The logarithmic slope of the differentical cross section for K ± p elastic scattering at 10 and 14 GeV, and for π ± p and p ± p at 10GeV has been measured. Rich structure is observed in the forward slope for all processes, which is well accounted for by the properties of a peripheral exchange amplitude for the nonexotic reactions, and by a peripheral component of the diffractive amplitude as clearly seen in the exotic processes, K ± p and pp.
The ratio of π+p to pp elastic scattering is found to be smoothly varying over the range −t=0.03 to 0.4 GeV2. It is well fitted by a single exponential, indicating the forward behavior must be quite similar for the two reactions.
The spin rotation sf R in pp and π + p elastic scattering at 45 GeV/c has been measured at the Seppukhov accelarator, for z . sfnc ; t |; ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 (GeV/) 2 . The results are presented, together with previous R measurements at lower energies. The equality of the values for R in proton-proton and pion-proton scattering, within the experimental errors, is a test of factorization of the residues in the pomeron exchange.
From measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering at very small momentum transfers where the nuclear and Coulomb amplitudes interfere, we have deduced values of ρ, the ratio of the real to the imaginary forward nuclear amplitude, for energies from 50 to 400 GeV. We find that ρ increases from -0.157 ± 0.012 at 51.5 GeV to +0.039 ± 0.012 at 393 GeV, crossing zero at 280 ± 60 GeV.
The slope b(s) of the forward diffraction peak of p−p elastic scattering has been measured in the momentum-transfer-squared range 0.005≲|t|≲0.09 (GeV/c)2 and at incident proton energies from 8 to 400 GeV. We find that b(s) increases with s, and in the interval 100≲s≲750 (GeV)2 it can be fitted by the form b(s)=b0+2α′lns with b0=8.23±0.27, α′=0.278±0.024 (GeV/c)−2.
The differential cross section has been measured at 30, 50, 80, 100, 120 and 140 GeV/ c for 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 ( GeV / c ) 2 . The results show that the π − p real part goes from negative to positive values below 80 GeV/ c . The slope parameter in the t -region measured is significantly higher than what has been found − t = 0.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
The measurements of the differential cross section of elastic p-p scattering in relative units were performed in the energy range of 12–70 GeV. The values of the slope parameter were obtained from this data. It was shown that the slope parameter of the differential p-p scattering is monotonously increasing when the proton energy rises in the range 12–70 GeV. We have obtained the slope Pomeranchuk's pole trajectory from this data: α′ p = 0.40 ± 0.09.
The differential cross section for π+p elastic scattering has been measured at 13.8 GeVc for 0.7<|t|<3.8(GeVc)2. The cross section is found to be equal to that previously obtained for π−p elastic scattering, except in the region |t|=2.8 (GeVc)2, where the π+p data do not show the prominent dip observed in π−p scattering. Data have also been obtained for 13.8−GeVc K+p elastic scattering for 0.8<|t|<2.2 (GeVc)2.
The analyzing power in 28 GeV/c proton/proton elastic scattering was measured at P2∥=5.95 and 6.56 (GeV/c)2 using a polarized proton target and an unpolarized proton beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. Results indicate that the analyzing power, A, is rising sharply with P2∥.
A measurement of the polarization parameter P 0 in pp elastic scattering has been made at 24 GeV/ c over the range | t | = 0.1 to 0.9 (GeV/ c ) 2 , positive, falling to zero around | t | = 0.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 . For the range 0.1 ⪕ |t| ⪕ 0.4 GeV /c) 2 , P 0 is constant at about 0.03.
Data on the polarization parameter in pp elastic scattering in the | t |-range from ∼0.1 to ∼ 2.9 (GeV/ c ) 2 and at 10, 14 and 17.5 GeV/ c are presented.
Results on polarization in π − p and π + p forward elastic scattering at 10, 14 and 17.5 GeV/ c are presented.
A measurement of the polarization parameter P 0 in pp elastic scattering has been made at 24 GeV/ c over the range of momentum transfer squared 0.7 < | t | < 5.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The structure of P 0 has changed compared to typical lower energy data. The second peak is suppressed and a dip has appeared at | t | = 3.6 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
We measured the analyzing power A out to P⊥2=7.1 (GeV/c)2 with high precision by scattering a 24-GeV/c unpolarized proton beam from the new University of Michigan polarized proton target; the target’s 1-W cooling power allowed a beam intensity of more than 2×1011 protons per pulse. This high beam intensity together with the unexpectedly high average target polarization of about 85% allowed unusually accurate measurements of A at large P⊥2. These precise data confirmed that the one-spin parameter A is nonzero and indeed quite large at high P⊥2; most theoretical models predict that A should go to zero.
