Left-right asymmetries from a deuterium target in a polarized-proton beam were observed with the Argonne National Laboratory effective-mass spectrometer. Results were obtained for both pp and pn elastic scattering from −t=0.15 to 1.0 GeV2 at 2, 3, 4, and 6 GeV/c. For −t≲0.6 GeV2 the pn polarization was found to have the same sign as for pp, but with faster energy dependence, the ratio P(pn)P(pp) at −t=0.3 GeV2 falling from 0.78±0.02 at 2 GeV/c to 0.22±0.03 at 6 GeV/c.
Data are presented on the polarization parameter in pp and pn elastic scattering at 11.8 GeV/c for four-momentum transfers −t=0.15 to 0.9 GeV2. In contrast to lower energies where the pn polarization is positive, it is slightly negative at 11.8 GeV/c; averaging the data from −t=0.18 to 0.5 GeV2 we find P(pn)=(−0.9±0.5)%, to be compared with P(pp)=(5.6±0.8)%. These data, combined with our previous data at lower energies, show that the I=0 single-flip exchange amplitude has an anomalously rapid energy dependence.
The polarization parameter in pp elastic scattering was measured at 6 GeV/ c with fine t resolution for 0.02 < − t < 0.5 GeV 2 using a polarized proton beam with Effective Mass Spectrometer at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron. The polarization rises like √− t in the interval 0.02 < − t < 0.1 GeV 2 , No statistical significant structure was found in this region of momentum transfer.
Differential cross sections for π±p, K±p, pp, and p¯p elastic scattering were measured at 3, 3.65, 5, and 6 GeVc for momentum transfers from 0.03 to 1.5 GeV2 using the Argonne effective mass spectrometer. Particular attention was paid to the relative particle-antiparticle normalization. The crossover points are consistent with no energy dependence, average values being 0.14 ± 0.03, 1.190 ± 0.005, and 0.160 ± 0.007 GeV2 for π's, K's, and protons, respectively.
Measurements of π±p, K±p, pp, and p¯p elastic scattering are presented for incident momenta of 3, 3.65, 5, and 6 GeVc and momentum transfers typically 0.03 to 1.8 GeV2. The angle and momentum of the scattered particle were measured with the Argonne Effective Mass Spectrometer for 300 000 events, yielding 930 cross-section values with an uncertainty in absolute normalization of ±4%. Only the K+ and proton data show any significant change in slope of the forward diffraction peak with incident momentum. The particle-antiparticle crossover positions are consistent with no energy dependence, average values being 0.14 ± 0.03, 0.190 ± 0.006, and 0.162 ± 0.004 GeV2 for π' s, K' s, and protons, respectively; these errors reflect both statistics and the ±1.5% uncertainty in particle-antiparticle relative normalization. Differences between particle and antiparticle cross sections isolate interference terms between amplitudes of opposite C parity in the t channel; these differences indicate that the imaginary part of the odd-C nonflip-helicity amplitude has a J0(r(−t)12) structure for −t<0.8 GeV2, as predicted by strong absorption models. The cross-section differences for K± and proton-antiproton are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of ω universality, the agreement improving with increasing energy. The corresponding quark-model predictions relating the π± and K± differences failed by more than a factor of 2. We have combined our π± cross sections with other data to better determine the πN amplitudes in a model-independent way; results of this analysis are presented.
THE ERRORS INCLUDE THE UNCERTAINTIES IN THE FIT PARAMETERS SLOPE AND SIG, WHILE THE PURELY STATISTICAL ERRORS ARE ALSO GIVEN.
The slope b(s) of the forward diffraction peak of p−p elastic scattering has been measured in the momentum-transfer-squared range 0.005≲|t|≲0.09 (GeV/c)2 and at incident proton energies from 8 to 400 GeV. We find that b(s) increases with s, and in the interval 100≲s≲750 (GeV)2 it can be fitted by the form b(s)=b0+2α′lns with b0=8.23±0.27, α′=0.278±0.024 (GeV/c)−2.
MOMENTUM BINS ARE APPROX 20 GEV WIDE CENTRED AT THE GIVEN PLAB EXCEPT FOR THE 9 AND 12 GEV POINTS WHICH HAVE WIDTHS OF APPROX 1 AND 4 GEV RESPECTIVELY.
From measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering at very small momentum transfers where the nuclear and Coulomb amplitudes interfere, we have deduced values of ρ, the ratio of the real to the imaginary forward nuclear amplitude, for energies from 50 to 400 GeV. We find that ρ increases from -0.157 ± 0.012 at 51.5 GeV to +0.039 ± 0.012 at 393 GeV, crossing zero at 280 ± 60 GeV.
The analyzing power, A, was measured in proton-proton elastic scattering with use of a polarized proton target and 28-GeV/c primary protons from the alternating-gradient synchrotron. Over the P⊥2 range of 0.5 to 2.8 (GeV/c)2, the data show interesting structure. There is a rather sharp dip at P⊥2=0.8 (GeV/c)2 corresponding to the break in the elastic differential cross section at the end of the diffraction peak.
The energy dependence of the spin-parallel and spin-antiparallel cross sections for p↑+p↑→p+p at 90°c.m. was measured for beam momenta between 6 and 12.75 GeV/c. The ratio (dσdt)parallel:(dσdt)antiparallel at 90° is about 1.2 up to 8 GeV/c and then increases rapidly to a value of almost 4 near 11 GeV/c. Our data indicate that this ratio may depend only on the variable P⊥2, and suggests that the ratio may reach a limiting value of about 4 for large P⊥2.