The ratio of π+p to pp elastic scattering is found to be smoothly varying over the range −t=0.03 to 0.4 GeV2. It is well fitted by a single exponential, indicating the forward behavior must be quite similar for the two reactions.
The differential cross section has been measured at 30, 50, 80, 100, 120 and 140 GeV/ c for 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 ( GeV / c ) 2 . The results show that the π − p real part goes from negative to positive values below 80 GeV/ c . The slope parameter in the t -region measured is significantly higher than what has been found − t = 0.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
Differential cross-sections for pp elastic scattering in the transfer momentum range 2 x 10 −3 ⩽ | t | ⩽ x 8 10 −3 (GeV/ c ) 2 were studied with a hydrogen filled ionization chamber which was used as a target and as a detector of the recoiled protons. The measurements have been done at P lab . = 1.11 GeV/ c , 1.28 GeV/ c , 1.34 GeV/ c , 1.40 GeV/ c and 1.70 GeV/ c . The real part of the spin independent forward scattering amplitude has been determined, the results being in agreement with the dispersion relation calculations.
The absolute normalisation of the polarisation in pp elastic scattering at 24 degrees lab has been determined by means of a double-scattering experiment to an accuracy of +or-1.5% at five energies between 200 and 520 MeV.
In a sample of 108 563 pictures taken with the Fermilab 30-inch hydrogen bubble chamber, exposed to a 360-GeV/c π− beam, we have observed 19 453 interactions in a selected fiducial region. The observed charged multiplicity distribution has been corrected for the effects of scan efficiency, errors in prong count, missed close-in vees, secondary interactions, and neutron stars and for Dalitz pairs. The two-prong events have been corrected for losses at low −t. The total cross section is measured to be 25.25 ± 0.35 mb, and the elastic cross section is 3.61 ± 0.11 mb with an exponential slope of (8.82 ± 0.30) (GeV/c)−2. The average charged-particle multiplicity for inelastic events is 8.73 ± 0.04, and the second moment f2 is measured to be 9.83 ± 0.23.
The polarization of the recoil proton has been measured in both high-energy elastic and inclusive proton-proton scattering at the internal-target area of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The polarization in elastic scattering was measured at a number of center-of-mass energies up to s=19.7 GeV. Indications of negative polarization were seen at the higher center-of-mass energies for t values of -0.6, -0.8, and -1.0 (GeV/c)2. In the inclusive process p+p→p↑+X the polarization was found to be independent of beam energy from 100 to 400 GeV for xF values of -0.7, -0.8, -0.9. The polarization at PT=1.0 GeV/c, xF=−0.7 and xF=−0.8 was less than 2.5%. This is significantly lower than the corresponding measurements reported for Λ0 inclusive polarization.
Differential cross sections for π − p and pp elastic scattering have been measured at incident momenta ranging from 30 to 345 GeV and in the t range 0.002 (GeV/ c ) 2 ⩽ | t | ⩽ 0.04 (GeV/ c ) 2 . From the analysis of the data, the ratio ϱ ( t = 0) of the real to the imaginary parts of the forward scattering amplitude was determined together with the logarithmic slope b of the diffraction cone.
The parameters D, R, R' and P for pp elastic scattering have been measured in the centre-of-mass angular range 13 degrees to 58 degrees with an accuracy of about +or-0.02 at 209, 324, 379, 425 and 515 MeV. These results are incorporated with earlier data into a phase-shift analysis. Phase-shifts are generally in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the Paris group, although the F-wave spin-orbit combination is rather stronger than predicted. The fitted value for the pi 0pp coupling constant in g02=14.06+or-0.65.
