Measurements are presented of the cross section ratios R ℓ = σ ℓ ( e + e − →ℓ + ℓ − ) σ h ( e + e − →hadrons) for ℓ=e, μ and τ using data taken from a scan around the Z 0 . The results are R e =(5.09± o .32±0.18)%, R μ =(0.46±0.35±0.17)% and R τ =(4.72±0.38±0.29)% where, for the ratio R e , the t -channel contribution has been subtracted. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of lepton universality and test this hypothesis at the energy scale s ∼8300 GeV 2 . The absolute cross sections σ ℓ (e + e − →ℓ + ℓ − ) have also been measured. From the cross sections the leptonic partial widths Γ e =(83.2±3.0±2.4) MeV, (Γ e Γ μ ) 1 2 =(84.6±3.0±2.4) MeV and (Γ e Γ τ ) 1 2 =(82.6±3.3±3.2) MeV have been extracted. Assuming lepton universality the ratio Γ ℓ Γ h =(4.89±0.20±0.12) × 10 −2 w was obtained, together with Γ ℓ =(83.6±1.8±2.2) MeV. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be N v =3.12±0.24±0.25. Al the data are consistent with the predictions of the standard model.
E+ E- final state is t-channel subtracted.
No t-channel subtraction. Statistical errors only.
We report on a measurement of the processes e + e − →e + e − , e + e − → μ + μ − , and e + e − → τ + τ − near the Z 0 pole. On the basis of 163 e + e − , 101 μ + μ − and 87 τ + τ − events we obtain Γ ee =89±4±4 MeV, Γ μμ =85±9±6 MeV and Γ ττ =87±10±8 MeV, compatible with the standard model. Combining these with our previous results on hadronic Z 0 decays, we find a hadronic width Γ had =1787±81±90 MeV and an invisible width Γ inv =552±85±71 MeV.
Statistical errors only.
The couplings of the Z 0 to charged leptons are studied using measurements of the lepton pair cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries at centre of mass energies near to the mass of the Z 0 . The data are consistent with lepton universality. Using a parametrisation of the lepton pair differential cross section which assumes that the Z 0 has only vector and axial couplings to leptons, the charged leptonic partial decay width of the Z 0 is determined to be Г ol+ol− = 83.1±1.9 MeV and the square of the product of the effective axial vector and vector coupling constants of the Z 0 to charged leptons to be a ̌ 2 ol v ̌ 2 ol = 0.0039± 0.0083 , in agreement with the standard model. A parametrisation in the form of the improved Born approximation gives effective leptonic axial vector and vector coupling constants a ̌ 2 ol = 0.998±0.024 and v ̌ 2 ol = 0.0044±0.0083 . In the framework of the standard model, the values of the parameters ϱ z and sin 2 θ w are found to be 0.998±0.024 and 0.233 +0.045 −0.012 respectively. Using the relationship in the minimal standard model between ϱ z and sin 2 θ w , the results sin 2 θ SM w = 0.233 +0.007 −0.006 is obtained. Our previously published measurement of the ratio of the hadronic to the leptonic partial width of the Z 0 is update: R z = 21.72 +0.71 −0.65 .
Cross sections corrected for the effects of efficiency and kinematic cuts. Errors have systematic effects folded.
Forward-backward asymmetry corrected for kinematic cuts. Errors have systematics folded.
More extensive and precise results are reported on the parameters of Z decay. On the basis of 20 000 Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector at LEP we find M z =91.182±0.026 (exp.) ±0.030 (beam) GeV, Γ z =2.541±0.056 GeV and σ had 0 =41.4±0.8 nb. The partial widths for the hadronic and leptonic channels are Γ had =1804±44 MeV, Γ e + e − =82.1±3.4 MeV, Γ μ + μ − =87.9±6.0 MeV and Γ τ + τ − =86.1±5.6 MeV, in good agreement with the standard model. On the basis of the average leptonic width Γ ℓ + ℓ − =83.9±2.2 MeV, the effective weak mixing angle is found to be sin 2 θ w ( M z )=0.231±0.008. Usin g the partial widths calculated in the standard model, the number of light neutrino families is N ν =3.01±0.15 (exp.)±0.05 (theor.).
We report on a measurement of the mass of the Z 0 boson, its total width, and its partial decay widths into hadrons and leptons. On the basis of 25 801 hadronic decays and 1999 decays into electrons, muons or taus, selected over eleven energy points between 88.28 GeV and 95.04 GeV, we obtain from a combined fit to hadrons and leptons a mass of M z =91.154±0.021 (exp)±0.030 (LEP) GeV, and a total width of Γ z =2.536±0.045 GeV. The errors on M z have been separated into the experimental error and the uncertainty due to the LEP beam energy. The measured leptonic partial widths are Γ ee =81.2±2.6 MeV, Γ μμ =82.6± 5.8 MeV, and Γ ττ =85.7±7.1 MeV, consistent with lepton universality. From a fit assuming lepton universality we obtain Γ ℓ + ℓ − = 81.9±2.0 MeV. The hadronic partial width is Γ had =1838±46 MeV. From the measured total and partial widths a model independent value for the invisible width is calculated to be Γ inv =453±44 MeV. The errors quoted include both the statistical and the systematic uncertainties.
Measured values of e+ e- --> e+ e- cross section.
Corrected cross section. Corrections are for t-channel effects and loss of acollinear events near the boundary of the acceptance.
The differential cross sections for Bhabha scattering and μ pair production, and the total τ pair cross section as measured by the PLUTO detector at PETRA, have been analyzed to extract information on the weak interaction of leptons. The data are compared with unified gauge theories. Since the observed electroweak effects are still consistent with zero (within errors) we can set experimental limits on neutral current parameters atQ2 values of 950 GeV2. In the framework of the standard SU(2)×U(1) model we find sin2Θw<0.52(95% c.l.). In the context of general singleZo models we can excludeZo masses of less than 40 GeV.
New measurements of the hadronic and leptonic cross sections and of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries ine+e− collisions are presented. The analysis includes data recorded up to the end of 1991 by the OPAL experiment at LEP, with centre-of-mass energies within ±3 GeV of the Z0 mass. The results are based on a recorded total of 454 000 hadronic and 58 000 leptonic events. A model independent analysis of Z0 parameters based on an extension of the improved Born approximation is presented leading to test of lepton universality and an interpretation of the results within the Standard Model framework. The determination of the mass and width of the Z0 benefit from an improved understanding of the LEP energy calibration.
Systematic error of 0.45 pct not included.
Additional systematic error of 0.003.
We report on the properties of theZ resonance from 62 500Z decays into fermion pairs collected with the ALEPH detector at LEP, the Large Electron-Positron storage ring at CERN. We findMZ=(91.193±0.016exp±0.030LEP) GeV, ΓZ=(2497±31) MeV, σhad0=(41.86±0.66)nb, and for the partial widths Γinv=(489±24) MeV, Γhad(1754±27) MeV, Γee=(85.0±1.6)MeV, Γμμ=(80.0±2.5) MeV, and Γττ=(81.3±2.5) MeV, all in good agreement with the Standard Model. Assuming lepton universality and using a lepton sample without distinction of the final state we measure Γu=(84.3±1.3) MeV. The forward-backward asymmetry in leptonic decays is used to determine the vector and axial-vector weak coupling constants of leptors,gv2(MZ2)=(0.12±0.12)×10−2 andgA2(MZ2)=0.2528±0.0040. The number of light neutrino species isNν=2.91±0.13; the electroweak mixing angle is sin2θW(MZ2)=0.2291±0.0040.
Overall systematic error is 2.6 pct.