The ratio of π+p to pp elastic scattering is found to be smoothly varying over the range −t=0.03 to 0.4 GeV2. It is well fitted by a single exponential, indicating the forward behavior must be quite similar for the two reactions.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
A comparison of K±p and p±p elastic scattering is made for incident energy 50 to 175 GeV. Average values of 0.19±0.04 and 0.11±0.02 GeV2 were found for the invariant-momentum-transfer values of the Kp and pp crossover points, respectively.
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering at bombarding energies below the Δ(1232) resonance were measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a polarized spin target. This work presents π− data at six incident energies of 57, 67, 87, 98, 117, and 139 MeV, and a single π+ data set at 139 MeV. The higher energy measurements cover an angular range of 72°<~θc.m.<~180° while the lower energies were limited to 101°<~θc.m.<~180°. There is a high degree of consistency between this work and the predictions of the VPI/GWU group’s SM95 partial wave analysis.
Analyzing powers for π−p elastic scattering have been measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a spin-polarized target. These data were collected at a bombarding energy of Tπ=279MeV and cover an angular range of 53<~θc.m.π<~180°. There is good agreement between these data and the latest partial wave analysis from the VPI/GWU group.
Analyzing powers of pion-proton elastic scattering have been measured at PSI with the Low Energy Pion Spectrometer LEPS as well as a novel polarized scintillator target. Angular distributions between 40 and 120 deg (c.m.) were taken at 45.2, 51.2, 57.2, 68.5, 77.2, and 87.2 MeV incoming pion kinetic energy for pi+ p scattering, and at 67.3 and 87.2 MeV for pi- p scattering. These new measurements constitute a substantial extension of the polarization data base at low energies. Predictions from phase shift analyses are compared with the experimental results, and deviations are observed at low energies.
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering were measured using the CHAOS spectrometer at energies spanning the Δ(1232) resonance. This work presents π+ data at the pion kinetic energies 117, 130, 139, 155, 169, 180, 193, 218, 241, and 267 MeV and π− data at 87, 117, 193, and 241 MeV, covering an angular range of 50°<~θc.m.<~180° at the higher energies and 90°<~θc.m.<~180° at the lower energies. Unique features of the spectrometer acceptance were employed to reduce systematic errors. Single-energy phase shift analyses indicate the resulting S11 and S31 phases favor the results of the SM95 phase shift analysis over that of the older KH80 analysis.
Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of negative kaons on protons are presented for 13 incident laboratory momenta between 1094 MeV/c and 1377 MeV/c. The data show the characteristic forward diffraction-like peak and backward dip and are adequately described in shape by certain published partial-wave analyses of the N system.
Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of negative kaons on protons are presented for 19 momenta between 1.732 GeV/ c and 2.466 GeV/ c . The general features of the cross sections are discussed.
The spin-rotation parameters A and R and the related spin-rotation angle β have been measured for π+p and π−p elastic scattering using protons polarized in the scattering plane. The pion-beam momenta are 427, 471, 547, 625, and 657 MeV/c and the angular range is −0.9≤cosΘc.m.≤0.3. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence, using a scintillator hodoscope for the pions, and the Large Acceptance Spectrometer combined with the JANUS polarimeter for the recoil protons. The results are compared with the four recent πN partial wave analyses (PWA's). Our data show that the major features of these PWA's are correct. The A and R measurements complete our program of pion-nucleon experiments, providing full data sets at three of the above beam momenta. Such sets can be used to test the constraints in the PWA's or to obtain a model-independent set of πN scattering amplitudes.
Results are presented from experiment WA7 at the CERN SPS, which has measured the elastic differential cross sections of π ± p, K ± p, p p and pp at incident momen ta of 20, 30 and 50 GeV/ c . The measurements cover the momentum transfer range 0.5 < | t | < 8 (GeV/ c ) 2 , corresponding to c.m. scattering angles between 10° and 50°. The experimental set-up, trigger logic and data analysis are described. The experimental results are compared with existing meson-proton and nucleon-proton data at lower and higher energies covering the medium- and large-| t | region. Some prominent models and their predictions for elastic scattering at WA7 energies and beyond are reviewed, with emphasis on geometrical scaling, factorizing eikonal models, lowest-order QCD and other dynamical exchange-type models. Results for p p two-body annihilation into π − π + and K − K + at 30 and 50 GeV/ c , obtained in parallel with the elastic p p data, are also presented.
A description is given of an experiment to study elastic scattering of π ± , K ± and p on protons at c.m. scattering angles from 45° to 100° at incident laboratory momenta 20 GeV/ c and 30 GeV/ c . The corresponding t range is from −6.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 to −28 (GeV/ c ) 2 . There are no previous observations for these reactions in this t range. High intensity and large geometrical acceptance were required in order to measure the low cross sections. The experiment used a double-arm spectrometer. MWPCs were used for reconstruction, and threshold and differential Čerenkov counters for identification. Scintillation counters, Čerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter were used in the trigger. The trigger logic utilized specially designed matrices and a hard wired microprocessor. The π − p elastic scattering cross sections follow approximately the dimensional counting rule from 3.5 GeV/ c .and up to 30 GeV/ c . The cross sections decrease by seven orders of magnitude in this energy range. The data is compared to quark models. None of these models give a comprehensive description of the results. However, some modifications to these models improve their consistency with the data.
