Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured over the angular range 7 to 16 mrad at centre-of-mass energies of 31, 45 and 53 GeV using the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The results indicate that the diffraction peak has continued to shrink with increasing energy, but not as fast as suggested by the results at lower energies.
The real part of the proton proton elastic scattering amplitude has been determined from its interference with the Coulomb amplitude at total centre-of-mass energies up to 62 GeV. The observed steady increase of ϱ with energy indicates that the total proton proton cross section continues to increase well beyond this energy.
This paper contains a critical review of all the data produced at the ISR on proton-proton elastic scattering and total cross sections. This coherent and complete set of data is used to compute the impact parameter distribution of the proton-proton inelastic overlap integral. This impact parameter analysis has smaller errors than any other previously made, and confirms the good agreement with the geometrical scaling model while strongly disagreeing with models based on factorizing eikonals. For the first time we find indications of a second contribution to the peripheral rising of the proton-proton cross section in a region around 2.2 fm.
The angular distribution of proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured for incident beam momenta of 10.0, 12.0, 14.2 and 24.0 GeV/ c over a range of laboratory scattering angles from 12 to about 140 mrad. The results are compared with the fourth power of the electromagnetic form of the proton.
Measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering at angles around 6 mrad have been made at centre-of-mass energies of 23, 31, 45 and 53 GeV using the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The absolute scale of the cross-section was established by determination of the effective density of the colliding beans in their overlap region. Proton-proton total cross sections were deduced by extrapolation of the elastic differential cross-section to the forward direction and by application of the optical theorem. The results indicate that over the energy range studied the proton-proton total cross-section increases from about 39 to about 43 mb.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings in the four-momentum transfer range 0.001 ⩽… t …⩽ 0.015 GeV 2 at centre-of-mass energies of 23 and 31 GeV. The detection of Coulomb scattering and of its interference with nuclear scattering leads to the determination of the real part of the nuclear amplitude and of the total proton-proton cross section by the optical theorem.
Angular distributions of proton-proton elastic scattering have been measured for incident beam momenta of 10.0, 12.0, 14.2 and 24.0 GeV/ c over a range of lab scattering angles from 12 to 152 mrad. This is equivalent to a range of four-momentum transfer squared from about 0.1 to 6.7 GeV 2 at the highest momentum. Nucleon resonance production in the two-body reaction p + p → p + X has been studied at 24.0 GeV/ c incident momentum from 13.5 to 112 mrad by measuring the proton momentum spectra from the elastic peak down to a momentum corresponding to a missing mass of about 2.6 GeV. The new data are compared with previous results and theoretical models.
The results presented in this paper were obtained from a 105 000 frame exposure of the FNAL Hybrid Proportional Wire Chamber-30 inch Bubble Chamber System, in a tagged beam of 147 GeV/ c negative particles. Elastic, total and topological cross sections were obtained for both π − p and K − p interactions. Comparisons with other data, taken with various beam particles over large momentum intervals, show good agreement with KNO scaling, and similarity in the scaling behavior of σ n for the different beam particles.
The contradiction of the σ term of pion-nucleon scattering as deduced from the Karlsruhe-Helsinki phase shifts with the smaller value calculated by the chiral perturbation theory of QCD is well known. In an effort to clarify the discrepancy we have determined the real part of the isospin-even forward-scattering amplitude of pion-nucleon scattering at a pion energy Tπ=54.3 MeV by measurement of the elastic scattering of positive and negative pions on protons in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region. The deduced value is in agreement with the prediction of the Karlsruhe-Helsinki phase-shift analysis for that energy. The resulting large value of the σ term may be interpreted as being due to the influence of s¯s sea pairs even at large distances (small Q2) as previously suggested by the European Muon Collaboration measurement of deep-inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized protons.
The angular distribution π+-p at 1.0 GeV was determined on the basis of l032 events measured in a propane bubble chamber. Comparison is made with data of 820 and 900 MeV and with angular distributions π−+p at similar energies.
Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta pp (energies Tp) from 1100 to 3300MeV/c (500 to 2500 MeV) in the angular range 35°≤Θc.m.≤90° with a detector providing ΔΘc.m.≈1.4° resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH2 fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of Tp. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found.
The real part of the isospin-even forward-scattering amplitude of pion-nucleon scattering has been determined at a pion energy of Tπ=55 MeV by measurement of the elastic scattering of positive and negative pions on protons within the Coulomb-nuclear interference region. The value confirms the prediction of the Karlsruhe-Helsinki phase-shift analysis for that energy. These phases have been used to determine the σ term of pion-nucleon scattering by means of dispersion relations, resulting in a value for σ which is in contradiction with chiral perturbation theory of QCD.
