Evidence for the charge asymmetry in $pp \rightarrow t\bar{t}$ production at $\sqrt{s}= 13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration
CERN preprint ID: CERN-EP-2022-166, 2022.
Inspire Record 2141752 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132116

Inclusive and differential measurements of the top-antitop ($t\bar{t}$) charge asymmetry $A_\text{C}^{t\bar{t}}$ and the leptonic asymmetry $A_\text{C}^{\ell\bar{\ell}}$ are presented in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement uses the complete Run 2 dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$, combines data in the single-lepton and dilepton channels, and employs reconstruction techniques adapted to both the resolved and boosted topologies. A Bayesian unfolding procedure is performed to correct for detector resolution and acceptance effects. The combined inclusive $t\bar{t}$ charge asymmetry is measured to be $A_\text{C}^{t\bar{t}} = 0.0068 \pm 0.0015$, which differs from zero by 4.7 standard deviations. Differential measurements are performed as a function of the invariant mass, transverse momentum and longitudinal boost of the $t\bar{t}$ system. Both the inclusive and differential measurements are found to be compatible with the Standard Model predictions, at next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory with next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections. The measurements are interpreted in the framework of the Standard Model effective field theory, placing competitive bounds on several Wilson coefficients.

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The unfolded inclusive charge asymmetry. The measured values are given with statistical and systematic uncertainties. The SM theory predictions calculated at NNLO in QCD and NLO in EW theory are listed, and the impact of the linear term of the Wilson coefficient on the $A_C^{t\bar{t}}$ prediction is shown for two different values. The scale uncertainty is obtained by varying renormalisation and factorisation scales independently by a factor of 2 or 0.5 around $\mu_0$ to calculate the maximum and minimum value of the asymmetry, respectively. The nominal value $\mu_0$ is chosen as $H_T/4$. The variations in which one scale is multiplied by 2 while the other scale is divided by 2 are excluded. Finally, the scale and MC integration uncertainties are added in quadrature.

The unfolded differential charge asymmetry as a function of the invariant mass of the top pair system. The measured values are given with statistical and systematic uncertainties. The SM theory predictions calculated at NNLO in QCD and NLO in EW theory are listed, and the impact of the linear term of the Wilson coefficient on the $A_C^{t\bar{t}}$ prediction is shown for two different values. The scale uncertainty is obtained by varying renormalisation and factorisation scales independently by a factor of 2 or 0.5 around $\mu_0$ to calculate the maximum and minimum value of the asymmetry, respectively. The nominal value $\mu_0$ is chosen as $H_T/4$. The variations in which one scale is multiplied by 2 while the other scale is divided by 2 are excluded. Finally, the scale and MC integration uncertainties are added in quadrature.

The unfolded differential charge asymmetry as a function of the transverse momentum of the top pair system. The measured values are given with statistical and systematic uncertainties. The SM theory predictions calculated at NNLO in QCD and NLO in EW theory are listed. The scale uncertainty is obtained by varying renormalisation and factorisation scales independently by a factor of 2 or 0.5 around $\mu_0$ to calculate the maximum and minimum value of the asymmetry, respectively. The nominal value $\mu_0$ is chosen as $H_T/4$. The variations in which one scale is multiplied by 2 while the other scale is divided by 2 are excluded. Finally, the scale and MC integration uncertainties are added in quadrature.

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Azimuthal transverse single-spin asymmetries of inclusive jets and identified hadrons within jets from polarized $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, Mohamed ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 106 (2022) 072010, 2022.
Inspire Record 2087127 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130778

The STAR Collaboration reports measurements of the transverse single-spin asymmetries, $A_N$, for inclusive jets and identified `hadrons within jets' production at midrapidity from transversely polarized $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV, based on data recorded in 2012 and 2015. The inclusive jet asymmetry measurements include $A_N$ for inclusive jets and $A_N$ for jets containing a charged pion carrying a momentum fraction $z>0.3$ of the jet momentum. The identified hadron within jet asymmetry measurements include the Collins effect for charged pions, kaons and protons, and the Collins-like effect for charged pions. The measured asymmetries are determined for several distinct kinematic regions, characterized by the jet transverse momentum $p_{T}$ and pseudorapidity $\eta$, as well as the hadron momentum fraction $z$ and momentum transverse to the jet axis $j_{T}$. These results probe higher momentum scales ($Q^{2}$ up to $\sim$ 900 GeV$^{2}$) than current, semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering measurements, and they provide new constraints on quark transversity in the proton and enable tests of evolution, universality and factorization breaking in the transverse-momentum-dependent formalism.

