We have measured the elastic cross section for pp, p¯p, π+p, π−p, K+p, and K−p scattering at incident momenta of 70, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 GeV/c. The range of the four-momentum transfer squared t varied with the beam momentum from 0.0016≤−t≤0.36 (GeV/c)2 at 200 GeV/c to 0.0018≤−t≤0.0625 (GeV/c)2 at 70 GeV/c. The conventional parametrization of the t dependence of the nuclear amplitude by a simple exponential in t was found to be inadequate. An excellent fit to the data was obtained by a parametrization motivated by the additive quark model. Using this parametrization we determined the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear amplitude by the Coulomb-interference method.
From measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering at very small momentum transfers where the nuclear and Coulomb amplitudes interfere, we have deduced values of ρ, the ratio of the real to the imaginary forward nuclear amplitude, for energies from 50 to 400 GeV. We find that ρ increases from -0.157 ± 0.012 at 51.5 GeV to +0.039 ± 0.012 at 393 GeV, crossing zero at 280 ± 60 GeV.
The differential cross section of π − p scattering has been measured in the energy region 100–345 GeV and in the t -range 0.002<| t |< 0.04 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The real part of the π − p scattering amplitude has been extracted from the data. The results show that the real part continues to increase with energy. The energy dependence of the slope parameter has also been determined. The shrinkage found expressed in terms of the slope of the pomeron trajectory is2 α ′ p =0.23±0.04 (GeV/ c ) −2 . This agrees with the energy dependence found at larger| t |-values.
The differential cross section of pp scattering has been measured in the energy region 100–300 GeV and in the t -range 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 (GeV/| c ) 2 . The results on the real part of the scattering amplitude agrees with dispersion relation calculations. We also report on our determination of the slope parameter b together with an analysis of the world data of b for different hadrons and different t -values. It is shown that the data are consistent with the hypothesis of a universal shrinkage of the hadronic diffraction cone at high energies.
The differential cross section has been measured at 30, 50, 80, 100, 120 and 140 GeV/ c for 0.002 < | t | < 0.04 ( GeV / c ) 2 . The results show that the π − p real part goes from negative to positive values below 80 GeV/ c . The slope parameter in the t -region measured is significantly higher than what has been found − t = 0.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
Differential cross-sections for pp elastic scattering in the transfer momentum range 2 x 10 −3 ⩽ | t | ⩽ x 8 10 −3 (GeV/ c ) 2 were studied with a hydrogen filled ionization chamber which was used as a target and as a detector of the recoiled protons. The measurements have been done at P lab . = 1.11 GeV/ c , 1.28 GeV/ c , 1.34 GeV/ c , 1.40 GeV/ c and 1.70 GeV/ c . The real part of the spin independent forward scattering amplitude has been determined, the results being in agreement with the dispersion relation calculations.
The real part of the proton proton elastic scattering amplitude has been determined from its interference with the Coulomb amplitude at total centre-of-mass energies up to 62 GeV. The observed steady increase of ϱ with energy indicates that the total proton proton cross section continues to increase well beyond this energy.
The differential cross section for K ± p elastic scattering has been measured in the very low t region (0.003 < t < 0.2 GeV 2 ) in a wire chamber spectrometer experiment at 10.4 and 14 GeV/ c . The interference effect observed between the Coulomb and the nuclear interaction has been used to determine α, the ratio of real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude. At 10.4 GeV/ c we measure α (K + p) = −0.21 ± 0.06 and α (K − p = 0.08 ± 0.04, and at 14 GeV/ c , α (K + p) = − 0.13 ± 0.03 and α (K − p) = 0.000 ± 0.04 in agreeement with the predictions of dispersion theory calculation.
The differential cross section for K ± p elastic scattering has been measured in the forward meson direction (0.0008 < t < 0.1 GeV 2 ) in an electronics experiment at incident momenta between 0.9 and 2.06 GeV/ c . The high statistics and absolute normalisation of the data allow a good determination of the real part of the forward nuclear scattering amplitude by means of the Coulomb-nuclear interference effect.
Elastic scattering of 14.3 GeV/ c K − with protons has been analyzed in the | t | region between 0.005 and 0.550 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The ratio α between the real and the imaginary part of the elastic forward scattering amplitude is found to be α =+0.056 ± 0.052. The slope parameters A and B in the expression d σ /d| t | ∞ exp( At + Bt 2 ) are A = 8.47 ± 0.20 (GeV/ c ) −2 and B = 1.82 ± 0.52 (GeV/ c ) −4 .
Bubble chamber film of 10 GeV/ c K − p interactions was scanned automatically by an H.P.D. to look for small angle scatters in the | t |-range from 0.008 to 0.1 GeV 2 . Combining the 1800 events so obtained with 22 000 elastic events obtained from normal scanning (| t | > 0.06 GeV 2 ), the real part of the elastic scattering amplitude was found to be (+25 ± 10)% of the imaginary part. Evidence is found for a change in slope in the differential cross-section distribution, from 9.8 ± 0.6 GeV −2 in the | t |-range below 0.1 GeV 2 to 7.1 ± 0.2 GeV −2 in the range 0.12 < | t | ⩽ 0.4 GeV 2 .
The elastic scattering of 3.6 GeV/ c π + mesons by protons has been studied in a hydrogen bubble chamber experiment. The elastic cross section has a measured value of 7.07 ± 0.20 mb. The forward diffraction peak has been fitted in the region 0.05 ≦ − t ≦ 0.6 (GeV/ c ) 2 by a form (d σ /d t ) = Ae Bt , where A = 46.5 ± 1.8 mb/(GeV/ c ) 2 and B = 6.85 ± 0.20 (GeV/ c ) −2 . From this fit and the optical theorem, the magnitude of the ratio of real to imaginary forward amplitude is 0.39 ± 0.06, in reasonable agreement with dispersion relation calculations and simple Regge model predictions.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured over the four-momentum transfer squared 0.0007 ⩽ t ⩽ 0.02 GeV 2 /c 2 . A gas hydrogen jet has been used as an internal target of the accelerator. The results indicate that the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude rises smoothly with increasing energy from α = −0.35 ± 0.05 at p = 9.39 GeV/ c to α = −0.092 ± 0.011 at p = 69.8 GeV/ c .
The differential cross-sections in the range of four momentum transfer squared from 0.003 to 0.120 (GeV c) 2 were measured at 30, 50 and 70 GeV by using a thin polyethilene target in the internal proton beam of the Serpukhov accelerator. The slope parameter, the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward amplitude and the cross-section in the diffraction cone were measured.