Results are reported based on a study of π − p interactions at 147 GeV/ c in the FERMILAB 30-inch Proportional Wire Hybrid Bubble Chamber System. We have measured the topological cross sections and separated two-prong elastic and inelastic channels. In addition, we have extracted leading particle cross sections using the increased momentum resolution of the downstream proportional wire chambers. We have compared our results with experiments and predictions of a simple fragmentation hyphothesis.
We have measured the cross section at 180° for K + p and K + n elastic scattering in the momentum range 1.0 to 1.5 GeV/ c . The K + n cross section was measured on deuterium and the K + p on hydrogen and deuterium. We were thus able to measure directly the difference between free nucleon (proton) scattering and bound nucleon (proton) scattering at large angles. This difference was found to be small and within our experimental accuracy the K + p(n) cross section should be equal to the K + p (free) cross section at 180°. We found no evidence for an s -channel resonance Z ∗ in either the K + p or K + n system. A comparison of our data and those of other groups with theoretical predictions is given.
The Fermilab hybrid 30-in. bubble-chamber spectrometer was exposed to a tagged 147-GeV/c positive beam containing π+, K+, and p. A sample of 3003 K+p, 19410 pp, and 20745 π+p interactions is used to derive σn, 〈n〉, f2cc, and 〈nc〉D for each beam particle. These values are compared to values obtained at other, mostly lower, beam momenta. The overall dependence of 〈n〉 on Ea, the available center-of-mass energy, for these three reactions as well as π−p and pp interactions has been determined.
Results are presented on elastic scattering of 10.1 GeV/ c K − mesons on protons, based on a sample of 16 261 kinematically-fitted bubble-chamber events. The differential cross section is given over the | t |- range of 0.06 to 2.5 GeV 2 and is fitted with the expressions a e bt , A e Bt + Ct 2 and ( P e Qt + Re St ) over various intervals of t . The results are compared with those of other experiments at nearby energies. Upper limits of | α | < 0.28 and σ B < 0.4 μ b (both at a 90% confidence level) are given for the ratio of real to imaginary part of the forward-scattering amplitude and the backward-elastic-scattering cross section, respectively.
A sample of 43000 two-prong events obtained at a momomentum of 11.7 GeV/c is used to determine the cross-sections of the fitted channels, and to study the reaction π+p→π+pπ0. We investigate in particular the quasi-two-body channels π0Δ++ and ρ+p.
Cross sections and charged multiplicity distributions forK+p interactions at 70 GeV/c are presented and compared withK+p data at other energies. Comparisons are also made with available π+p,pp, andK−p data.
The TOTEM experiment has made a precise measurement of the elastic proton-proton differential cross-section at the centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 8 TeV based on a high-statistics data sample obtained with the beta* = 90 optics. Both the statistical and systematic uncertainties remain below 1%, except for the t-independent contribution from the overall normalisation. This unprecedented precision allows to exclude a purely exponential differential cross-section in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.027 < |t| < 0.2 GeV^2 with a significance greater than 7 sigma. Two extended parametrisations, with quadratic and cubic polynomials in the exponent, are shown to be well compatible with the data. Using them for the differential cross-section extrapolation to t = 0, and further applying the optical theorem, yields total cross-section estimates of (101.5 +- 2.1) mb and (101.9 +- 2.1) mb, respectively, in agreement with previous TOTEM measurements.
The single-pion production reactions $pp\to d\pi^+$, $pp\to np\pi^+$ and $pp\to pp\pi^0$ were measured at a beam momentum of 0.95 GeV/c ($T_p \approx$ 400 MeV) using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The implementation of a central calorimeter provided particle identification, energy determination and neutron detection in addition to time-of-flight and angle measurements. Thus all pion production channels were recorded with 1-4 overconstraints. The total and differential cross sections obtained are compared to previous data and theoretical calculations. Main emphasis is put on the discussion of the $pp\pi^0$ channel, where we obtain angular distributions different from previous experimental results, however, partly in good agreement with recent phenomenological and theoretical predictions. In particular we observe very large anisotropies for the $\pi^0$ angular distributions in the kinematical region of small relative proton momenta revealing there a dominance of proton spinflip transitions associated with $\pi^0$ $s$- and $d$-partial waves and emphasizing the important role of $\pi^0$ d-waves.
Results are reported concerning the charged-particle multiplicity distribution obtained in an exposure of the high-resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC to a beam of 800 GeV protons at the Fermilab MPS. This is the first time that such data have been available at this energy. The distribution of the number n ch of charged particles produced in inelastic interactions obeys KNO-scaling. The average multiplicity is 〈 n ch 〉 = 10.26±0.15. For n ch ⩾8 the data can be well fitted to a negative binomial. The difference between the overall experimental multiplicity distribution and that resulting from the latter fit is in agreement with the contribution expected from diffractive processes.
Results are presented onK+p elastic scattering and on the reactionK+p→K+pπ+π− at 70 GeV/c. For the