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Inclusive jet asymmetries, $A_{UT}^{\sin(\phi_{S})}$, as a function of particle jet-$p_{T}$. The bars show the statistical uncertainties, while the size of the boxes represents the systematic uncertainties on $A_{UT}^{\sin(\phi_{S})}$ (vertical) and jet-$p_{T}$ (horizontal). The top panel shows results for jets that scatter forward relative to the polarized beam ($x_{F} > 0$).

Inclusive jet asymmetries, $A_{UT}^{\sin(\phi_{S})}$, as a function of particle jet-$p_{T}$. The bars show the statistical uncertainties, while the size of the boxes represents the systematic uncertainties on $A_{UT}^{\sin(\phi_{S})}$ (vertical) and jet-$p_{T}$ (horizontal). the bottom panel shows jets that scatter backward to the polarized beam ($x_{F} < 0$).

Inclusive jet asymmetries, $A_{UT}^{\sin(\phi_{S})}$, as a function of particle jet-$p_{T}$ for jets that contain a charged pion with $z > 0.3$. The blue circles are for jets containing a high-$z$ $\pi^{+}$, while red squares are for jets containing a high-$z$ $\pi^{-}$.

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Improving constraints on gluon spin-momentum correlations in transversely polarized protons via midrapidity open-heavy-flavor electrons in $p^{\uparrow}+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2072832 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130883

Polarized proton-proton collisions provide leading-order access to gluons, presenting an opportunity to constrain gluon spin-momentum correlations within transversely polarized protons and enhance our understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the proton. Midrapidity open-heavy-flavor production at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV is dominated by gluon-gluon fusion, providing heightened sensitivity to gluon dynamics relative to other production channels. Transverse single-spin asymmetries of electrons and positrons from heavy-flavor hadron decays are measured at midrapidity using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These charge-separated measurements are sensitive to gluon correlators that can in principle be related to gluon orbital angular momentum via model calculations. Explicit constraints on gluon correlators are extracted for two separate models, one of which had not been constrained previously.

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Data from Figure 1 of open heavy flavor $e^{\pm}$ transverse single-spin asymmetries in transversely polarized p+p collisions as a function of $p_{T}$.


Measurement of the Drell-Yan forward-backward asymmetry at high dilepton masses in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
JHEP 2022 (2022) 063, 2022.
Inspire Record 2038801 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114012

A measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of pairs of oppositely charged leptons (dimuons and dielectrons) produced by the Drell-­Yan process in proton-proton collisions is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The asymmetry is measured as a function of lepton pair mass for masses larger than 170\GeV and compared with standard model predictions. An inclusive measurement across both channels and the full mass range yields an asymmetry of 0.599 $\pm$ 0.005 (stat) $\pm$ 0.007 (syst). As a test of lepton flavor universality, the difference between the dimuon and dielectron asymmetries is measured as well. No statistically significant deviations from standard model predictions are observed. The measurements are used to set limits on the presence of additional gauge bosons. For a Z' in the sequential standard model, a lower mass limit of 4.4 TeV is set at 95% confidence level.

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Results for the measurement of $A_\mathrm{FB}$ from the maximum likelihood fit to data in different dilepton mass bins in the different channels as well as an inclusive measurement across all mass bins.


