The logarithmic slope of the differentical cross section for K ± p elastic scattering at 10 and 14 GeV, and for π ± p and p ± p at 10GeV has been measured. Rich structure is observed in the forward slope for all processes, which is well accounted for by the properties of a peripheral exchange amplitude for the nonexotic reactions, and by a peripheral component of the diffractive amplitude as clearly seen in the exotic processes, K ± p and pp.
GRAPH OF D(SIG)/DT.
SLOPE AS A FUNCTION OF T.
The differential cross section for K ± p elastic scattering has been measured in the very low t region (0.003 < t < 0.2 GeV 2 ) in a wire chamber spectrometer experiment at 10.4 and 14 GeV/ c . The interference effect observed between the Coulomb and the nuclear interaction has been used to determine α, the ratio of real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude. At 10.4 GeV/ c we measure α (K + p) = −0.21 ± 0.06 and α (K − p = 0.08 ± 0.04, and at 14 GeV/ c , α (K + p) = − 0.13 ± 0.03 and α (K − p) = 0.000 ± 0.04 in agreeement with the predictions of dispersion theory calculation.
Differential cross sections in the t -range between 0.02 and 1.5 GeV 2 have been measured for the elastic scattering of particles and antiparticles on protons at 6.4, 10.4 and 14 GeV for K ± p and 10.4 GeV for π ± p and p ± p . Large statistics have been achieved and systematic uncertainties have been minimized. The relative systematic uncertainty between particle and antiparticle data is less than 0.5%. Accurate measurements of the position of the first crossover between particle and antiparticle differential cross sections have been performed. As the energy increases from 6.4 to 14 GeV the K ± p crossover moves to smaller values by 0.010 GeV 2 with a statistical error of 0.006 GeV 2 and a systematic uncertainty of 0.005 GeV 2 . The crossover positions at 10.4 GeV for π ± , K ± and p ± scale approximately with the interaction radii.
CROSSOVER POSITION IS -T = 0.209 +- 0.004 (DSYS = 0.003) GEV**2.
CROSSOVER POSITION IS -T = 0.209 +- 0.004 (DSYS = 0.003) GEV**2. SMALL ANGLE CROSS SECTIONS IN SMALLER T-BINS.
CROSSOVER POSITION IS -T = 0.211 +- 0.004 (DSYS = 0.0025) GEV**2.
Total and differential cross sections for π−p elastic scattering are presented at 35 energies between 1400 and 2000 MeV.
In this paper we present the π + p differential elastic scattering cross sections at five momenta between 0.6 and 0.8 GeV/ c . The data were collected in a bubble chamber exposure and consequently are susceptible to different systematic errors from counter experiments. Our results are generally in good agreement with those of counter experiments in the same momentum range and with the predictions of the various elastic partial wave analyses. The majority of partial wave analyses do not however yield parameters which fit our data in detail without modification.
The angular distributions of the reactions K - p → K - p and K - p → K K 0 n have been measured at 23 incident K - momenta between 1.136 and 1.798 ifGeV/c using the bubble chamber technique. These data, together with other published data on the same reactions, including K - p polarisations, K̄N total cross sections, and measurements of Re ƒ(0)/ Im ƒ(0) , have been analysed in terms of partial-wave amplitudes. Resonance behaviour is confirmed for the P 03 partial wave at 1890 MeV. The resonance parameters of the F 15 (1915), F 17 (2030) and G 07 (2100) have been redetermined. No evidence has been found for new resonances coupling significantly to K K N in the energy region explored.
The polarization parameter in π±p elastic scattering has been measured at several momenta in the range 2.50-5.15 GeV/c pion laboratory momentum and covering the range in t approximately from -0.2 to -2.0(GeV/c)2. The data show positive polarization for π±p scattering, having a dip near t=−0.6 (GeV/c)2 and becoming relatively large at greater values of −t. The results for π+ and π− scattering are approximately equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. The data have been analyzed to separate the components, which are symmetric and antisymmetric with respect to pion charge, and to show both the t and s dependence of each part.
The analyzing power A in 28-GeV/c proton-proton elastic scattering was measured with a polarized proton target and a high-intensity unpolarized proton beam at the Brook-haven National Laboratory alternating-gradient synchrotron. The P⊥2 range of 2.85 to 5.95 (GeV/c)2 was covered with good precision. A small dip of about -3.5% was found near P⊥2=3.5 (GeV/c)2 where a 24-GeV/c CERN experiment had reported a deep dip of about -16% with large errors. In the previously unexplored large-P⊥2 region near 6 (GeV/c)2 these new large-error points suggest that A may be rising.