The analyzing power, A, was measured in proton-proton elastic scattering with use of a polarized proton target and 28-GeV/c primary protons from the alternating-gradient synchrotron. Over the P⊥2 range of 0.5 to 2.8 (GeV/c)2, the data show interesting structure. There is a rather sharp dip at P⊥2=0.8 (GeV/c)2 corresponding to the break in the elastic differential cross section at the end of the diffraction peak.
The analyzing power A in 28-GeV/c proton-proton elastic scattering was measured with a polarized proton target and a high-intensity unpolarized proton beam at the Brook-haven National Laboratory alternating-gradient synchrotron. The P⊥2 range of 2.85 to 5.95 (GeV/c)2 was covered with good precision. A small dip of about -3.5% was found near P⊥2=3.5 (GeV/c)2 where a 24-GeV/c CERN experiment had reported a deep dip of about -16% with large errors. In the previously unexplored large-P⊥2 region near 6 (GeV/c)2 these new large-error points suggest that A may be rising.
The spin analyzing power A in 28-GeV/c proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at P⊥2=6.5 (GeV/c)2 using a polarized proton target and a high-intensity unpolarized proton beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The result of (24±8)% confirms that the analyzing power is large and rising in the large-P⊥2 region.
The polarization of the recoil proton has been measured in both high-energy elastic and inclusive proton-proton scattering at the internal-target area of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The polarization in elastic scattering was measured at a number of center-of-mass energies up to s=19.7 GeV. Indications of negative polarization were seen at the higher center-of-mass energies for t values of -0.6, -0.8, and -1.0 (GeV/c)2. In the inclusive process p+p→p↑+X the polarization was found to be independent of beam energy from 100 to 400 GeV for xF values of -0.7, -0.8, -0.9. The polarization at PT=1.0 GeV/c, xF=−0.7 and xF=−0.8 was less than 2.5%. This is significantly lower than the corresponding measurements reported for Λ0 inclusive polarization.
Accelerating polarized protons to 22 GeV/c at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchro- tron required both extensive hardware modifications and a difficult commissioning process. We had to overcome 45 strong depolarizing resonances to maintain polarization up to 22 GeV/c in this strong-focusing synchrotron. At 18.5 GeV/c we measured the analyzing power A and the spin-spin correlation parameter Ann in large- P⊥2 proton-proton elastic scattering, using the polarized proton beam and a polarized proton target. We also obtained a high-precision measurement of A at P⊥2=0.3 (GeV/c)2 at 13.3 GeV/c. At 18.5 GeV/c we found that Ann=(-2±16)% at P⊥2=4.7 (GeV/c)2, where it was about 60% near 12 GeV at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron. This sharp change suggests that spin-spin forces may have a strong and unexpected energy dependence at high P⊥2.
The K − p differential and total elastic cross-sections have been measured at 14.25 GeV/ c . The results have been compared with various Regge models.
Results on polarization in K − p, K + p and p̄p forward elastic scattering at 10 and 14 GeV/ c are presented.
Using the new Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron polarized proton beam and our polarized proton target, we measured the spin-spin correlation parameter Ann in 16.5-GeV/c proton-proton elastic scattering. We found an Ann of (6.1±3.0)% at P⊥2=2.2 (GeV/c)2. We also measured the analyzing power A in two independent ways, providing a good test of possible experimental errors. Comparing our new data with 12-GeV Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron data shows no evidence for strong energy dependence in Ann in this medium-P⊥2 region.
The polarization P in proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at 3.83 GeV/ c for 0.35 ⩽ | t | ⩽ 3.0 (GeV/ c ) 2 , i.e. 29° ⩽ θ c.m. ⩽ 93°. The polarization shows a minimum at − ⋍ 1.0 ( GeV /c) 2 followed by a maximum at −⋍1.5 ( GeV /c) 2 . At the same energy the spin rotation parameter R has been measured in the interval 0.18 ⩽ | t | ⩽ 0.57 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Comparison with the results at 6.0 and 15.75 GeV/ c shows a similar t -dependence and the same average value at all three energies.