The polarization parameter in pp elastic scattering was measured at 6 GeV/ c with fine t resolution for 0.02 < − t < 0.5 GeV 2 using a polarized proton beam with Effective Mass Spectrometer at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron. The polarization rises like √− t in the interval 0.02 < − t < 0.1 GeV 2 , No statistical significant structure was found in this region of momentum transfer.
Data are presented on the polarization parameter in pp and pn elastic scattering at 11.8 GeV/c for four-momentum transfers −t=0.15 to 0.9 GeV2. In contrast to lower energies where the pn polarization is positive, it is slightly negative at 11.8 GeV/c; averaging the data from −t=0.18 to 0.5 GeV2 we find P(pn)=(−0.9±0.5)%, to be compared with P(pp)=(5.6±0.8)%. These data, combined with our previous data at lower energies, show that the I=0 single-flip exchange amplitude has an anomalously rapid energy dependence.
Left-right asymmetries from a deuterium target in a polarized-proton beam were observed with the Argonne National Laboratory effective-mass spectrometer. Results were obtained for both pp and pn elastic scattering from −t=0.15 to 1.0 GeV2 at 2, 3, 4, and 6 GeV/c. For −t≲0.6 GeV2 the pn polarization was found to have the same sign as for pp, but with faster energy dependence, the ratio P(pn)P(pp) at −t=0.3 GeV2 falling from 0.78±0.02 at 2 GeV/c to 0.22±0.03 at 6 GeV/c.
Differential cross sections for π±p, K±p, pp, and p¯p elastic scattering were measured at 3, 3.65, 5, and 6 GeVc for momentum transfers from 0.03 to 1.5 GeV2 using the Argonne effective mass spectrometer. Particular attention was paid to the relative particle-antiparticle normalization. The crossover points are consistent with no energy dependence, average values being 0.14 ± 0.03, 1.190 ± 0.005, and 0.160 ± 0.007 GeV2 for π's, K's, and protons, respectively.
Measurements of π±p, K±p, pp, and p¯p elastic scattering are presented for incident momenta of 3, 3.65, 5, and 6 GeVc and momentum transfers typically 0.03 to 1.8 GeV2. The angle and momentum of the scattered particle were measured with the Argonne Effective Mass Spectrometer for 300 000 events, yielding 930 cross-section values with an uncertainty in absolute normalization of ±4%. Only the K+ and proton data show any significant change in slope of the forward diffraction peak with incident momentum. The particle-antiparticle crossover positions are consistent with no energy dependence, average values being 0.14 ± 0.03, 0.190 ± 0.006, and 0.162 ± 0.004 GeV2 for π' s, K' s, and protons, respectively; these errors reflect both statistics and the ±1.5% uncertainty in particle-antiparticle relative normalization. Differences between particle and antiparticle cross sections isolate interference terms between amplitudes of opposite C parity in the t channel; these differences indicate that the imaginary part of the odd-C nonflip-helicity amplitude has a J0(r(−t)12) structure for −t<0.8 GeV2, as predicted by strong absorption models. The cross-section differences for K± and proton-antiproton are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of ω universality, the agreement improving with increasing energy. The corresponding quark-model predictions relating the π± and K± differences failed by more than a factor of 2. We have combined our π± cross sections with other data to better determine the πN amplitudes in a model-independent way; results of this analysis are presented.
The ratio of π+p to pp elastic scattering is found to be smoothly varying over the range −t=0.03 to 0.4 GeV2. It is well fitted by a single exponential, indicating the forward behavior must be quite similar for the two reactions.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
A comparison of K±p and p±p elastic scattering is made for incident energy 50 to 175 GeV. Average values of 0.19±0.04 and 0.11±0.02 GeV2 were found for the invariant-momentum-transfer values of the Kp and pp crossover points, respectively.
In a sample of 108 563 pictures taken with the Fermilab 30-inch hydrogen bubble chamber, exposed to a 360-GeV/c π− beam, we have observed 19 453 interactions in a selected fiducial region. The observed charged multiplicity distribution has been corrected for the effects of scan efficiency, errors in prong count, missed close-in vees, secondary interactions, and neutron stars and for Dalitz pairs. The two-prong events have been corrected for losses at low −t. The total cross section is measured to be 25.25 ± 0.35 mb, and the elastic cross section is 3.61 ± 0.11 mb with an exponential slope of (8.82 ± 0.30) (GeV/c)−2. The average charged-particle multiplicity for inelastic events is 8.73 ± 0.04, and the second moment f2 is measured to be 9.83 ± 0.23.
Cross sections or upper limits are reported for 12 meson-baryon and two baryon-baryon reactions for an incident momentum of 9.9 GeV/c, near 90° c.m.: π±p→pπ±,pp±,π+°±,K+Σ±, (Λ0/Σ0)K0; K±p→pK±; p±p→pp. By studying the flavor dependence of the different reactions, we have been able to isolate the quark-interchange mechanism as dominant over gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation.
We present preliminary results on the measurement of a variety of exclusive hadron interactions at center of mass scattering angles of 90°. Data are also presented which show the relative transparency of nuclei to πp and pp elastic scattering in this kinematic range.
The exclusive process π−p→ρ−p has been measured at 90° c.m. with an incident pion momentum of 9.9 GeV/c. We present data on the angular dependence of the decay ρ−→π−π0. We observe a strong azimuthal dependence in the decay in the c.m. helicity frame of the ρ. Such an azimuthal dependence is not compatible with SU(6) valence-quark perturbation calculations.
We report a study of 20 exclusive reactions measured at the AGS at 5.9 GeV/c incident momentum, 90° center of mass. This experiment confirms the strong quark flow dependence of two-body hadron-hadron scattering at large angle. At 9.9 GeV/c an upper limit had been set for the ratio of cross sections for (p¯p→p¯p)(pp→pp) at 90° c.m., with the ratio less than 4%. The present experiment was performed at lower energy to gain sensitivity, but was still within the fixed angle scaling region. A ratio R(p¯ppp)≈140 was measured at 5.9 GeV/c, 90° c.m. in comparison to a ratio near 1.7 for small angle scattering. In addition, many other reactions were measured, often for the first time at 90° c.m. in the scaling region, using beams of π±, K±, p, and p¯ on a hydrogen target. There are similar large differences in cross sections for other reactions: R(K−p→π+Σ−K−p→π−Σ+)≈112, for example. The relative magnitudes of the different cross sections are consistent with the dominance of quark interchange in these 90° reactions, and indicate that pure gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams are much less important. The angular dependence of several elastic cross sections and the energy dependence at a fixed angle of many of the reactions are also presented.