Measurements of the polarization in pp elastic scattering have been made at 5.15 GeV/c over the range −t=0.2 to 1.8 (GeV/c)2. The data are compared with a Regge-pole model, and with the diffraction model of Durand and Lipes in which the absorptive part of the pp interaction is derived from the electromagnetic form factor of the proton. The latter model reproduces the t dependence of the experimental data in a qualitative way.
In an experiment at the Argonne Zero-Gradient Synchrotron we have measured values of the polarization parameter P(t) in the elastic scattering of negative pions, positive pions, positive kaons, and protons on protons at several incident laboratory momenta from 2.50 to 5.15 GeVc, and for values of the momentum transfer variable −t from 0.2 to 2.0 (GeVc)2. The final results from p−p elastic scattering presented here extend our knowledge of the polarization to much larger values of −t than the results of previous measurements. Outstanding features revealed by these polarization data include (1) the development of a dip at about −t=0.7 (GeVc)2, with (2) a substantial secondary peak at larger values of −t and (3) the gradual diminution of the maximum polarization with increasing energy. It is possible to fit the t dependence of the experimental results with a simple model. The energy dependence of the polarized cross sections is also discussed.
The analyzing power in 28 GeV/c proton/proton elastic scattering was measured at P2∥=5.95 and 6.56 (GeV/c)2 using a polarized proton target and an unpolarized proton beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. Results indicate that the analyzing power, A, is rising sharply with P2∥.
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering at bombarding energies below the Δ(1232) resonance were measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a polarized spin target. This work presents π− data at six incident energies of 57, 67, 87, 98, 117, and 139 MeV, and a single π+ data set at 139 MeV. The higher energy measurements cover an angular range of 72°<~θc.m.<~180° while the lower energies were limited to 101°<~θc.m.<~180°. There is a high degree of consistency between this work and the predictions of the VPI/GWU group’s SM95 partial wave analysis.
Analysing power measurements for a 139 GeV PI+ beam (standard track).
Analysing power measurements for a 139 GeV PI- beam (standard track).
Analysing power measurements for a 117 GeV PI- beam (standard track).
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering were measured using the CHAOS spectrometer at energies spanning the Δ(1232) resonance. This work presents π+ data at the pion kinetic energies 117, 130, 139, 155, 169, 180, 193, 218, 241, and 267 MeV and π− data at 87, 117, 193, and 241 MeV, covering an angular range of 50°<~θc.m.<~180° at the higher energies and 90°<~θc.m.<~180° at the lower energies. Unique features of the spectrometer acceptance were employed to reduce systematic errors. Single-energy phase shift analyses indicate the resulting S11 and S31 phases favor the results of the SM95 phase shift analysis over that of the older KH80 analysis.
Measurement of the PI+ analysing power at 117 MeV.. The data were collected in the conventional mode and may be independently floated within the systematic error.
Measurement of the PI+ analysing power at 139 MeV.. The data were collected in the conventional mode and may be independently floated within the systematic error.
Measurement of the PI- analysing power at 87 MeV.. The data were collected in the conventional mode and may be independently floated within the systematic error.
Angular distributions of the analyzing powers for π+p→ and π−p→ elastic scattering have been measured in a single-scattering experiment employing a polarized proton target. Measurements were obtained for pion energies of 98, 139, 166, 215, and 263 MeV. The addition of these data to the existing πp database significantly reduces the uncertainties in all S and P phase shifts for πp reactions over the delta resonance.
Measured values of the analyzing power for PI+ P elastic scattering at incident kinetic energy 98 MeV.
Measured values of the analyzing power for PI+ P elastic scattering at incident kinetic energy 139 MeV.
Measured values of the analyzing power for PI+ P elastic scattering at incident kinetic energy 166 MeV.
The polarization parameter in pp elastic scattering was measured at 6 GeV/ c with fine t resolution for 0.02 < − t < 0.5 GeV 2 using a polarized proton beam with Effective Mass Spectrometer at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron. The polarization rises like √− t in the interval 0.02 < − t < 0.1 GeV 2 , No statistical significant structure was found in this region of momentum transfer.
Accelerating polarized protons to 22 GeV/c at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchro- tron required both extensive hardware modifications and a difficult commissioning process. We had to overcome 45 strong depolarizing resonances to maintain polarization up to 22 GeV/c in this strong-focusing synchrotron. At 18.5 GeV/c we measured the analyzing power A and the spin-spin correlation parameter Ann in large- P⊥2 proton-proton elastic scattering, using the polarized proton beam and a polarized proton target. We also obtained a high-precision measurement of A at P⊥2=0.3 (GeV/c)2 at 13.3 GeV/c. At 18.5 GeV/c we found that Ann=(-2±16)% at P⊥2=4.7 (GeV/c)2, where it was about 60% near 12 GeV at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron. This sharp change suggests that spin-spin forces may have a strong and unexpected energy dependence at high P⊥2.
