Data are presented on elastic πp and Kp scattering for values of −t up to 2.5 and 3.5 (GeV/c)2 at incident momenta of 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. All of the cross sections are found to be nearly identical, although there is some momentum dependence of the π+p data; a small systematic difference observed between pion and kaon data cannot be explained by geometrical scaling.
We present here the results of an experiment to study the polarization in p−p elastic scattering at the incident momenta 5.15, 7.00, and 12.33 Ge V/c, at t values ranging between - 0.5 and - 6.5 (GeV/c)2. At each momentum we observe a relative maximum in the polarization around t=−1.8 (GeV/c)2. At 12.33 GeV/c the data exhibit a double zero near t=−2.4 (GeV/c)2 and another relative maximum near t=−2.9 (GeV/c)2. The results are discussed in terms of the Chu-Hendry optical model.
We present herein the initial results of a large-angle elastic p−p polarization experiment which is now in progress at the Argonne ZGS (Zero-Gradient Synchrotron) accelerator. Data for the incident proton momentum of 5.15 GeVc are presented for 30∘≲θc.m.≲90∘. These results, which extend to t≈−4.0(GeVc)2, represent the first high-statistics p−p polarization measurements for |t| values greater than ∼2.5 (GeVc)2. We observe a minimum in the polarization near t=−0.8(GeVc)2, a smooth increase in the polarization until a maximum is attained near t=−1.8(GeVc)2, and then a monotonic decline in the polarization until the value of zero is reached at θc.m.=90∘. The data are analyzed in terms of an optical model.
New results are presented from the continuation of an experiment designed to study the polarization in elastic p−p scattering at large four-momentum transfers. A high-intensity unpolarized proton beam of momentum 12.3 GeV/c was incident on a propanediol polarized proton target and both final-state protons were detected and momentum-analyzed in multiwire proportional chamber spectrometers. The measurements spanned the t range 1.5<|t|<6.2 (GeV/c)2. The results are discussed in the framework of optical, exchange, and parton models.
The polarization parameter in pp elastic scattering was measured at 6 GeV/ c with fine t resolution for 0.02 < − t < 0.5 GeV 2 using a polarized proton beam with Effective Mass Spectrometer at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron. The polarization rises like √− t in the interval 0.02 < − t < 0.1 GeV 2 , No statistical significant structure was found in this region of momentum transfer.
The polarization of the recoil proton has been measured in both high-energy elastic and inclusive proton-proton scattering at the internal-target area of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The polarization in elastic scattering was measured at a number of center-of-mass energies up to s=19.7 GeV. Indications of negative polarization were seen at the higher center-of-mass energies for t values of -0.6, -0.8, and -1.0 (GeV/c)2. In the inclusive process p+p→p↑+X the polarization was found to be independent of beam energy from 100 to 400 GeV for xF values of -0.7, -0.8, -0.9. The polarization at PT=1.0 GeV/c, xF=−0.7 and xF=−0.8 was less than 2.5%. This is significantly lower than the corresponding measurements reported for Λ0 inclusive polarization.
Results are presented from an experiment designed to make the first systematic study of the depolarization parameter in elastic proton-proton scattering at high energies. Measurements were made at 3.0 and 6.0 GeV/c at |t| values extending to 1.7 (GeV/c)2 at the higher momentum. A high-intensity unpolarized proton beam was incident on a polarized proton target and the polarization of the elastically scattered recoil protons was determined with a carbon analyzer. The results are discussed in the framework of optical and exchange models.
Results are presented on π±p, K±p, and p±p elastic scattering measured with an apparatus having acceptance of 0.5<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2 and 0.9<−t<11 (GeV/c)2 at 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. A diffractionlike dip is seen for the first time in the π−p t distribution at −t=4 (GeV/c)2. All meson-proton cross sections are found to be similar in the range 1<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2, although some small systematic differences are observed. Cross sections for pp and p―p are compared with previous data.
Differential cross sections are presented for pion-proton elastic scattering in the angular range −0.6≳cosθc.m.≳−0.98 at 15 incident π+ momenta from 2.18−5.25 GeVc. The angular distributions rise steeply near 180° at all momenta. For laboratory momenta ≳2.75 GeVc they show a minimum at u≈−0.17 (GeVc)2 and a broad maximum near u≈−0.6 (GeVc)2. When the data are plotted versus s, for fixed u, a strong signal from the Δ(2420) resonance is observed. The data are compared with a direct-channel resonance model and with a Regge model which considers the exchange of the Nα, Nγ, and Δδ Regge trajectories. The qualitative success of both the direct-channel resonance model and the Regge model lends support to the concept of duality.
Measurements of π±p backward elastic scattering have been made for incident pion momenta between 30 and 90 GeV/c and for 0<−u<0.5 (GeV/c)2. The momentum dependence of the cross sections is of a form expected from a simple Regge model, and the u dependence of the cross sections is similar to that observed at lower momenta.
Results are presented on the measurement of 200-GeV/c π−p elastic scattering at −t from 0.8 to 11 (GeV/c)2. As −t is increased, dσdt falls by ∼6 decades to a prominent dip at 4 (GeV/c)2, followed by a second maximum and than a slow decrease with increasing −t.
This paper presents differential cross sections for backward π−p elastic scattering in the angular region −0.55≥cosθc.m.≥−0.98 for five incident momenta: 2.38, 2.50, 2.65, 2.80, and 3.00 GeV/c. The structure of the angular distribution undergoes a marked change over this momentum interval. A pronounced dip near 180°, which is seen for momenta ≲2.50 GeV/c, becomes a sharp peak at 2.80 and 3.00 GeV/c. A minimum in the cross section at cosθc.m.≃−0.7 is indicated at all momenta. In addition, a dip in the differential cross section appears at cosθc.m.≃−0.92 at 3.00 GeV/c. A good fit to the data from 2.1 to 3.0 GeV/c is obtained with a direct-channel resonance model.