Measurements of the differential elastic cross sections for π − p scattering at incident momenta of 20 and 50 GeV c and π + p at 50 GeV c in the momentum transfer range 0.7 < |t|; < 8.0 ( GeV c ) 2 are presented. The data are compared with various models of elastic scattering.
The absolute differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at 90° c.m. for 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 MeV. The statistical uncertainty of the measurements is 0.5% with an additional systematic normalization uncertainty of 1.8%. The results are compared to phase-shift analyses.
Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of negative pions on protons are presented for 16 momenta between 996 MeV/ c and 1342 MeV/ c . The cross sections are compared with the predictions from published phase-shift analyses.
Differential cross sections for pi- p and pi+ p elastic scattering were measured at five energies between 19.9 and 43.3 MeV. The use of the CHAOS magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF, supplemented by a range telescope for muon background suppression, provided simultaneous coverage of a large part of the full angular range, thus allowing very precise relative cross section measurements. The absolute normalisation was determined with a typical accuracy of 5 %. This was verified in a simultaneous measurement of muon proton elastic scattering. The measured cross sections show some deviations from phase shift analysis predictions, in particular at large angles and low energies. From the new data we determine the real part of the isospin forward scattering amplitude.
Elastic cross-section measurements are presented for π ± −p at 20 GeV/ c and π − −p at 30 GeV/ c incident momenta in the large angle region (50° to 90° in the c.m. system). The data are compared with published lower energy elastic cross sections. A test is made of the dimensional counting rules for π ± −p elastic scattering and some indication of a deviation from this rule is observed in the π − −p case. A comparison is also made with the predictions of the constituent interchange model. Although the broad features of the predictions are confirmed, there are some important discrepancies. Finally, the predictions of the model due to Preparata and Soffer are also compared with the new data.
Differential cross sections for p−p elastic scattering are presented with scattering angles in the center-of-mass system greater than 35° to 50°. The data were obtained at incident laboratory momenta 0.857, 1.091, 1.210, 1.374, 1.405, and 1.501 GeV/c. This spans the region of the onset of Δ(1236) production and where a possible spin-singlet D-wave resonance is indicated in an analysis of earlier data.
Measurements of complete angular distributions of elastic K + p scattering at closely spaced incident momenta from 1368 to 2259 MeV/ c are presented and discussed. A PDP-8 computer controlled system of scintillation counters and core-readout wire spark chambers was used for the detection of elastic events. Diffractive behaviour is already present at the lowest measured momentum and becomes more prominent as the incident momentum increases. An expansion of the angular distributions in terms of Legendre polynomials shows no marked structure of the expansion coefficients as functions of the incident momentum. Our measurements can be adequately described by a number of existing phase shift solutions within 5% of their published values. Also Regge pole extrapolations represent our data satisfactorily.
Measurements of the K - p and K + p elastic differential cross sections at 20 and 50 GeV/ c , respectively, have been made in the momentum transfer range 0.7 < ∥ t ∥ < 8.0 GeV/ c .
We report on an experiment to obtain differential cross sections for K+p elastic scattering in the vicinity of the possible exotic baryon, the Z1*(1900). The differential cross sections are based on typically 70 000 selected events in the angular region −0.9≤cosθc.m.≤0.9 at each of 22 momenta from 0.865 to 2.125 GeV/c. The data are intended for use in partial-wave analysis to search for the Z1*.
We report here the results from an experiment to obtain differential cross sections for K−p elastic scattering in the laboratory momentum region from 1.4 to 1.9 GeV/c. These data span the region of a bump in the K−p total cross section at an energy of 2.05 GeV. Approximately 20000 elastic events were obtained at each of four momenta with an angular coverage of 0.9≥cosθc.m.≥−0.9. The data are intended to aid in phase-shift analyses of the resonances causing the bump in the total cross section and to study dip structures at constant values of the Mandelstam variables t and u.
Differential cross sections for π+p elastic scattering in the momentum region 1.2 to 2.3 GeV/c are presented for the center-of-mass angular range 0.9>cosθ>−0.9. Typically, 50 000 events were obtained at each of 16 momenta using magnetostrictive-readout wire spark chambers to detect the particles scattered from a liquid hydrogen target. The results are compared to those of the CERN-71 phase-shift analysis. The well-known dips at t≅−0.7 (GeV/c)2 and at u′=−0.2 (GeV/c)2 are observed. In addition, structure is seen at constant u′=−1.3 (GeV/c)2. The results of a pion attenuation study in iron are also presented.
A measurement of the proton-proton elastic differential cross section at 50 GeV/ c incident momentum in the momentum transfer range 0.8<| t |<4.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 is presented. The data are compared to pp data at lower and higher energies, and to some model predictions.