Transverse-single-spin asymmetries of charged pions at midrapidity in transversely polarized $p{+}p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 105 (2022) 032003, 2022.
Inspire Record 1988071 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129284

In 2015, the PHENIX collaboration has measured single-spin asymmetries for charged pions in transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at the center of mass energy of $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV. The pions were detected at central rapidities of $|\eta|<0.35$. The single-spin asymmetries are consistent with zero for each charge individually, as well as consistent with the previously published neutral-pion asymmetries in the same rapidity range. However, they show a slight indication of charge-dependent differences which may suggest a flavor dependence in the underlying mechanisms that create these asymmetries.

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Measured charged pion single spin asymmetries in p+p collisions as a function of pT


Inclusive and differential cross section measurements of single top quark production in association with a Z boson in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
JHEP 02 (2022) 107, 2022.
Inspire Record 1961177 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105865

Inclusive and differential cross sections of single top quark production in association with a Z boson are measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the CMS experiment. Events are selected based on the presence of three leptons, electrons or muons, associated with leptonic Z boson and top quark decays. The measurement yields an inclusive cross section of 87.9 $_{-7.3}^{+7.5}$ (stat) $_{-6.0}^{+7.3}$ (syst) fb for a dilepton invariant mass greater than 30 GeV, in agreement with standard model (SM) calculations and the most precise determination to date. The ratio between the cross sections for the top quark and the top antiquark production in association with a Z boson is measured as 2.37 $_{-0.42}^{+0.56}$ (stat) ${}_{-0.13}^{+0.27}$ (syst). Differential measurements at parton and particle levels are performed for the first time. Several kinematic observables are considered to study the modeling of the process. Results are compared to theoretical predictions with different assumptions on the source of the initial-state b quark and found to be in agreement, within the uncertainties. Additionally, the spin asymmetry, which is sensitive to the top quark polarization, is determined from the differential distribution of the polarization angle at parton level to be 0.54 $\pm$ 0.16 (stat) $\pm$ 0.06 (syst), in agreement with SM predictions.

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Likelihood scan of the top quark spin asymmetry.


Measurement of the inclusive and differential WZ production cross sections, polarization angles, and triple gauge couplings in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
JHEP 07 (2022) 032, 2022.
Inspire Record 1949191 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114362

The associated production of a W and a Z boson is studied in final states with multiple leptons produced in proton-proton (pp) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV using 137 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. A measurement of the total inclusive production cross section yields $\sigma_{\text{tot}}$(pp $\to$ WZ) = 50.6 $\pm$ 0.8 (stat) $\pm$ 1.5 (syst) $\pm$ 1.1 (lumi) $\pm$ 0.5 (theo) pb. Measurements of the fiducial and differential cross sections for several key observables are also performed in all the final-state lepton flavour and charge compositions with a total of three charged leptons, which can be electrons or muons. All results are compared with theoretical predictions computed up to next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics plus next-to-leading order in electroweak theory and for various sets of parton distribution functions. The results include direct measurements of the charge asymmetry and the W and Z vector boson polarization. The first observation of longitudinally polarized W bosons in WZ production is reported. Anomalous gauge couplings are searched for, leading to new constraints on beyond-the-standard-model contributions to the WZ triple gauge coupling.

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WZ charge asymmetry ratio measured on each of the four flavour exclusive and the flavour inclusive channels


Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet and dijet production in polarized proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 105 (2022) 092011, 2022.
Inspire Record 1949588 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114778

We report measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, for inclusive jet and dijet production in polarized proton-proton collisions at midrapidity and center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}$ = 510 GeV, using the high luminosity data sample collected by the STAR experiment in 2013. These measurements complement and improve the precision of previous STAR measurements at the same center-of-mass energy that probe the polarized gluon distribution function at partonic momentum fraction 0.015 $\lesssim x \lesssim$ 0.25. The dijet asymmetries are separated into four jet-pair topologies, which provide further constraints on the $x$ dependence of the polarized gluon distribution function. These measurements are in agreement with previous STAR measurements and with predictions from current next-to-leading order global analyses. They provide more precise data at low dijet invariant mass that will better constraint the shape of the polarized gluon distribution function of the proton.

