In a sample of 108 563 pictures taken with the Fermilab 30-inch hydrogen bubble chamber, exposed to a 360-GeV/c π− beam, we have observed 19 453 interactions in a selected fiducial region. The observed charged multiplicity distribution has been corrected for the effects of scan efficiency, errors in prong count, missed close-in vees, secondary interactions, and neutron stars and for Dalitz pairs. The two-prong events have been corrected for losses at low −t. The total cross section is measured to be 25.25 ± 0.35 mb, and the elastic cross section is 3.61 ± 0.11 mb with an exponential slope of (8.82 ± 0.30) (GeV/c)−2. The average charged-particle multiplicity for inelastic events is 8.73 ± 0.04, and the second moment f2 is measured to be 9.83 ± 0.23.
SYSTEMATIC CORRECTIONS INCLUDED IN ERRORS.
FROM FIT, FORWARD D(SIG)/DT = 31.84 +- 0.68 MB/GEV**2, AND AGREES WITH OPTICAL POINT FROM MEASURED TOTAL CROSS SECTIONS.
In a single-arm spectrometer experiment, high-precision measurements of dσdt for π−p, K−p, and p¯p elastic scattering have been made at 8 and 16 GeV/c. The π−p data show rich structure at 8 GeV/c, indicative of strong non-Pomeron contributions, while the 16-GeV/c data are much smoother. For −t≳1 (GeV/c)2 there is a strong s dependence while there is very little for −t<1 (GeV/c)2. For p¯p scattering the forward region is smoothly diffractive for −t<0.4 (GeV/c)2 and shows antishrinkage. The exponential slope parameter b is measured to be 12.36 ± 0.04 (GeV/c)−2 at 8 GeV/c and 11.40 ± 0.04 (GeV/c)−2 at 16 GeV/c. The structure near −t=0.6 (GeV/c)2 seen at lower energies is still obvious at 16 GeV/c. The K−p data show some structure at 8 GeV/c, but can be represented adequately by a quadratic exponential form. At 16 GeV/c the K−p angular distribution shows antishrinkage and lies above the 8-GeV/c cross section for 0.11<−t<0.8 (GeV/c)2.
Differential cross sections have been measured for nucleon-isobar production and elastic scattering in p−p interactions from 6.2 to 29.7 GeVc in the laboratory angle range 8<θsc<265 mrad. N*' s at 1236, 1410, 1500, 1690, and 2190 MeV were observed. Computer fits to the mass spectra under varying assumptions of resonance and background shapes show that conclusions on t and s dependence are only slightly affected despite typical variations in absolute normalization of ± 35%. Logarithmic t slopes in the small- |t| range are ∼15 (GeVc)−2 for the N*(1410), ∼5 (GeVc)−2 for the N*'s at 1500, 1690, and 2190 MeV, and ∼9 (GeVc)−2 for elastic scattering. Also for the small- |t| data, cross sections for N*'s at 1410, 1500, 1690, and 2190 MeV and for elastic scattering vary only slightly with Pinc consistent with the dominance of Pomeranchuk exchange and with diffraction dissociation. A fit of N*(1690) total cross sections to the form σ∝P−n gives n=0.34±0.06, while for elastic scattering n=0.20±0.05. For the N*(1690) the effective Regge trajectory has the slope αeff′(0)=0.38±0.17. When compared with N* production in π−, K−, and p¯ beams these data also agree with approximate factorization of the Pomeranchuk trajectory. N*(1236) cross sections are consistent with other measurements at similar momenta. For −t>1 (GeVc)−2, elastic scattering cross sections decrease approximately as Pinc−2, and they and N*(1500)− and N*(1690)− production cross sections have t slopes consistent with 1.6 (GeVc)−2.
Measurements of C LL of pp elastic scattering near θ c.m. = 90° at thirteen energies between 300 and 800 MeV are reported. These, together with previous values of C NN , are used to extract values of two quantities, ƒ s and ƒ t , which contain only spin-singlet and only coupled spin-triplet partial waves, respectively. The ƒ s curve, which is not dependent on C LL , exhibits the behavior expected for the previously conjectured 1 D 2 resonance. The ƒ t curve also exhibits a resonance-like behavior, which could be due either to the 3 P 0 or the 3 P 2 partial wave.
