normal to the plane defined by the thrust axis and the Λ direction.

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Inclusive double-helicity asymmetries in neutral-pion and eta-meson production in $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 90 (2014) 012007, 2014.
Inspire Record 1282448 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64716

Results are presented from data recorded in 2009 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider for the double-longitudinal spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, for $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ production in $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions. Comparison of the $\pi^0$ results with different theory expectations based on fits of other published data showed a preference for small positive values of gluon polarization, $\Delta G$, in the proton in the probed Bjorken $x$ range. The effect of adding the new 2009 \pz data to a recent global analysis of polarized scattering data is also shown, resulting in a best fit value $\Delta G^{[0.05,0.2]}_{\mbox{DSSV}} = 0.06^{+0.11}_{-0.15}$ in the range $0.05<x<0.2$, with the uncertainty at $\Delta \chi^2 = 9$ when considering only statistical experimental uncertainties. Shifting the PHENIX data points by their systematic uncertainty leads to a variation of the best-fit value of $\Delta G^{[0.05,0.2]}_{\mbox{DSSV}}$ between $0.02$ and $0.12$, demonstrating the need for full treatment of the experimental systematic uncertainties in future global analyses.

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Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 113 (2014) 072301, 2014.
Inspire Record 1292792 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73441

We report measurements of single- and double- spin asymmetries for $W^{\pm}$ and $Z/\gamma^*$ boson production in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 510$ GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for $W^{\pm}$ were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the $W$ mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by recent polarized deep inelastic scattering measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range $0.05<x<0.2$.

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Measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry in $p^\uparrow+p \to W^{\pm}/Z^0$ at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 132301, 2016.
Inspire Record 1405433 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73263

We present the measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of weak boson production in transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 500~\text{GeV}$ by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The measured observable is sensitive to the Sivers function, one of the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, which is predicted to have the opposite sign in proton-proton collisions from that observed in deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering. These data provide the first experimental investigation of the non-universality of the Sivers function, fundamental to our understanding of QCD.

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Precision Measurement of the Longitudinal Double-spin Asymmetry for Inclusive Jet Production in Polarized Proton Collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 115 (2015) 092002, 2015.
Inspire Record 1297229 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73432

We report a new high-precision measurement of the mid-rapidity inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, in polarized $pp$ collisions at center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV. The STAR data place stringent constraints on polarized parton distribution functions extracted at next-to-leading order from global analyses of inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS), semi-inclusive DIS, and RHIC $pp$ data. The measured asymmetries provide evidence for positive gluon polarization in the Bjorken-$x$ region $x>0.05$.

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Measurements of double-helicity asymmetries in inclusive $J/\psi$ production in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; Ajitanand, N.N. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 94 (2016) 112008, 2016.
Inspire Record 1467456 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.82575

We report the double helicity asymmetry, $A_{LL}^{J/\psi}$, in inclusive $J/\psi$ production at forward rapidity as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ and rapidity $|y|$. The data analyzed were taken during $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV longitudinally polarized $p

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Measurement of charge asymmetry in hadronic Z decays

The ALEPH collaboration Decamp, D. ; Deschizeaux, B. ; Goy, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 259 (1991) 377-388, 1991.
Inspire Record 314476 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29453

A significant charge asymmetry is observed in the hadronic Z decays with the ALEPH detector at LEP. The asymmetry expressed in terms of the difference in momentum weighted charges in the two event hemispheres is measured to be < Q forward >−< Q backward >= −0.0084±0.0015 (stat.) ±0.0004 (exp. sys.). In the framework of the standard model this can be interpreted as a measurement of the effective electroweak mixing angle, sin 2 O w ( M z 2 =0.2300±0.0034 (stat.) ±0.0010 (exp. sys.) ±0.0038 (theor. sys.) or of the ratio of the vector to axual- vector coupling costants of the electron, g ve g Ae =+0.073±0.024.

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