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Parton jet $p_T$ vs $A_{LL}$ values with associated uncertainties.

Parton dijet $M_{inv}$ vs $A_{LL}$ values with associated uncertainties, for topology A.

Parton dijet $M_{inv}$ vs $A_{LL}$ values with associated uncertainties, for topology B.

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Transverse single spin asymmetries of forward neutrons in $p+p$, $p+$Al and $p+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV as a function of transverse and longitudinal momenta

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 105 (2022) 032004, 2022.
Inspire Record 1944868 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.131759

In 2015 the PHENIX collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider recorded $p+p$, $p+$Al, and $p+$Au collision data at center of mass energies of $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV with the proton beam(s) transversely polarized. At very forward rapidities $\eta>6.8$ relative to the polarized proton beam, neutrons were detected either inclusively or in (anti)correlation with detector activity related to hard collisions. The resulting single spin asymmetries, that were previously reported, have now been extracted as a function of the transverse momentum of the neutron as well as its longitudinal momentum fraction $x_F$. The explicit kinematic dependence, combined with the correlation information allows for a closer look at the interplay of different mechanisms suggested to describe these asymmetries, such as hadronic interactions or electromagnetic interactions in ultra-peripheral collisions, UPC. Events that are correlated with a hard collision indeed display a mostly negative asymmetry that increases in magnitude as a function of transverse momentum with only little dependence on $x_F$. In contrast, events that are not likely to have emerged from a hard collision display positive asymmetries for the nuclear collisions with a kinematic dependence that resembles that of a UPC based model. Because the UPC interaction depends strongly on the charge of the nucleus, those effects are very small for $p+p$ collisions, moderate for $p+$Al collisions, and large for $p+$Au collisions.

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Measured forward neutron single spin asymmetries in p+p collisions as a function of pT in bins of xF

Measured forward neutron single spin asymmetries in p+Al collisions as a function of pT in bins of xF

Measured forward neutron single spin asymmetries in p+Au collisions as a function of pT in bins of xF

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Version 2
Measurement of the energy asymmetry in $t\bar{t}j$ production at 13 TeV with the ATLAS experiment and interpretation in the SMEFT framework

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 374, 2022.
Inspire Record 1941095 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.111348

A measurement of the energy asymmetry in jet-associated top-quark pair production is presented using 139 $\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider during $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. The observable measures the different probability of top and antitop quarks to have the higher energy as a function of the jet scattering angle with respect to the beam axis. The energy asymmetry is measured in the semileptonic $t\bar{t}$ decay channel, and the hadronically decaying top quark must have transverse momentum above $350$ GeV. The results are corrected for detector effects to particle level in three bins of the scattering angle of the associated jet. The measurement agrees with the SM prediction at next-to-leading-order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics in all three bins. In the bin with the largest expected asymmetry, where the jet is emitted perpendicular to the beam, the energy asymmetry is measured to be $-0.043\pm0.020$, in agreement with the SM prediction of $-0.037\pm0.003$. Interpreting this result in the framework of the Standard Model effective field theory (SMEFT), it is shown that the energy asymmetry is sensitive to the top-quark chirality in four-quark operators and is therefore a valuable new observable in global SMEFT fits.

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Data Measurements and predictions of the energy asymmetry in three bins of the jet angle $\theta_j$. The SM prediction was obtained from simulations of $t\bar{t}j$ events with MadGraph5_aMC@NLO + Pythia 8 at NLO in QCD for $t\bar{t}j$ + PS, including MC statistical and scale uncertainties.

Data measurements and predictions of the energy asymmetry in three bins of the jet angle $\theta_j$. The SM prediction was obtained from simulations of $t\bar{t}j$ events with MadGraph5_aMC@NLO + Pythia 8 at NLO in QCD for $t\bar{t}j$ + PS, including MC statistical and scale uncertainties.

Correlation coefficients $\rho_{i,j}$ for the statistical and systematic uncertainties between the $i$-th and $j$-th bin of the differential $A_E$ measurement as a function of the jet scattering angle $\theta_j$

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