Twenty-nine proton-proton differential elastic cross sections for lab momenta p0 from 11 to 31.8 BeV/c, at four-momentum transfers squared, −t, from 2.3 to 24.4 (BeV/c)2, have been measured at the Brookhaven alternating gradient synchrotron. The circulating proton beam impinged upon a thin CH2 internal target. Both scattered protons from p−p elastic events were detected by scintillation-counter telescopes which were placed downstream from deflection magnets set at the appropriate angles to the incident beam. The angular correlation of the protons, their momenta, and the coplanarity of the events were determined by the detection system. The results show that at high momentum transfers the differential cross section, dσdt, depends strongly upon the energy; for −t=10 (BeV/c)2, the value of dσdt at p0=30 BeV/c is smaller by a factor∼1000 than at p0=10 BeV/c. At all energies, dσdt falls rapidly with increasing |t| for scattering angles up to about 65° (c.m.), while in the range from 65 to 90° the cross section falls only by a factor of about 2. The smallest cross section measured was 9×10−37 cm2 sr−1 (c.m.), at p0=31.8 BeV/c and −t=20.4 (BeV/c)2; this is about 3×10−12 of the zero-degree cross section at the same energy.
The differential cross section for π±−p elastic scattering at 180° was measured from 0.572 to 1.628 GeVc using a double-arm scintillation-counter spectrometer with an angular acceptance θ* in the center-of-mass system defined by −1.00≤cosθ*≤−0.9992. The π+−p cross section exhibits a large dip at 0.737 GeVc and a broad peak centered near 1.31 GeVc. The π−−p cross section exhibits peaks at 0.69, 0.97, and 1.43 GeVc.
We have measured differential cross sections for K−p→Σ+π− and π−p→pπ− at 3.0 and 5.1 GeV/c near the backward direction. At 3.0 GeV/c both have a dip near −u∼0.1 (GeV/c)2. At 5.1 GeV/c, dσdu for π−p→pπ− falls exponentially with slope 3.8±0.1 (GeV/c)−2 whereas dudσ for K−p→Σ+π− exhibits a decreasing slope for larger |u|. These data are discussed in terms of SU(3), and the relative importance of the helicity-flip and -non-flip amplitudes is investigated.
K+p and K+d total cross sections were measured in the momentum range 0.57-1.16 GeV/c using a secondary, separated kaon beam of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron and conventional transmission-counter techniques. No evidence was found for structure in the cross section of either reaction as previously indicated near 0.7 GeV/c.
Measurements are reported of the difference ΔσL between proton-proton total cross sections for parallel and antiparallel spin states and of the parameter CLL for proton-proton elastic scattering near 90°, for thirteen energies between 300 and 800 MeV. The ΔσL results agree well with previous ANL ZGS and SIN data, but disagree with recent results from TRIUMF. Attempts to understand the cause of the discrepancy have been unsuccessful, but possible sources are discussed. The ΔσL and CLL results have been used with other experimental data to extract quantities which depend only on spin-singlet, coupled spin-triplet, and spin-triplet partial waves. Structure is found in these quantities, which appears to be associated with the resonantlike D21 and F33 partial waves. Additional similar structure is also found, which may be due either to the P03 partial wave or the (P23,F23) partial-wave pair.
ERRORS ARE STATISTICAL ONLY. THERE IS ADDITION OF 2.0 AND 2.1 PCT SYSTEMATICS.
A comparison of K±p and p±p elastic scattering is made for incident energy 50 to 175 GeV. Average values of 0.19±0.04 and 0.11±0.02 GeV2 were found for the invariant-momentum-transfer values of the Kp and pp crossover points, respectively.
KP AND PP CROSSOVER POINTS AT -T = 0.19 +- 0.04 AND 0.11 +- 0.02 GEV**2 (AVERAGE VALUES) RESPECTIVELY.