Backward elastic scattering of π± on protons has been measured for incident pion momenta between 30 and 90 GeV/c and 0≤−u≤0.5 (GeV/c)2. The u dependence of the cross sections is similar to that observed at lower momenta, and Regge models give acceptable fits to the data.
The differential cross section for π±−p elastic scattering at 180° was measured from 0.572 to 1.628 GeVc using a double-arm scintillation-counter spectrometer with an angular acceptance θ* in the center-of-mass system defined by −1.00≤cosθ*≤−0.9992. The π+−p cross section exhibits a large dip at 0.737 GeVc and a broad peak centered near 1.31 GeVc. The π−−p cross section exhibits peaks at 0.69, 0.97, and 1.43 GeVc.
Differential cross sections have been measured for p¯p→π−π+ (1) and its line-reversed partner π+p→pπ+ (2) in the range tmin>t>−1.5 (GeV/c)2 at 6 GeV/c. Clear structure is seen in the differential cross section for Reaction (1) at t∼−0.4 (GeV/c)2. However, this feature is quite different from the striking dip seen in (2) at t∼−0.15 (GeV/c)2, indicating a failure of line reversal and disagreement with simple Regge models.
Results are reported based on a study of π − p interactions at 147 GeV/ c in the FERMILAB 30-inch Proportional Wire Hybrid Bubble Chamber System. We have measured the topological cross sections and separated two-prong elastic and inelastic channels. In addition, we have extracted leading particle cross sections using the increased momentum resolution of the downstream proportional wire chambers. We have compared our results with experiments and predictions of a simple fragmentation hyphothesis.
K+p and K+d total cross sections were measured in the momentum range 0.57-1.16 GeV/c using a secondary, separated kaon beam of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron and conventional transmission-counter techniques. No evidence was found for structure in the cross section of either reaction as previously indicated near 0.7 GeV/c.
In a single-arm spectrometer experiment, high-precision measurements of dσdt for π−p, K−p, and p¯p elastic scattering have been made at 8 and 16 GeV/c. The π−p data show rich structure at 8 GeV/c, indicative of strong non-Pomeron contributions, while the 16-GeV/c data are much smoother. For −t≳1 (GeV/c)2 there is a strong s dependence while there is very little for −t<1 (GeV/c)2. For p¯p scattering the forward region is smoothly diffractive for −t<0.4 (GeV/c)2 and shows antishrinkage. The exponential slope parameter b is measured to be 12.36 ± 0.04 (GeV/c)−2 at 8 GeV/c and 11.40 ± 0.04 (GeV/c)−2 at 16 GeV/c. The structure near −t=0.6 (GeV/c)2 seen at lower energies is still obvious at 16 GeV/c. The K−p data show some structure at 8 GeV/c, but can be represented adequately by a quadratic exponential form. At 16 GeV/c the K−p angular distribution shows antishrinkage and lies above the 8-GeV/c cross section for 0.11<−t<0.8 (GeV/c)2.
Elastic diffraction scattering of π − , K − and p on protons has been measured at 25 and 40 GeV/c at the Serpukhov Proton Accelerator. Differential elastic cross sections and diffraction slopes are presented in the momentum-transfer interval 0.07–0.80 (GeV/ c ) 2 and compared with existing data at lower energies.
Ilford G-5 emulsions were exposed to an external, 3.5 GeY proton beam of the Berkeley Bevatron. A total of 1200 nuclear interactions of beam protons was located, of which 128 were identified as protonproton collisions. Multiple scattering, blob density, range and angle measurements were employed to determine the cross-sections for elastic and inelastic interactions as well as the identities and center-of-mass system momenta and scattering angles of secondaries from inelastic proton-proton interactions. This analysis indicates a cross-section of (8.0±2.4) mb for elastic events, (24.1±2.9) mb for two-prong inelasitc events, (7.9±1.4)mb for four-prong events and (0.6±0.3) mb for sixprong events. The mean charged pion multiplicity in inelastic interactions is 1.5±0.2 and corresponds to an average degree of inelasticity of 0.45 ±0.06. Center-of-mass system angular distributions of charged secondaries from inelastic events display a peaking for small scattering angles which is most pronounced for protons and pions from events with low secondary multiplicity. Momentum and transverse momentum distributions of secondary protons and pions from inelastic events are presented and compared with the results at other energies. The angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is found to be in fair agreement with that predicted by a uniform optical model of radius 1.25-10-13 cm and opacity 0.66.
Elastic and inelastic 19.8 GeV/c proton-proton collisions in nuclear emulsion are examined using an external proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. Multiple scattering, blob density, range and angle measurements give the momentum spectra and angular distributions of secondary protons and pions. The partial cross-sections corresponding to inelastic interactions having two, four, six, eight, ten and twelve charged secondaries are found to be, respectively, (16.3±8.4) mb, (11.5 ± 6.0) mb, (4.3 ± 2.5) mb, (1.9 ± 1.3) mb, (0.5 ± 0.5) mb and (0.5±0.5)mb. The elastic cross-section is estimated to be (4.3±2.5) mb. The mean charged meson multiplicity for inelastic events is 3.7±0.5 and the average degree of inelasticity is 0.35±0.09. Strong forward and backward peaking is observed in the center-of-mass system for both secondary charged pions and protons. Distributions of energy, momentum and transverse momentum for identified charged secondaries are presented and compared with the results of work at other energies and with the results of a statistical theory of proton-proton collisions.