We report measured values of the asymmetry in the elastic scattering of K+ mesons from polarized protons. The data were obtained at fourteen incident K+ momenta from 1.33 to 2.58 GeVc; the approximate angular range covered was −0.85<cosθKc.m.<0.9. We compare our results with other available measurements and note several significant differences.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
The differential cross section for K+p elastic scattering has been measured at several momenta in the interval 200-600 MeV/c within a hydrogen bubble chamber. The data have been fitted with a partial-wave analysis. We obtain solutions which are dominated over the entire momentum range by s-wave scattering, with constructive interference between the nuclear and Coulomb scattering. The effective-range approximation with only s waves yields a K+p scattering length a=−0.314±0.007 F and an effective range r0=0.36±0.007 F. The measured total inelastic cross section at 588 MeV/c is 11−5+9 μb.
Differential cross sections for elastic K + p scattering have been measured at nineteen momenta between 0.7 and 1.9 GeV/ c . The data represent between 10 thousand and 20 thousand elastic events at each momentum and cover a wide range of scattering angles ( −0.98 ≲ cos θ ∗ ≲ 0.95 ). A computer controlled system of scintillation counters and acoustic spark chambers was used to detect the elastic events. Various internal consistency checks indicate that the absolute normalization of the data is accurate to within 2–3%. The cross sections show a smooth transition from an isotropic angular distribution to a dominant forward peak over the range covered by the experiment. Phase-shift analyses including these results show little evidence for a direct-channel resonance, and fitting the results by t - and u -channel exchange processes alone gives a good fit.
A comparison of K±p and p±p elastic scattering is made for incident energy 50 to 175 GeV. Average values of 0.19±0.04 and 0.11±0.02 GeV2 were found for the invariant-momentum-transfer values of the Kp and pp crossover points, respectively.
Results are presented on elastic scattering of 10.1 GeV/ c K − mesons on protons, based on a sample of 16 261 kinematically-fitted bubble-chamber events. The differential cross section is given over the | t |- range of 0.06 to 2.5 GeV 2 and is fitted with the expressions a e bt , A e Bt + Ct 2 and ( P e Qt + Re St ) over various intervals of t . The results are compared with those of other experiments at nearby energies. Upper limits of | α | < 0.28 and σ B < 0.4 μ b (both at a 90% confidence level) are given for the ratio of real to imaginary part of the forward-scattering amplitude and the backward-elastic-scattering cross section, respectively.
Absolute differential cross sections for pp elastic scattering have been measured at kinetic energies of 648, 746, 795, 843, 892, 942 and 992 MeV and for momentum transfer 0.006 < z . sfnctz . sfnc <0.040 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Both scattered and recoil protons were detected in coincidence. The slope parameters of the diffraction cone and the contribution of the spin-spin amplitudes to forward elastic pp scattering were determined.
Results are presented on the topological cross sections obtained for antiproton-proton interactions from an exposure of the Fermilab 30-inch bubble chamber to a 100 GeV/ c negative beam enriched in p 's. The p p inelastic cross section is found to be σ inel = 34.6 ± 0.4 mb, and the average inelastic charged particle multiplicity to be 〈 n 〉 = 6.74 ± 0.05.
The Brookhaven National Laboratory twenty-inch liquid hydrogen bubble chamber was exposed to a monoenergetic beam of 2.85-Bev protons, elastically scattered from a carbon target in the internal beam of the Cosmotron. All two-prong events, excluding strange particle events, have been studied by the Yale High-Energy Group. The remaining interactions have been studied by the Brookhaven Bubble Chamber Group. Elastic scattering was found to be mostly pure diffraction scattering at center-of-mass angles up to about thirty-five degrees. Some phase shift and/or tapering of the proton edge was required to fit the data at larger angles. No polarization effects in the proton-carbon scattering were observed using hydrogen as an analyzer of polarized protons. Nucleonic isobar formation in the T=32, J=32 state was found to account for a large part of single pion production. High-orbital angular-momentum states were found to be greatly favored in single pion production. The isobar model of Lindenbaum and Sternheimer gave good agreement with the observed nucleon and pion energy spectra. No polarization or alignment effects were observed for the isobar assumed in this model.