2.2 GeV point taken from Brown et al., PR D31(85) 3017.
Using the new Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron polarized proton beam and our polarized proton target, we measured the spin-spin correlation parameter Ann in 16.5-GeV/c proton-proton elastic scattering. We found an Ann of (6.1±3.0)% at P⊥2=2.2 (GeV/c)2. We also measured the analyzing power A in two independent ways, providing a good test of possible experimental errors. Comparing our new data with 12-GeV Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron data shows no evidence for strong energy dependence in Ann in this medium-P⊥2 region.
ERROR CONTAINS BOTH SYSTEMATIC AND STATISTICAL UNCERTAINTY.
The K − p differential and total elastic cross-sections have been measured at 14.25 GeV/ c . The results have been compared with various Regge models.
We have measured π±p and pp elastic differential cross sections in the range |cosθc.m.|<0.35 for incident momenta from 2 to 9.7 GeV/c for π−p and pp and from 2 to 6.3 GeV/c for π+p. We find that the fixed-c.m.-angle πp differential cross sections cannot be described as simple functions of s. The data are compared to the energy and angular dependence predicted by the constituent model of Gunion, Brodsky, and Blankenbecler.
A comprehensive measurement of the differential cross section for π±p and pp elastic scattering has been made at large center-of-mass angles. π−p and pp scattering were measured with incident laboratory momenta ranging from 2 to 9.5 GeV/c. π+p scattering was measured with momenta from 2 to 6.3 GeV/c. Scattering angles were in the range −0.3≲cosθc.m.≲0.4. The results of the experiment are compared to constituent models and statistical models.
Differential cross sections for π−p elastic scattering over the angular range 155° to 177° in the center-of-mass system have been measured at 33 incident pion momenta in the range 600 to 1280 MeV/c. The experiment, which was performed at the Bevatron at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, employed a liquid hydrogen target, a double-arm spectrometer, and standard counter techniques to detect the elastic events. The data from this experiment are compared to all other published data in this momentum region. The over-all agreement is good. The data of this experiment are also compared with the results of the recent phase-shift analysis by Almehed and Lovelace. In the momentum region between 700 and 900 MeV/c, the slope of the backward angular distribution goes rapidly through zero from negative to positive, and the magnitude of the differential cross section falls by more than a factor of 10. Momentum-dependent structure is seen in the extrapolated differential cross sections at 180°. Two prominent dips in the 180° differential cross sections appear at 880 and 1150 MeV/c. This structure is discussed in terms of a direct-channel resonance model that assumes only resonant partial waves are contributing to the cross sections for large scattering angles.
As part of a program of measurements of the πp system we have measured the backward differential cross section for π+p elastic scattering at 16 momenta from 1.25 to 2.0 GeV/c inclusive. The angular region covered is -0.46 to -0.97 in cosθc.m.. The high resolution in u of 0.03 to 0.04 (GeV/c)2, together with good statistics, enables a detailed examination of the momentum and angular dependence of structure in this channel. The data are compared with distributions from other experiments and with the most recent phaseshift fit.
We have measured the backward differential cross section in π−p elastic scattering at 31 momenta from 1.28 to 3.0 GeV/c. These measurements covered the center-of-mass angular range of 125°-178° corresponding to −0.570≲cosθc.m.≲−0.999. Considerable structure in the angular distribution is found. We compare these data with data from other experimets and to predictions made by the latest phase-shift solution. We find, in general, good agreement with other data in the few regions of overlap. The fits from the phase-shift solution do not accurately reproduce these data at low momenta below 1.9 GeV/c but give excellent agreement above this momentum.
The differential cross sections for π−p elastic scattering over the angular range 155° to 177° in the center of mass have been measured at 33 incident-pion momenta in the range 600 to 1280 MeV/c. Angular distributions are presented. The extrapolated differential cross sections at 180° show considerable structure, in particular a dip near 1150 MeV/c. In general the near-180° cross sections do not agree with existing phase shift solutions above 1000 MeV/c
The polarization and the differential cross section in π−p elastic scattering have been measured at incident pion laboratory momenta of 1.70, 1.88, 2.07, 2.27, and 2.50 GeV/c. The experiment was carried out at the Argonne zero-gradient synchrotron with a polarized proton target. Details of the apparatus and data analysis are presented here together with the final results. A partial-wave analysis of the data has verified the JP=72+ assignment for the Δ(1950) and established a JP=72− assignment for the N(2190). It does not support a JP=112+ assignment for the Δ(2460), nor does it give support for some of the possible resonances found in the CERN phase-shift analysis. Apart from the resonance behavior, the partial-wave analysis reveals several new features. We find a striking correlation among the various partial-wave amplitudes at the highest energy, which is different for J=l+12 and J=l−12. In addition, several fixed-(−t) features of high-energy scattering emerge in the energy region of this analysis.